Spiritual Aspects of Fastingby Shaykh Tameem Ahmadi Inner dimension of fasting 3 spiritual levels 15 ways of maximizing reward Dua & connection with Allah (SWT) Book References Quiz www.darussuffah.org
Inner dimensions of Fasting Fasting is a complete institute of morals and ethics “O you who believe, fasting has been ordained upon you as it was ordained upon those before you so that you may attain taqwa (God-consciousness)” (2:183) “He who does not leave evil speech or acting on it, then Allah is no need of his abandonment of food and drink.” (Bukhari) Enhances the angelic potentials. (Shah Waliullah) Engenders compassion and mercy in the heart for the poor and destitute Creates a sense of value and appreciation for time and a`maal Intensifies submission to Allah Ta`ala. (Jalali- Ibadat….Jamali-Ibadat) www.darussuffah.org
3 spiritual levels Fast of the general layperson Fast of the Fast of the especially elite www.darussuffah.org
15 ways of maximizing reward1. Remove the distractions 9. Tarawih and Qiyam al-2. Educate yourself Layl3. Kicking out the bad old 10. Pre-dawn meal (suhur) habits4. Salah 11. Miswak5. Recitation of the Qur‟an 12. Itikaf6. Charity 13. Serving others7. Earn the reward of more 14. Supplications and Dhikr than one fast8. Supplications at the 15. The spirit of Ramadan in time of iftar the home www.darussuffah.org
Dua & connection with Allah (SWT)“…And when My servants ask you, [OMuhammad], concerning Me - indeed I amnear. I respond to the invocation of thesupplicant when he calls upon Me. So let themrespond to Me [by obedience] and believe inMe that they may be [rightly] guided.” (2:186) Read kalima tayyiba in abundance Make abundant istighfar (repentance) Supplicate Allah Ta`ala for paradise Seek refuge from hell-fire www.darussuffah.org
Book References “Virtuesof Ramadhan” by Shaykhul Hadith Muhammad Zakariya Kandehlwi “Inner Dimensions of Islamic Worship” by Imam Ghazali - Translated by Mukhtar Holland and published by the Islamic Foundation “The Ramadan of Shaikh al Hadith Muhammad Zakariyya & our Elders” by Dr. Mohammad Ismail Memon Madani www.darussuffah.org
Fiqh of Ramadhan – Introby Mufti Nawaz Ahmed Khan Fiqh of fasting Fiqh of Itikaaf Fiqh of Eid Fiqh of Taraweeh Fiqh of Sadaqatul Fitr www.darussuffah.org
Brief Intro to FiqhLinguistic definition of FiqhThe word „Fiqh‟ means „to know‟ when it is from and tobecome a faqeeh (i.e. one who is well versed in the line offiqh) when it is fromMeaning of FiqhFiqh (according to the terminology of the Shariah) isdefined as „to recognize those regulations of Islamic Lawwhich have been derived from theQuran, Hadith, Consensus and Analogy through the meansof independent reasoning (i.e. Ijtihad) www.darussuffah.org
Importance of FiqhQuran: .......... .„And it is not possible for all the believers to go out (atonce); Then why should a delegation not come forth fromevery grouping, so that they may attain the understandingof Religion, thereafter returning to their people, warningthem, in the hope that they may remain guarded. [Surah al-Tawbah, Verse 122]Hadith: - www.darussuffah.org
Foundation of our actions Each action has two dimensions - Statement of Maulana Idris Kandhelwi (RA) Hadith of Saalim (RA) ........ www.darussuffah.org
Fiqh of Fasting Types of fasts Mufsidaat Niyyah (Tabyeet) Kaffarah Mustahabbaat Qadha Makruhaat Fidya, etc. www.darussuffah.org
Types of Fasts Fardh Waajib (nazr – vow) Sunnah, Mustahabb and Nafl Makruh www.darussuffah.org
Niyyah Some fasts require it and others do not www.darussuffah.org
Mustahabbaat To eat suhoor To delay the suhoor up to a little before subha sadiq To break the fast immediately after sunset To break the fast with dates - If dates are not available then with water To recite the duaa at the time of breaking the fast www.darussuffah.org
Book References Ta‟leem ul Haq Ta‟leem ul Islam Beheshti Zewar Noor ul Idha www.darussuffah.org
Fiqh of Ramadhan – AdvanceBy Mufti Abdullah Nana Definition of Fasting Obligations of Fasting Exemptions from Fasting Makrooh actions Basis for Kaffarah Actions that break a Fast Kaffarah & Qadha situations Actions that don‟t break a Fast Fasting rules for women Fidya www.darussuffah.org
Definition of Fasting Abstaining from food, drink, and sexual activity from Subh Sadiq (First Light) to sunset Should ensure that the Ramadhan timetable is based on 18 degrees www.darussuffah.org
Exemptions from Fasting Traveler Insane person A person who is physically unable to fast A nursing or pregnant woman who fears for her or her child‟s life A woman who is experiencing her menstrual cycle or post-natal bleedng Extreme cases of hunger or thirst www.darussuffah.org
Makrooh Actions Chewing gum, rubber, plastic items or other such things Tasting any article of food or drink and spitting it out Brushing your teeth with toothpaste Quarrels and argumentation, using filthy or indecent words Backbiting, telling a lie and swearing etc. are sinful acts even when one is not fasting www.darussuffah.org
