Diplomacy And Deterrence V2


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Diplomacy And Deterrence V2

  1. 1. Diplomacy and Deterrence  
  2. 2. THINK PAIR SHARE <ul><ul><li>  Why does conflict occur? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  3. 3. Why does conflict occur amongst countries? <ul><li>'Nations have no permanent friends, just permanent interests'  </li></ul><ul><li>- Henry Kissinger, former US Secretary of State. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What do you think some of these interests are? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do you think these interests can lead to conflict? </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Conflicts Amongst Countries <ul><ul><li>Territory: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Competition over tracts of land which is important for defence or national pride. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. India-China Border War </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resources: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Competition over resources between resource rich and resource poor countries. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. 'Cod Wars' </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ideology. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict over different values and beliefs especially when ideological beliefs are threatened. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. 'Korean War'. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  5. 5. SEQ <ul><ul><li>Question </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(a) To what extent is ideology a cause for conflict amongst countries? [12] </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Deterrence <ul><ul><li>Singapore's deterrence policy is based on being prepared for any form of threats while developing diplomatic relationships with as many countries as possible. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deterrence refers to the measures to prevent and protect a country from various threats such as other countries and terrorists. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deterrence is necessary to protect a country and to give people a sense of security. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Means of deterrence: Military Defence <ul><li>Citizen armed force: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Singapore cannot afford a large professional army. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NS was introduced to build a citizen armed force. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All able-bodied male citizens were called up to serve full-time NS. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps Singaporean men learn to defend their country. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps in terms of bonding as they share a common experience during their training. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continue to serve as reservists for a maximum of 40 days per year for 10 years  and attend constant training and re-training. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop sense of loyalty, patriotism and a shared destiny for Singapore. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Means of Deterrence: Military Defence <ul><li>3rd Generation SAF: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Warfare has become more complex in recent years. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SAF needs to stay current and enhance its abilities. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SAF started a project with research institutes and local universities to develop the third generation SAF. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aim: To create an intelligent defence force whether surveillance and strike systems of the SAF operate together to provide early intelligence in order to help destroy the enemy before they can locate us. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Means of Deterrence: Military Defence <ul><li>Defence Industry: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An army needs the latest technology and equipment.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Singapore has built up its own defence industries through: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chartered Industries of Singapore (CIS) in 1967. It is now a successful defence company. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Defence Science and Technology Agency (DSTA) in 2000. Focuses on buying and upgrading weapons and also conducts defence-related research.  </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows Singapore to build up the capabilities and effectiveness of the SAF by developing a powerful defence force. This helps Singapore to overcome its constraints by self-sufficiency and its own innovations. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Means of Deterrence: Military Defence <ul><li>Having a strong military which is highly trained, well equipped and self-sufficient allows Singapore to protect itself from foreign threats. The strong military will serve as a deterrence against potential enemies as it will either defeat the aggressor or at least be able inflict heavy casualties to the aggressor to cause the aggressor to think twice about invading Singapore. </li></ul>
  11. 11. SEQ <ul><ul><li>(a) To what extent is ideology a cause for conflict amongst countries? [12] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(a)To what extent is having a strong military a means of deterring foreign aggression? [12] </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Means of Deterrence: Total Defence <ul><ul><li>Introduced in 1984 to involve everyone in the defence of singapore. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5 aspects: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Military </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Civil Defence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Economic Defence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social Defence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Psychological Defence. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps Singaporeans believe that Singapore is worth defending. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involving the people in the defence of the country through everyday things helps to strengthen the people's resilience as a nation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deters potential aggressors as they face the entire nation and not just the armed forces. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Means of Deterrence: Multi-agency Co-ordination <ul><li>National Security Co-ordination Secretariat (NSCS) was setup to co-ordinate the work of various ministries, Ministry of Defence, Ministry of Home Affairs and Ministry of Foreign Affairs: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Meets regularly to plan national security strategies and policies. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitates close networking and co-ordination to strengthen and enhance Singapore's national security. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prevent, protect and respond to any threats by sharing intelligence and resources. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leads to an integrated response to any threats which is more effective than a singular response by individual ministries. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Means of Deterrence: Military co-operation with other countries <ul><ul><li>Singapore fosters friendly ties with armed forces from other countries through the use of: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bilateral military agreements and exercises: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Singapore has military agreements with various counties to allow Singapore troops to train in their countries, e.g. Australia and New Zealand. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Singapore conducts regular military exercises and training with neighbouring countries such as Malaysia and Indonesia. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Multilateral military agreements, exercises: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Singapore is involved in multi-lateral agreements such as the Five Power Defence Agreement (FPDA) which was established in 1971. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The countries conduct regular exercises to enhance co-operation and co-ordination. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In the event of an external threat to Singapore and Malayasia, members would consult each other on the measures to be taken to deter the aggressor. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ensures that Singapore has good defence ties with other countries which would ensure that these countries come to the aid of Singapore during times of threat. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Diplomacy <ul><ul><li>Diplomacy is the way in which countries manage or conduct relations with one another by: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Promoting common interests and resolve conflicting interests in a peaceful manner. