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What is ob 2 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. eleventh editio norganizational behavio r stephen p. robbins
  • 2. Chapter One What Is Organizational Behavior ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR S T E P H E N P. R O B B I N S E L E V E N T H E D I T I O N© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. WWW.PRENHALL.COM/ROBBINS PowerPoint PresentationAll rights reserved. by Charlie Cook
  • 3. After studying this chapter,O B J E C T I V E S you should be able to: 1. Define organizational behavior (OB). 2. Describe what managers do. 3. Explain the value of the systematic study ofL E A R N I N G OB. 4. List the major challenges and opportunities for managers to use OB concepts. 5. Identify the contributions made by major behavioral science disciplines to OB. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1–3
  • 4. After studying this chapter,O B J E C T I V E S (cont’d) you should be able to: 1. Describe why managers require a knowledge of OB. 2. Explain the need for a contingency approach to the study of OB. 3. Identify the three levels of analysis in this book’s OB model.L E A R N I N G © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1–4
  • 5. What Managers DoWhat Managers Do Managers (or administrators) Individuals who achieve goals through other people. Managerial Activities Managerial Activities ••Make decisions Make decisions ••Allocate resources Allocate resources ••Direct activities of others Direct activities of others to attain goals to attain goals© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 1–5
  • 6. Where Managers WorkWhere Managers Work Organization A consciously coordinated social unit, composed of two or more people, that functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or set of goals.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 1–6
  • 7. Management FunctionsManagement Functions Planning Planning Organizing Organizing Management Management Functions Functions Controlling Controlling Leading Leading© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 1–7
  • 8. Management Functions (cont’d)Management Functions (cont’d) Planning A process that includes defining goals, establishing strategy, and developing plans to coordinate activities.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 1–8
  • 9. Management Functions (cont’d)Management Functions (cont’d) Organizing Determining what tasks are to be done, who is to do them, how the tasks are to be grouped, who reports to whom, and where decisions are to be made.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 1–9
  • 10. Management Functions (cont’d)Management Functions (cont’d) Leading A function that includes motivating employees, directing others, selecting the most effective communication channels, and resolving conflicts.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. 1–All rights reserved. 10
  • 11. Management Functions (cont’d)Management Functions (cont’d) Controlling Monitoring activities to ensure they are being accomplished as planned and correcting any significant deviations.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. 1–All rights reserved. 11
  • 12. Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc.Source: Adapted from The Nature of Managerial Work by H. Mintzberg. Copyright © 1973 1– E X H I B I T 1–1 E X H I B I T 1–1by H. Mintzberg. Reprinted by permission of Pearson Education.All rights reserved. 12
  • 13. Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles (cont’d) Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles (cont’d)© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc.Source: Adapted from The Nature of Managerial Work by H. Mintzberg. Copyright © 1973 1– E X H I B I T 1–1 (cont’d) E X H I B I T 1–1 (cont’d)by H. Mintzberg. Reprinted by permission of Pearson Education.All rights reserved. 13
  • 14. Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles (cont’d) Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles (cont’d)© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc.Source: Adapted from The Nature of Managerial Work by H. Mintzberg. Copyright © 1973 1– E X H I B I T 1–1 (cont’d) E X H I B I T 1–1 (cont’d)by H. Mintzberg. Reprinted by permission of Pearson Education.All rights reserved. 14
  • 15. Management SkillsManagement Skills Technical skills The ability to apply specialized knowledge or expertise. Human skills The ability to work with, understand, and motivate other people, both individually and in groups. Conceptual Skills The mental ability to analyze and diagnose complex situations.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. 1–All rights reserved. 15
