Chapter 6 Fall Of Singapore

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Chapter 6 Fall Of Singapore

  1. 1. THE EFFECTS OF THE SECOND WORLD WAR ON SINGAPORE: THE FALL OF SINGAPORE
  2. 2. ACTIVITY: TRUE OR FALSE? <ul><li>The number of Japanese outnumbered the British during the Fall of Singapore. </li></ul><ul><li>The British expected an attack on Singapore by the Japanese from the North. </li></ul><ul><li>The war in the Pacific began with the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbour. </li></ul><ul><li>The big guns of Singapore were pointed the wrong way. </li></ul>
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION The Road to War British Defence Plans Reasons for British Defeat Mankind must put an end to war, or war will put an end to mankind. ~ John F. Kennedy, 1961 World War Two was a world-wide conflict from 1939 to 1945. Conflicts occurred throughout the world and saw the deaths of 45 million people – combatants and non-combatants. Key Battles Word War 2
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION The Road to War British Defence Plans Reasons for British Defeat Mankind must put an end to war, or war will put an end to mankind. ~ John F. Kennedy, 1961 War broke out in Europe in 1939 after Hitler’s invasion of Poland. Conflicts occurred throughout the world and saw the deaths of 45 million people – combatants and non-combatants. Key Battles Word War 2
  5. 5. INTRODUCTION British Defence Plans Reasons for British Defeat Mankind must put an end to war, or war will put an end to mankind. ~ John F. Kennedy, 1961 <ul><li>WWI: Britain and Japan in Anglo-Japanese Alliance </li></ul><ul><li>Inter-war years (1920s – 1930s): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Naval race (Washington Conference 1921); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5:5:3 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing Japanese perception of racial discrimination in the world arena. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Within Japan: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weak civilian governments; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rise of militarism and ultra-nationalist groups; </li></ul></ul>The Road to War Key Battles Word War 2
  6. 6. INTRODUCTION British Defence Plans Reasons for British Defeat Mankind must put an end to war, or war will put an end to mankind. ~ John F. Kennedy, 1961 <ul><li>WWI: Britain and Japan in Anglo-Japanese Alliance </li></ul><ul><li>Inter-war years (1920s – 1930s): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Naval race (Washington Conference 1921); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5:5:3 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing Japanese perception of racial discrimination in the world arena. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Within Japan: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weak civilian governments; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rise of militarism and ultra-nationalist groups; </li></ul></ul>The Road to War Key Battles Word War 2
  7. 7. INTRODUCTION British Defence Plans Reasons for British Defeat Mankind must put an end to war, or war will put an end to mankind. ~ John F. Kennedy, 1961 The Road to War <ul><li>Rising Ambitions </li></ul><ul><li>1894 : Attacked China; seized Taiwan and Korea </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1904 : Defeated Russia; shocked the West </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>WWI : Joined Allies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1931 : Great Depression </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>As a result, Japan invaded Manchuria </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1937 : Attacked China </li></ul></ul></ul>Key Battles Word War 2
  8. 8. INTRODUCTION British Defence Plans Reasons for British Defeat Mankind must put an end to war, or war will put an end to mankind. ~ John F. Kennedy, 1961 The Road to War <ul><ul><ul><li>War with China dragged on </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Countries like the US stopped selling certain items like airplanes and oil products to Japan </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Japan turned its attention to SEA. Rich in tin, oil, timber and rubber </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Japan’s calculation </li></ul></ul></ul>Key Battles Word War 2
  9. 9. INTRODUCTION British Defence Plans Reasons for British Defeat Mankind must put an end to war, or war will put an end to mankind. ~ John F. Kennedy, 1961 The Road to War <ul><ul><ul><li>1941 – Japan invaded Indo-china for use as a base to launch its other invasions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>US protested and when Japan did nothing, the world reacted strongly </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More war materials such as iron, ammunition and oil were cut off from Japan </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Note that US was not involved in the war at this time </li></ul></ul></ul>Key Battles Word War 2
  10. 10. INTRODUCTION Reasons for British Defeat The Road to War British Defence Plans Pre-1939: Main Fleet Strategy. Operation Matador: Pre-emptive British invasion of Kra Isthmus to prevent Japanese landing. 1940, fall of France changed the British strategy in the East to one of protection of Malaya by the airforce and army. Key Battles Word War 2
  11. 11. INTRODUCTION Reasons for British Defeat The Road to War British Defence Plans <ul><li>At the point of the Japanese invasion, the British only had 158 first-line aircraft available (vs 500 Japanese aircraft) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Estimate was at least 556 first-line aircraft! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>48 battalions were considered minimum force needed but there were only 32 which were not adequately trained or equipped </li></ul><ul><li>War in Europe and Middle East saw British resources stretched very badly. </li></ul>Key Battles Word War 2