Kaffarah & Qadha situations Kaffarah which is a punishment for intentionally breaking the fast Qadhaa where a person will simply have to make up that day of fasting after Ramadhan www.darussuffah.org
Basis for Kaffarah To keep one fast after another for sixty days continuously If this is not possible, then the person will have to do one of the following: 1. Feed sixty poor people to their full for two meals 2. Feed one poor person two meals a day, for sixty days 3. Give 60 poor persons 31/2 lbs. (approx. 1.6kg. of wheat, or its value in cash or food) www.darussuffah.org
Actions that break a Fast1. Anything put by force into the 8. Swallowing the blood from the gums mouth of fasting persons if the color of the blood is more than2. Water goes down the throat the saliva with which it is mixed.(Behisti Zewar) whilst gargling, conscious of one fasting 9. To eat and drink forgetting that one is fasting and thereafter thinking that3. To Vomit mouthful intentionally or the fast is broken, to eat and drink to return vomit down the throat again4. Swallowing intentionally any item 10. To eat and drink after Subha Sadiq that is not used as food or or to break the fast before sunset medicine due to cloudy sky or a faulty5. Swallowing something watch, etc., and then realizing ones fault. edible, equal to or bigger than a grain of gram which was stuck 11. Any other fast other than a between the teeth Ramadan one, whether broken intentionally or with a good and6. Putting oil into the ear valid reason, makes ONLY Qadhaa7. Inhaling snuff into the nostrils WAJIB. There is NO Kaffarah for breaking any fast besides that of Ramadan. 12. Masturbation with ejaculation www.darussuffah.org
Qadha & Kaffarah Wajib Eating, drinking or breaking the fast in any other manner without a Valid reason, will make both Qadhaa and Kaffarah necessary Applying SURMA into the eye or rubbing oil on the head and then, thinking that the fast is Broken, to eat and drink intentionally To drink any kind of medicine intentionally To use an inhaler without a valid excuse Smoking or inhaling smoke intentionally www.darussuffah.org
Actions that don‟t break a Fast To eat or drink something unintentionally A mosquito, fly or any other object going down the throat unintentionally Dust or dirt going down the throat Swallowing ones OWN saliva or phlegm Taking an injection Applying medicine to the eyes Vomiting unintentionally Applying Itr or perfume and smelling a fragrance A wet dream does Not break the fast www.darussuffah.org
Fasting rules for women Pregnant woman, breastfeeding women are excused from fasting if it will affect their health Women will have to make up fasts missed due to their menstrual cycle and post- natal bleeding www.darussuffah.org
Fidya This is a wajib sadaqah paid to the poor for every missed fast by a person who is very old or ill and has no hope of recovering www.darussuffah.org
Ramadhan ResolutionsBy Shaykh Abdur Rashid Khan Resetting ourselves this Ramadhan by bringing changes Valuing our time by preparing for Ramadhan Availing every good opportunity Being a better person to those around us Turning towards of Allah (SWT) Plugging the drain on our sins Eating healthy this Ramadhan www.darussuffah.org
Health & medical issuesBy Dr. Rashid Elahi Benefits of Fasting Physiological Effects Psychological Effects Health and Ramadan Study Studies on Islamic Fasting Health Guidelines Medical Issues Conclusion www.darussuffah.org
Physiological Effects Lowers blood glucose and Insulin level Causes breakdown of glycogen from liver to provide glucose for energy need Breakdown of fat from adipose tissue to provide for energy needs Lowers cholesterol and the systolic blood pressure Fasting can help people to break addictions to harmful substances: tobacco, drugs, alcohol, tea, coffee etc. Ideal for treatment of mild to moderate, stable, non-insulin diabetes, obesity and essential hypertension
Benefits of fasting“O you who believe! Fasting is prescribed toyou, as it was prescribed for those beforeyou (i.e. Jews & Christians) so that you may(learn) self-restraint.” (Quran 1:183) www.darussuffah.org
Psychological Effects Peace Tranquility Decrease personal hostility (when someone fights with us, we are told to reply, I am fasting),thus avoiding the argument and anger with all its consequences Similarly, recitation of the Quran not only produces a tranquility of heart and mind, but also improves the memory
Health and Ramadan Study In 1994 the first International Congress on "Health and Ramadan," held in Casablanca, entered 50 research papers from all over the world, from Muslim and non- Muslim researchers who have done extensive studies on the medical ethics of fasting While improvement in many medical conditions was noted; however, in no way did fasting worsen any patients‟ health or baseline medical condition. On the other hand, patients who are suffering from severe diseases, like brittle diabetes ,high blood pressure, kidney stones, etc., should consult their physicians before fasting and adjust their medications as needed.