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most countries send diplomats to represent their respective countries in a foreign country to perform economic and political functions and to look after their citizens in the foreign country. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diplomacy is necessary because: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Countries do not exist alone, countries are connected with each other through trade, political, historical and cultural relations. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provides an opportunity for countries to pursue mutual interests and solve common problems. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provides a platform for countries to help each other in times of difficulty. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Means of Diplomacy: Bilateral relations <ul><ul><li>Bilateral Relations occur when a country establishes diplomatic relations with another country. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Singapore has established bilateral relationships with many other countries: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Benefited Singapore in many ways as Singapore is able to establish trade relationships as well as acquiring technological skills. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allows Singapore to promote political, economic and cultural ties with neighbouring countries such as Malaysia and Indonesia. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allows Singapore to provide assistance to other countries. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bilateral relations benefit Singapore as these ties allow Singapore to promote its political, economic and cultural interests. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These ties allow Singapore to gain substantial economic benefits through trading relations, these ties also allow Singapore to gain social benefits. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These ties provide a means of conflict resolution with these countries and provide a chance for Singapore to gain worldwide recognition and respect. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Means of Diplomacy: Regional relations <ul><ul><li>Countries also establish regional relations by forming an associate of countries in a region . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows countries to combine their strengths to become stronger. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Singapore is part of ASEAN: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ASEAN was formed in 1967 and currently comprises of 10 members. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ASEAN formed to resolve the conflicts facing SEA countries in the 1960s by: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Promoting economic, social and cultural development of the region. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Protecting the peace and stability of the region. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Providing opportunities for member countries to discuss and resolve differences peacefully. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>These aims have helped ASEAN to maintain peaceful relations. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ASEAN also allows Southeast Asia to have a stronger position on the world stage when negotiating with more powerful countries. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Means of Diplomacy: Regional relations <ul><ul><li>There are two key ASEAN initiatives: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ASEAN free trade area: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In order to maintain its economic competitiveness, ASEAN realised that it needed to institute economic integration. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Launched AFTA in 1992 and aimed to remove import taxes among SEA countries. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>AFTA aims to integrate all ASEAN economies into a single production base and to create a regional market of $500 million people and remove all import taxes among member countries by 2015. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ASEAN Regional Forum </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Created to maintain peace by promoting political and security dialgoue and cooperation amonst countries in the Asia Pacific region. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aims to provide an avenue for countries in the region to discuss security issues and resolve conflicts peacefully. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other participants include China, Japan, North Korea, India, NZ, Australia, USA and Canada. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Means of Diplomacy: Regional relations <ul><ul><li>Singapore and ASEAN: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Singapore is committed to the success of ASEAN and is heavily involved in ASEAN. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Singapore has made the following contributions to ASEAN: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Education and Professional exchange: </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Technical training for member countries. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scholarships to students from ASEAN countries. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Economic cooperation and assistance: </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Initiative for ASEAN Integration launched in 2000. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Five-year aid package of S$80 million for lesser developed ASEAN member countries such as Cambodia, Laos and Myanmar. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental Collaboration: </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Singapore helped Indonesia tackle the haze problem in 1997 to help solve a regional problem. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use of satellite images and the information from data at the ASEAN specialised meteorological centre (ASMC) in Singapore is accessible to all member countries. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Being part of ASEAN provides Singapore an opportunity to strengthen its relationship with its neighbours and also gives Singapore a role to play in maintaining regional peace and promoting economic development. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Means of Diplomacy: International relations <ul><ul><li>United Nations was formed after World War 2 to preserve world peace and prevent another World War. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consists of 192 countries bound by the UN charter which is a binding international treaty that spells out rights and duties of member countries. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Singapore has was admitted to the UN in 1965 and since then, Singapore has been actively involved in the UN: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>UN Law of the Sea Conference: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Singapore played an important role in the UN Law of the Sea conference which was organised to decide on the territorial rights of a country over its waters. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Security Council: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The UN has a security council of 5 permanent members and 10 non-permanent members. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Singapore was elected to be an non-permanent member from 2001-2002 and was the President of the Council form Jan 2001 to May 2002. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>UN Peacekeepng Missions: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>UN organises peacekeeping missions of which Singapore has been involved in since 1989. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Means of Diplomacy: International relations <ul><ul><li>By playing an active role in the UN, Singapore promotes its position on the world stage by being an active member of the global community. Singapore also ensures that by its actions, it also guarantees that its national interests are represented on the world stage and that the international community will come to Singapore’s help in times of threat. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. SEQ WRITING COMPETITION! <ul><ul><li>Any pair who is able to crack L4 for (a) and (b) will be eligible for a drink of their choice at the canteen. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The top scoring pair will win the prize. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(a) To what extent is having a strong military a means of deterring foreign aggression? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(b) Here are three factors - Bilateral relations - Regional relations - International relations Which factor is the most effective in promoting Singapore’s national interests? </li></ul></ul>