  • 16. Effective Versus Successful ManagerialEffective Versus Successful ManagerialActivities (Luthans)Activities (Luthans) 1. Traditional management 1. Traditional management • •Decision making, planning, and controlling Decision making, planning, and controlling 1. Communication 1. Communication • •Exchanging routine information and processing Exchanging routine information and processing paperwork paperwork 1. Human resource management 1. Human resource management • •Motivating, disciplining, managing conflict, staffing, Motivating, disciplining, managing conflict, staffing, and training and training 1. Networking 1. Networking • •Socializing, politicking, and interacting with others Socializing, politicking, and interacting with others© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. 1–All rights reserved. 16
  • 17. Allocation of Activities by Time Allocation of Activities by Time© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc.Source: Based on F. Luthans, R.M. Hodgetts, and S.A. Rosenkrantz, 1– E X H I B I T 1–2 E X H I B I T 1–2Real Managers (Cambridge, MA: Ballinger, 1988).All rights reserved. 17
  • 18. Enter Organizational BehaviorEnter Organizational BehaviorOrganizational behavior(OB)A field of study thatinvestigates the impact thatindividuals, groups, andstructure have on behaviorwithin organizations, for thepurpose of applying suchknowledge toward improvingan organization’seffectiveness.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. 1–All rights reserved. 18
  • 19. Replacing Intuition with Systematic StudyReplacing Intuition with Systematic Study Intuition A feeling not necessarily supported by research. Systematic study Looking at relationships, attempting to attribute causes and effects, and drawing conclusions based on scientific evidence.©Provides a means Inc. 2005 Prentice Hall to predict behaviors. 1–All rights reserved. 19
  • 20. Replacing Intuition with Systematic StudyReplacing Intuition with Systematic Study Preconceived The Notions ≠ Facts© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. 1–All rights reserved. 20
  • 21. Toward an OB Discipline Toward an OB Discipline© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc.E X H I B I T 1–3 E X H I B I T 1–3 1–All rights reserved. 21
  • 22. Contributing Disciplines to the OB FieldContributing Disciplines to the OB Field Psychology The science that seeks to measure, explain, and sometimes change the behavior of humans and other animals.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. 1– E X H I B I T 1–3 (cont’d) E X H I B I T 1–3 (cont’d)All rights reserved. 22
  • 23. Contributing Disciplines to the OB Field (cont’d)Contributing Disciplines to the OB Field (cont’d) Sociology The study of people in relation to their fellow human beings.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. 1– E X H I B I T 1–3 (cont’d) E X H I B I T 1–3 (cont’d)All rights reserved. 23
  • 24. Contributing Disciplines to the OB Field (cont’d)Contributing Disciplines to the OB Field (cont’d) Social Psychology An area within psychology that blends concepts from psychology and sociology and that focuses on the influence of people on one another.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. 1– E X H I B I T 1–3 (cont’d) E X H I B I T 1–3 (cont’d)All rights reserved. 24
  • 25. Contributing Disciplines to the OB Field (cont’d)Contributing Disciplines to the OB Field (cont’d) Anthropology The study of societies to learn about human beings and their activities.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. 1– E X H I B I T 1–3 (cont’d) E X H I B I T 1–3 (cont’d)All rights reserved. 25
  • 26. Contributing Disciplines to the OB Field (cont’d)Contributing Disciplines to the OB Field (cont’d) Political Science The study of the behavior of individuals and groups within a political environment.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. 1– E X H I B I T 1–3 (cont’d) E X H I B I T 1–3 (cont’d)All rights reserved. 26
  • 27. Source: Drawing by Handelsman in The New Yorker, Copyright © 1986 by the New Yorker Magazine. Reprinted by permission.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. 1– E X H I B I T 1–4 E X H I B I T 1–4All rights reserved. 27
  • 28. There Are Few Absolutes in OBThere Are Few Absolutes in OBContingency variablesSituational factors: variables that moderate therelationship between two or more othervariables and improve the correlation. x Contingency Variables y© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. 1–All rights reserved. 28
  • 29. Challenges and Opportunities for OBChallenges and Opportunities for OB Responding to Globalization – Increased foreign assignments – Working with people from different cultures – Coping with anti-capitalism backlash – Overseeing movement of jobs to countries with low- cost labor Managing Workforce Diversity – Embracing diversity – Changing U.S. demographics – Implications for managers • Recognizing and responding to differences© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. 1–All rights reserved. 29