Studies on Islamic Fasting Dr. Soliman, from the University Hospital, Amman, Jordan has reported that during the month of Ramadan 1404 AH (June- July, 1984 AD) healthy Muslim volunteers; 42 males and 26 females, ranging in age from 15-64 and 16-28 years respectively were studied They were weighed and their blood levels of cortisol, testosterone, Na, K, urea, glucose, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), triglycerides (TG) and serum osmolality were measured at the beginning and at the end of Ramadan There was significant loss of weight in males from a mean of 73.8 +- 6.2 kg to 72.0+- 7.1 kg (P less than 0.01) and in females from 55.2 +- 4.8 to 54.6 +- 4.2 kg (P less than 0.05) Blood glucose levels rose in males from 77.7 +- 23.6 mg/dl to 90.2 mg/dl (P less than 0.05) and in females from 76.0 +- 7 mg/dl to 84.5 +- I 1.1 mg/dl (P less than 0.002) All other parameters did not show significant changes
Studies on Islamic Fasting Cont‟d Dr. F. Aziza and his associates from the University of Medical sciences, Tehran, Iran, has reported the following: serum levels of glucose, bilirubin, calcium, phosphorous, protein, albumin, FSH, LH, testosteron e, prolactin, TSH, T3, T4, and T uptake, as well as prolactin and TSH responses to TRH were evaluated in group of nine healthy men before and on the 1Oth, 20th and 29th days of Ramadan Mean body weight decreased from 65.4 +- 9.1 to 61.6 +- 9.0 kg at 29th day Serum glucose decreased from 82 +- 4 mg/dl on the 10th day, and increased thereafter (76 +- 3 and 84 +- 5 on the 20th and 29th days of fasting respectively) Serum bilirubin increased from 0.56 +- 0.17 to 1.43 +- 52 mg/dl on the 10th day, and decreased thereafter (1.1.+- 0.4 on the 20th and 29th days.) All changes returned to basal values four weeks after fasting There were no significant changes in serum levels of Ca, P, protein, albumin, and any of measured hormones. Prolactin and TSH responses to TRH were also unaltered. Conclusion: Islamic fasting does not cause any adverse medical effect and may have some beneficial effect on weight and lipid metabolism
Health Guidelines [1 of 2] In view of the long hours of fasting, we should consume slow digesting foods including fibre containing-foods rather than fast- digesting foods Slow digesting foods last up to 8 hours, while fast-digesting foods last for only 3 to 4 hours Slow-digesting foods are foods that contain grains and seeds like barley, wheat, oats, millet, semolina, beans, lentils, wholemeal flour, unpolished rice, etc. (called complex carbohydrates). Fast-burning foods are foods that contain sugar, white flour, etc. (called refined carbohydrates). Fibre-containing foods are bran-containing foods, whole wheat, grains and seeds, vegetables like green beans, peas, sem (papery), spinach, and other herbs like methie, the leaves of beetroot (iron-rich), fruit with skin, dried fruit especially dried apricots, figs and prunes, almonds, etc.
