THE COMING OF THE EUROPEAN
The European powers began to arrive
in Asia in search of spices and other
goods such as silk and precious
Began with the Portuguese, followed
by the Dutch and British.
THE EAST INDIA COMPANY
Formed in 1601 with
the specific objective
of trading with Asia.
Very different from
Own armies and
Rivalry between the Dutch and
Dutch control of Malacca and Java meant that the British were
at a disadvantage.
Control of major ports: Forced to trade at Batavia
High fees and taxes
Not allowed to trade with locals.
This form of control is also known as a trade monopoly.
British had tried for many years to break the Dutch monopoly
but were not successful.
“The Dutch possess the only
routes through which ships
must sail into the Malay
Archipelago, the Straits of
Sunda and Melaka and the
British have now not an inch of
ground to stand upon between
India and China, nor a friendly
port at which they obtain water
and obtain refreshment”
Textbook, page 24.
British founded 2 trade settlements:
Look at the map on page 22.
Are the settlements in an ideal
CHOICE OF SINGAPORE
Refer to the map on page 23.
Why is Singapore a more suitable
location than Penang and Bencoolen?
Refer to the sources on page 24 for
WHY ELSE WAS
In your groups complete page 12-13 of
your Activity Book.
FOUNDING OF SINGAPORE
Raffles managed to persuade the Governor
General of India, Hastings to allow him to
start an expedition to look for a new
Raffles landed in Singapore on 28 Jan
Sought permission of the Temengong to
start a trading settlement on the island.
Raffles was asked to seek permission of the
Sultan was under the control of the Dutch
and definitely would not have allowed the
British to occupy Singapore.
Raffles was able to exploit a succession
dispute to his advantage. Refer to page 26
to 27 of textbook for more details.
THE TREATY OF 6 FEB 1819
Raffles recognised Tengku Hussein as
In return Sultan and Temengong
allowed the British to start a trading
settlement in return for an allowance.
EIC board of directors and British
government also unhappy.
Nevertheless, there was no war:
Shared a common threat – The French.
Holland was financially weak.
Negotiated a peace settlement known
as the Anglo Dutch Treaty on 17 Mar
Division into spheres of influence.
Exchange of Melaka for Bencoolen.
Singapore became a British colony.
EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF
What happened after the
Treaty of 1819 was signed?
Raffles returned to Bencoolen,
leaving Farquhar in-charge of
the new settlement.
During this period, Singapore
EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF
By 1820, Singapore’s trade expanded rapidly due
to its location and the free trade policy.
In the first 2 ½ years, 3,000 vessels came to
Singapore and import and export trade totaled $8
Singapore also attracted many traders and settlers.
Faced some constraints:
Lack of funds:
Singapore was a free port, it was hard to
raise enough revenue.
Instructed by Raffles to keep expenditure low.
Lack of direction from Raffles and EIC:
All decisions had to be made by Raffles in
Uncertainty surrounding Singapore’s future.
PROBLEMS IN EARLY
Despite the growth in trade, Singapore faced a
number of problems.
What were the problems that Farquhar faced?
How did he overcome them?
Refer to page 31 and 32 of the textbook.
OTHER PROBLEMS FACED
Singapore grew quickly under Farquhar’s
Raffles returned to Singapore in 1822, he
disapproved of Farquhar’s actions.
Disagreements over the legalisation of
gambling, opium smoking and a ‘lax’ attitude to
the trading of slaves.
Raffles returned to Britain in 1823 and handed the
Residency to John Crawfurd.
Crawfurd was able to implement Raffles’ plans.
Negotiated the ‘Treaty of Friendship and Alliance’ in Aug
Sultan and Temengong ceded full control of Singapore to the EIC
in return for compensation.
After this treaty and the Anglo-Dutch treaty, Singapore was now
under full British control.
Despite the uncertainty, many traders and settlers
arrived from all over during this period.
Came from different walks of life from rich traders to
poor persons seeking their fortune.
All contributed in their own way to the rapid
development of Singapore during this period.
Founding of Singapore arose as a result of the
British attempt to break the Dutch monopoly and
secure their trade route to China.
Singapore proved to be in an advantageous
Raffles’ actions led to a dispute between Britain and
Dispute was only resolved as a result of the Anglo
Rapid Development of Singapore.
SO WHO FOUNDED
YOU DECIDE DURING THE NEXT