Chapter 4 How Did The British Rule Singapore


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Chapter 4 How Did The British Rule Singapore

  2. 2. LAST CHAPTER What did we learn? The reasons why immigrants came to Singapore. Contributions of immigrants to the rapid economic growth of Singapore. Social impact of immigrants.
  3. 3. THE SUN NEVER SETS ON THE BRITISH EMPIRE Why do you think this saying existed? Can you name some former British colonies?
  4. 4. ` Source:
  5. 5. VIDEO
  6. 6. BRITISH RULE 1819 - 1824 Singapore was a trading settlement and was technically ruled by the Sultan and Temengong. British control was present through the Resident: Farquar Raffles Crawfurd
  7. 7. BRITISH RULE 1824-1867 EIC Directors & British Govt Governor-General of India Governor of Straits Settlements Advises GGI on situation in Straits Settlements. Carries out instructions from him. Could not make any laws.
  8. 8. END OF EIC RULE Brought about by the collapse of the EIC in 1858. EIC had been in decline since the 1830s due to the collapse of the tea trade. The Indian Mutiny of 1857.
  9. 9. END OF EIC RULE India (including Straits Settlements) was transferred to the British government. Straits Settlements were later transferred to the Colonial Office in London.
  10. 10. SO WHAT? IT’S STILL THE BRITISH IN ANOTHER FORM EIC was a profit-driven organisation. The British Government on the other hand felt that they had a ‘civilising’ mission to bring British culture to the rest of the world.
  11. 11. SPOT THE DIFFERENCE EIC Directors & British Govt Colonial Office in London Governor-General of India Gov of Straits Settlements Governor of Straits Settlements Advises GGI on situation in Straits Settlements. Carries out instructions from him. Executive Legislative Could not make any laws. Council Council
  12. 12. SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT 1867 to 1942 Colonial Office in London Gov of Straits Settlements Executive Legislative Council Council
  13. 13. SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT Executive Council Helped the Governor run the government. Consisted of British officials. Legislative Council Law making body. British officials. Non official members nominated by the British: Asian merchants and traders.
  14. 14. ROLE OF ASIANS IN THE LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL Why do you think it was important to include Asians on the Legislative Council?
  15. 15. ROLE OF ASIANS ON THE LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL Asians were appointed to the legislative council. Two examples: Lim Boon Keng: Attempted to get the Legislative Council to pass legislation to ban opium but failed. Eunos Abdullah: Managed to get the Legislative Council to pass legislation to create a Malay settlement called Kampong Melayu.
  16. 16. PROBLEMS FACED BY THE BRITISH Law and Order Social Services
  17. 17. PROBLEMS FACED BY THE BRITISH: LAW AND ORDER Chinese Secret Societies: Crime & Violence Opium Houses Brothels Gambling Dens
  18. 18. PROBLEMS FACED BY THE BRITISH: LAW AND ORDER Abuse of immigrants: Abuse of coolies Females forced into vice Piracy: Pirates attacked many ships coming to Singapore.
  19. 19. BRITISH RESPONSE Response to crime & secret societies: Improved the Police Force. Set up the Detective Branch in 1862 which ultimately became the CID in 1931. Law and order improved by the mid-1920s. Response to pirates: Sent gunboats to patrol waters and fight piracy in the 1850s. Steamships ultimately made the difference as they could outrun the pirates easily. Piracy ceased to be a threat thereafter.
  20. 20. BRITISH RESPONSE Setup the Chinese Protectorate in 1877: Led by William Pickering. Implemented steps to protect coolies and females: Regulated coolie trade. Rescued many young girls being sold to brothels and poorly- treated maids. Regulated the Chinese societies and worked with the societies and the community to resolve problems and maintain law and order. Largely successful although some of the problems continued to exist on a smaller scale. Secret Societies still existed. Women and coolies continued to be abused.
  21. 21. PROBLEMS FACED BY THE BRITISH: SOCIAL SERVICES Lack of Education: Lack of educated people for civil service and businesses. Affected trade and administration. Response: Started schools and provided grants. Gave out scholarships. Started medical school. Produced lawyers, doctors and teachers and increased the number of educated persons. However, Chinese schools were given less money as it was felt that they were anti-government.
  22. 22. PROBLEMS FACED BY THE BRITISH: SOCIAL SERVICES Lack of health services: High death rate – Higher than Hong Kong, Ceylon or India. Caused by diseases, poor living conditions and poor sanitation. Response: Set up Public Health Department. Set up hospitals, asylum and leper camps. Took steps to eradicate malaria. Improving public hygiene. Quarantine Law. Public health improved by the 1940s.
  23. 23. BRITISH VIEW OF THE SINGAPORE PEOPLE Think about the ‘civilising mission’ of the British. How do you think they viewed the locals?
  24. 24. BRITISH VIEW OF THE LOCALS Asians were often discriminated against in terms of employment and in public. Locals not allowed to hold high positions in government and often received lower pay. Locals denied various privileges such as first class carriages and the use of the dance floor.
  25. 25. THINK ABOUT IT Belgium also had overseas colonies. Most notable was Congo, which is today’s Democratic Republic of Congo. During the early days of Belgian rule from 1885 to 1908, Congo’s natural resources were systematically exploited for Belgian wealth. Between 5 to 15 million people were known to have died during this period, Vietnam and Indonesia also had different colonial masters that ruled very differently compared to the British. How do this compare to Singapore today? Are we comparatively luckier to have been under British rule?
  26. 26. YOUR VIEW OF BRITISH RULE What is your view of the British rule of Singapore?
  27. 27. SUM UP In this lesson: Learnt about the British system of government in Singapore. The challenges facing the colonial government and their response. British views of the locals.
  28. 28. SOURCE Source: ‘The Padang in Singapore, 1851’ What does this picture tell me about life in the 1850s in Singapore? Is this source reliable for telling me about life in the An oil painting by John Turnbull Thomson 1850s in Singapore?