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Chapter 2 Source Based Inquiry Lesson
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Chapter 2 Source Based Inquiry Lesson

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  • 1. WHO WAS THE FOUNDER OF SINGAPORE? SOURCE-BASED INQUIRY LESSON
  • 2. RAFFLES, RAFFLES, EVERYWHERE. SS LA EL SC OT LE H FF ES RA FL CE R AF LA SP LE FF RA ES N FL TIO AF TU R I ST IN
  • 3. WHO ARE THEY? ar d ur Are thererq uh places or streetsf named any raw Fa nC illiam after them?oh J W Crawford Street, Crawford Bridge, Crawford Park There was a Farquhar Street until the 1990s.
  • 4. OBJECTIVES • During this lesson: – Differentiate between fact and opinion. – Develop a better understanding on the issue of who was the true founder of Singapore. – Develop a better understanding of the importance of reliability in history.
  • 5. WHO REALLY FOUNDED SINGAPORE? • There has been some debate over the founding of Singapore. • Some academics have played down Raffles’ role in the founding. There have been suggestions that Farquhar, Crawfurd, or even the pioneers who came to Singapore during this period were the real founders. • There are many different views, how would we know which view is the most accurate?
  • 6. LET’S INFER! • The inscription on a memorial to William Farquhar written by a family member of Farquhar after his death, found in a church, Perth, Scotland. – Major General William Farquhar served in the East Indies upwards of 33 years…. He was appointed to offices of high responsibility under the civil government of India … in addition to his military duties. [He] served as resident in Malacca and afterwards at Singapore which later settlement he founded. … He acquired honour to himself and rendered service to his country.
  • 7. RELIABILITY
  • 8. We often use the word RELIABLE in everyday life - about people, transport, weather forecast, etc. What does the word RELIABLE mean? What is RELIABILITY with regard to sources? Reliability means how much we can believe / trust the source OR how accurate / dependable the source is.
  • 9. Why is there a need to check the reliability of a source?
  • 10. RELIABILITY • The writer of a source plays an important role in the creation of a source. • How can a writer influence a source?
  • 11. FACT AND OPINION • How can we identify the ‘bias’ in an author’s work? • In order to do so, we need to be able to tell the difference between ‘fact’ and ‘opinion’.
  • 12. WHAT IS A FACT? • Something that is true. • Can be verified by looking up primary sources, ref. books or encyclopedia, etc.
  • 13. WHAT IS AN OPINION? • A point of view, feeling or thought that some people may agree with while others may not. • Opinions can be spotted because the words used tend to be an exaggeration of the fact.
  • 14. We often use the word RELIABLE in everyday life - about people, transport, weather forecast, etc. What does the word RELIABLE mean? What is RELIABILITY with regard to sources? Reliability means how much we can believe / trust the source OR how accurate / dependable the source is.
  • 15. John and David had a fight. You are the discipline master … John’s father …“This big boy was hitting my boy. John hit him in the face and made his nose bleed. John did the right thing.” David’s father ... “David knocked that wicked kid down with one punch as the other kid started the fight. ” A student from another class... “ The two boys were fighting. John hit David. David’s nose started to bleed. David punched John and he fell to the ground”
  • 16. RELIABILITY • Which account is the most reliable for telling you what happened? • Why do you think so? • Can you identify some characteristics of the most reliable account?
  • 17. RELIABLE OR UNRELIABLE? • How did you arrive at your answer? • What do you do to decide if a source is reliable or unreliable?
  • 18. RELIABILITY • Can the other 2 accounts be reliable? • Depends on the purpose for looking at the source.
  • 19. RELIABILITY • No source is necessarily either reliable or unreliable for every purpose. • Some source whilst unreliable for historical accuracy can be reliable for other purposes.
  • 20. What is a RELIABLE source? A reliable source is one in which there is consistency of the author's account of the truth & the truth-telling is verifiable
  • 21. shows bias of the writer contains factual was produced errors / for a particular exaggerations / purpose which Unreliable distortions might affect source (i.e. verifiably its reliability false versions of events) was written long after is inconsistent the events it describes with similar sources What makes a source UNRELIABLE?
  • 22. Question PROVENANCE CROSS-REFER to other sources, Checklist Question contextual for CONTENT knowledge reliability Question Question PURPOSE TYPICALITY
  • 23. PROVENANCE • Provenance: – Who is the speaker/writer? – What is the occasion? – When ? – Where ? – Who is the audience?
  • 24. IDENTIFY THE PROVENANCE • The inscription on a memorial to William Farquhar written by a family member of Farquhar after his death, found in a church, Perth, Scotland. – Major General William Farquhar served in the East Indies upwards of 33 years…. He was appointed to offices of high responsibility under the civil government of India … in addition to his military duties. [He] served as resident in Malacca and afterwards at Singapore which later settlement he founded. … He acquired honour to himself and rendered service to his country. Who is the speaker/writer? What is the occasion? When? Where? Who is the audience?
  • 25. CONTENT nce fere • What is being said? ross re C – Fact or opinion? – Is there a gap in information? • How it is being said? TONE – Is the view one sided or balanced? – Any exaggeration? Any over generalizations? – What are the emotive words? • Is the content typical of other sources? lity Typica
  • 26. LOOK AT THE CONTENT: WHAT IS BEING SAID? • The inscription on a memorial to William Farquhar written by a family member of Farquhar after his death, found in a church, Perth, Scotland. – Major General William Farquhar served in the East Indies upwards of 33 years…. He was appointed to offices of high responsibility under the civil government of India … in addition to his military duties. [He] served as resident in Malacca and afterwards at Singapore which later settlement he founded. … He acquired honour to himself and rendered service to his country. Fact or opinion? Is there a gap in information? What does your background knowledge tell you?
  • 27. LOOK AT THE CONTENT: HOW IS IT BEING SAID? • The inscription on a memorial to William Farquhar written by a family member of Farquhar after his death, found in a church, Perth, Scotland. – Major General William Farquhar served in the East Indies upwards of 33 years…. He was appointed to offices of high responsibility under the civil government of India … in addition to his military duties. [He] served as resident in Malacca and afterwards at Singapore which later settlement he founded. … He acquired honour to himself and rendered service to his country. Is the view one sided or balanced? Any exaggeration? Any over generalizations? What are the emotive words?
  • 28. PURPOSE • Why was the source created? • Why does the speaker want to say this at that time/place ? • What does the speaker expect by saying this? Study provenance, content, and use contextual knowledge
  • 29. IDENTIFY THE PURPOSE • The inscription on a memorial to William Farquhar in a church, Perth, Scotland. – Major General William Farquhar served in the East Indies upwards of 33 years…. He was appointed to offices of high responsibility under the civil government of India … in addition to his military duties. [He] served as resident in Malacca and afterwards at Singapore which later settlement he founded. … He acquired honour to himself and rendered service to his country. Why was the source created? Why does the writer want to say this at that time/place ? What does the writer expect by saying this?
  • 30. RELIABLE? • Is this source reliable for the purpose of determining who founded Singapore? – Yes? – No? – Yes and No?
  • 31. SOURCE-BASED INQUIRY EXERCISE • Who founded Singapore? – Break up into pairs. – Refer to the activity sheet. – Examine all the sources using the criteria listed in the table. – Answer Question 1. – You have 20 minutes!
  • 32. DISCUSSION