Health guidelines [2 of 2]Avoid Fried and fatty foods Foods containing too much sugar Over-eating especially at sehri Too much tea at sehri - Tea makes you pass more urine taking with it valuable mineral salts that your body needs during the day Smoking cigarettes - If you cannot give up smoking, cut down gradually starting a few weeks before Ramadan - Smoking is unhealthy and one should stop completelyEat Complex carbohydrates at sehri so that the food lasts longer making you less hungry. Haleem is an excellent source of protein and is a slow-burning food. Dates are excellent source of sugar, fibre, carbohydrates, potassium and magnesium. Almonds are rich in protein and fibre with less fat. Bananas are a good source of potassium, magnesium and carbohydrates.Drink As much water or fruit juices as possible between iftar and bedtime so that your body may adjust fluid levels in time
Medical Issues [1 of 3]Constipation Constipation can cause piles (haemorrhoids), fissures (painful cracks in anal canal) and indigestion with a bloated feeling. Causes: Too much refined foods, too little water and not enough fibre in the diet. Remedy: Avoid excessive refined foods, increase water intake, use bran in baking, brown flour when making roti/breadIndigestion And Excessive Gas Causes: Over-eating. Too much fried and fatty foods, spicy foods, and foods that produce gas e.g. eggs, cabbage, lentils, carbonated drinks like coke/pepsi also produce gas. Remedy: Do not over-eat, drink fruit juices or better still drink water. Avoid fried foods, add ajmor to gas-producing foods.Lethargy (low blood pressure) Excessive sweating, weakness, tiredness, lack of energy, dizziness, especially on getting up from sitting position, pale appearance and feeling faint are symptoms associated with "low blood pressure". This tends to occur towards the afternoon. Causes: Too little fluid intake, decreased salt intake. Remedy: Keep cool, increase fluid and salt intake. Caution: Low blood pressure should be confirmed by taking a blood pressure reading when symptoms are present. Persons with high blood pressure may need their medication adjusted during Ramadan. They should consult their doctor.
Medical Issues [2 of 3]Headache Causes: Caffeine and tobacco-withdrawal, doing too much in one day, lack of sleep, hunger, usually occur as the day goes by and worsens by day end. Associated with "low blood pressure", the headache can be quite severe and can also cause nausea before Iftar. Remedy: Cut down caffeine and tobacco ,slowly starting a week or two before Ramadan. Herbal and caffeine-free teas may be substituted. Reorganise your schedule during the Ramadan so as to have adequate sleep.Low Blood Sugar Weakness, dizziness, tiredness, poor concentration, perspiring easily, feeling shaky (tremor), unable to perform physical activities, headache, palpitations are symptoms of low blood sugar. Causes: in non-diabetics, taking too much sugar i.e. refined carbohydrates especially at suhur (sehri). The body produces too much insulin causing the blood glucose to drop. Remedy: Eat something at suhur and limit sugar-containing foods and drinks. Caution: Diabetics may need to adjust their medication in Ramadan, consult your doctor.Muscle Cramps Causes: Inadequate intake of calcium, magnesium and potassium foods. Remedy: Eat foods rich in the above minerals e.g. vegetables, fruit, dairy products, meat and dates. Caution: Those on high blood pressure medication and with kidney stone problems should consult their doctor.
Medical Issues [3 of 3]Peptic Ulcers, Heart Burn, Gastritis and Hiatus Hernia Increased acid levels in the empty stomach in Ramadan aggravate the above conditions. It presents as a burning feeling in the stomach area under the ribs and can extend up to the throat. Spicy foods, coffee, and carbonated drinks worsen these conditions. Medications are available to control acid levels in the stomach. People with proven peptic ulcers and hiatus hernia should consult their doctor well before Ramadan.Kidney Stones Kidney stones may occur in people who have less liquids to drink - Therefore, it is essential to drink extra liquids so as to prevent stone formationJoint Pains Causes: During Ramadan, when extra salah are performed the pressure on the knee joints increases. In the elderly and those with arthritis this may result in pain, stiffness, swelling and discomfort. Remedy: Lose weight so that the knees do not have to carry extra load. Exercise the lower limbs before Ramadan so that they can be prepared for the additional strain. Being physically fit allows greater fulfilment, thus enabling one to perform salah with ease.
Conclusion Healthy Muslims do not need to worry about becoming weak and feeble because of fasting On the contrary, fasting makes them healthier, stronger and gives them more endurance and self restraint training. Recitation of the Holy Quran brings about a sense of peace in the heart and mind. It also strengthens the memory Believers do not perform daily prayers or observe fasting because they are beneficial They try to please Allah and in return Allah (SWT) rewards them by providing them with a healthy and peaceful life, which is also a sign of pleasure and blessing of Allah (SWT)