  12. 12. INTRODUCTION Reasons for British Defeat The Road to War British Defence Plans <ul><li>Total of 88,600 men in Malaya in December 1941: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>37,000 Indian troops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>16,800 locally enlisted Asians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>19,600 British </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>15,200 Australians </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Last minute additions from India and Australia brought the numbers up to between 125,000 – 138,000 </li></ul>Key Battles Word War 2
  13. 13. INTRODUCTION Reasons for British Defeat Japanese Landings Unopposed The Road to War British Defence Plans Japanese invasion fleet began approaching Thailand and Malaya prior to 7 Dec 1941. British commander Sir Robert Brooke Popham hesitated and did not launch Operation Matador. Japanese landings in Thailand were not opposed. The landing at Kota Bahru met stiff resistance from Indian soldiers and RAAF bombers. Japanese able to overcome the defences and seized the airfields in the area. Japanese forces began to move inland along with those that landed in Thailand. Word War 2 Key Battles
  14. 14. INTRODUCTION Reasons for British Defeat War at Sea The Road to War British Defence Plans Sinking of Prince of Wales and Repulse by Japanese torpedo bombers. No more major British naval units in the region. Key Battles Word War 2
  15. 15. INTRODUCTION Reasons for British Defeat War in the Air The Road to War British Defence Plans Japanese fighters were superior to the British fighters and quickly established air superiority over the British. The arrival of Hurricane fighters from Britain could not reverse the situation. Key Battles Word War 2
  16. 16. KUANTAN JEMALUANG JOHOR BAHRU / 31 Jan 42 IPOH KL SLIM RIVER PENANG 15-16 Dec 41 MUAR GEMAS KLUANG MAJOR BATTLES JITRA 8 Dec 1941 KOTA BAHRU JAPANESE INVASION OF MALAYA Series of Japanese victories over the British saw Malaya fall in 7 weeks.
  17. 17. INTRODUCTION Reasons for British Defeat War on Land The Road to War British Defence Plans <ul><li>Battle for Singapore: </li></ul><ul><li>8 Feb: Japanese landed at the Sarimbum and Kranji area: British expected landing in the Northeast. </li></ul><ul><li>9 Feb: Overwhelmed the Australian defenders and moved inland and proceeded to seize Bukit Timah on 10 Feb. </li></ul><ul><li>11 Feb: British attempted to launch counter-attack to re-take Bukit Timah area. Both sides suffered heavy casualties. Japanese held their ground. </li></ul>Word War 2 Key Battles
  18. 18. INTRODUCTION Reasons for British Defeat War on Land The Road to War British Defence Plans <ul><li>Battle for Singapore: </li></ul><ul><li>12 Feb: British forces pushed back into a perimeter surrounding the city area. Fierce fighting raged: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Battle of Pasir Panjang Ridge – Lt Adnan’s last stand. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fierce fighting in the Ulu Pandan, Adam Road and Gillman Barracks. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>14 Feb: Yamashita’s ultimatum to the British. </li></ul><ul><li>15 Feb: British surrendered. </li></ul>Word War 2 Key Battles
  19. 19. INTRODUCTION Reasons for British Defeat War on Land The Road to War British Defence Plans &quot;My attack in Singapore was a bluff - a bluff that worked. I had 30,000 men and was outnumbered more than three to one. I knew that if I had to fight long for Singapore, I would be beaten. That is why the surrender had to be at once. I was very frightened all the time that the British would discover our numerical weakness and lack of supplies and force me into disastrous street fighting.&quot; (1942) John Deane Potter, A Soldier must Hang (1963) quoting Lieut.-Gen Yamashita Tomoyuki, Commander of the 25th Japanese Army. Word War 2 Key Battles
  20. 20. INTRODUCTION The Road to War British Defence Plans Reasons for British Defeat Other contributory factors: Poor British Intelligence: Poor assessment of Japanese Army and Air Force. Poor British leadership vs effective Japanese leadership British generals were unable to work together whereas Japanese were well led by Yamashita. Lack of co-ordination between civilians and Military: British Army unable to get the support of the civilian government in Singapore until it was too late. Word War 2 Key Battles
  21. 21. INTRODUCTION The Road to War British Defence Plans Reasons for British Defeat Japanese 5th Column Activities : Japanese used spies to gather information and sabotage the British during the pre-war period and during the battle itself. Effective Japanese tactics : Japanese were well prepared for jungle warfare and were experienced from years of fighting in China. Word War 2 Key Battles
  22. 22. INTRODUCTION The Road to War British Defence Plans Reasons for British Defeat Other critical factors: Japanese Propaganda Japanese able to influence civilians and Indian soldiers to turn against the British. Breakdown of civilian and military morale: Both British and local civilians started to flee as the Japanese closed in on victory. British, Indian and Australian soldiers began to desert their units. Word War 2 Key Battles
  23. 23. SUM UP <ul><li>Learnt about the Fall of Singapore: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Road to War; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The events leading to the Fall of Singapore; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The reasons for the fall of Singapore. </li></ul></ul>

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