  • 30. Major Workforce Diversity CategoriesMajor Workforce Diversity Categories Gender Gender National National Disability Disability Origin Origin Age Age Non-Christian Non-Christian Race Race Domestic Domestic Partners Partners© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. 1– E X H I B I T 1–5 E X H I B I T 1–5All rights reserved. 30
  • 31. Challenges and Opportunities for OB (cont’d)Challenges and Opportunities for OB (cont’d) Improving Quality and Productivity – Quality management (QM) – Process reengineering Responding to the Labor Shortage – Changing work force demographics – Fewer skilled laborers – Early retirements and older workers Improving Customer Service – Increased expectation of service quality – Customer-responsive cultures© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. 1–All rights reserved. 31
  • 32. What Is Quality Management?What Is Quality Management?1. Intense focus on the customer.2. Concern for continuous improvement.3. Improvement in the quality of everything the organization does.4. Accurate measurement.5. Empowerment of employees.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. 1– E X H I B I T 1–6 E X H I B I T 1–6All rights reserved. 32
  • 33. Improving Quality and Productivity Improving Quality and Productivity Quality management (QM) – The constant attainment of customer satisfaction through the continuous improvement of all organizational processes. – Requires employees to rethink what they do and become more involved in workplace decisions. Process reengineering – Asks managers to reconsider how work would be done and their organization structured if they were starting over. – Instead of making incremental changes in processes, reengineering involves evaluating every process in terms of its contribution.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. 1–All rights reserved. 33
  • 34. Challenges and Opportunity for OB (cont’d)Challenges and Opportunity for OB (cont’d) Improving People Skills Empowering People Stimulating Innovation and Change Coping with “Temporariness” Working in Networked Organizations Helping Employees Balance Work/Life Conflicts Improving Ethical Behavior© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. 1–All rights reserved. 34
  • 35. Basic OB Model, Stage IIBasic OB Model, Stage Model An abstraction of reality. A simplified representation of some real-world phenomenon.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. 1– E X H I B I T 1–7 E X H I B I T 1–7All rights reserved. 35
  • 36. The Dependent VariablesThe Dependent Variables Dependent variable A response that is affected by an independent variable. y© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. x 1–All rights reserved. 36
  • 37. The Dependent Variables (cont’d)The Dependent Variables (cont’d)ProductivityA performance measure that includeseffectiveness and efficiency. Effectiveness Achievement of goals. Efficiency The ratio of effective output to the input required to achieve it.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. 1–All rights reserved. 37
  • 38. The Dependent Variables (cont’d)The Dependent Variables (cont’d) Absenteeism The failure to report to work. Turnover The voluntary and involuntary permanent withdrawal from an organization.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. 1–All rights reserved. 38
  • 39. The Dependent Variables (cont’d)The Dependent Variables (cont’d)Organizational citizenshipbehavior (OCB)Discretionary behavior that is notpart of an employee’s formal jobrequirements, but that neverthelesspromotes the effective functioning ofthe organization.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. 1–All rights reserved. 39
  • 40. The Dependent Variables (cont’d) The Dependent Variables (cont’d)Job satisfactionA general attitude toward one’s job, the differencebetween the amount of reward workers receive and theamount they believe they should receive.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. 1–All rights reserved. 40
  • 41. The Independent VariablesThe Independent VariablesIndependent variableThe presumed cause of some change in the dependentvariable. Independent Independent Variables VariablesIndividual-Level Group-Level Organization Organization Individual-Level Group-Level System-Level Variables Variables Variables Variables System-Level Variables Variables© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. 1–All rights reserved. 41
  • 42. Basic OB Basic OB Model, Model, Stage II Stage II© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. 1– E X H I B I T 1–8 E X H I B I T 1–8All rights reserved. 42