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  • Motivation is the process that accounts for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward the attainment of a goal. Intensity is concerned with how hard a person tries. This is the element most of us focus on when we discuss the topic of motivation. However, unless effort is channeled in a direction that benefits the organization, high intensity is no guarantee of favorable job-performance outcomes. Quality of effort, therefore, is just as important as intensity of effort. Finally, persistence (how long a person can maintain effort) is important. A motivated person stays with a task long enough to achieve his or her goal.
  • Frederick Herzberg asked workers to describe situations in which they felt either good or bad about their jobs. His findings are called motivation-hygiene theory. Herzberg asserted that intrinsic factors are related to job satisfaction whereas extrinsic factors are associated with dissatisfaction. So, he called company policy, supervision, interpersonal relations, working conditions, and salary hygiene factors. When these factors are adequate, people will not be dissatisfied; however, they will not be satisfied either. He believed that achievement, recognition, the work itself, growth, and responsibility are motivational because people find them intrinsically rewarding.
  • David McClelland proposed that three learned needs motivate behavior. The need for achievement (nAch) is the need to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards, to succeed. The need for power (nPow) is the need to make others behave in ways in which they would not have behaved otherwise. The need for affiliation (nAff) is the desire for interpersonal relationships. He believed that these needs are acquired from the culture of a society.
  • Expectancy theory argues that an employee will be motivated to produce more when he or she believes that the effort will lead to a good performance appraisal; that a good appraisal will lead to organizational rewards; and that the rewards will satisfy the employee’s personal goals. This theory focuses on three relationships. 1. The effort-performance relationship is the probability perceived by the individual that exerting a given amount of effort will lead to performance. 2. The performance-rewards relationship is the degree to which an individual believes that performing at a particular level will lead to the attainment of a desired outcome. 3. The rewards-personal goals relationship is the degree to which the rewards of an organization satisfy an individual’s personal goals or needs and the attractiveness of those rewards.

    2. 2. INTRODUCTION TO MOTIVATION <ul><li>Definitions : </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation means a process of stimulating </li></ul><ul><li>people to action to accomplish the desired goal. </li></ul><ul><li>W.G Scot </li></ul><ul><li>2. Motivation is the act of stimulating someone or oneself to get a desired course of action to push the right button to get a desired results </li></ul><ul><li>Michael jucius </li></ul>
    3. 3. What Is Motivation? Persistence Intensity Direction
    4. 4. NEED WANT SATISFACTION CHAIN TENSION Give rise to WANTS NEEDS Which cause in Which Give rise to ACTIONS Satisfaction Which results in
    5. 5. CHARACTERISTICS / FEATURES OF MOTIVATION <ul><li>Psychological process </li></ul><ul><li>Initiative by manager </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous activity </li></ul><ul><li>Goal and action oriented. </li></ul><ul><li>Broad concept </li></ul><ul><li>Beneficial to employees and management </li></ul><ul><li>Varied measures available for motivation </li></ul>
    6. 6. NEEDS AND IMPORTANCE OF MOTIVATION <ul><li>Attending to human needs </li></ul><ul><li>Raising moral </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces absenteeism and labor turn over </li></ul><ul><li>Maintaining human relations </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulating employees </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces accidents </li></ul>
    7. 7. Methods of motivation <ul><li>1.Monetary(Financial) </li></ul><ul><li>Salaries and Wages </li></ul><ul><li>Bonus </li></ul><ul><li>Incentives </li></ul><ul><li>Special individual incentives </li></ul>
    8. 8. <ul><li>2. Non Monetary (Non Financial) </li></ul><ul><li>Status or Job title </li></ul><ul><li>Delegation of Authority </li></ul><ul><li>Working Conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Job Security </li></ul><ul><li>Job Enrichment </li></ul><ul><li>Worker Participation </li></ul>
    9. 9. <ul><li>Self </li></ul><ul><li>Esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Social </li></ul><ul><li>Safety </li></ul><ul><li>Physiological </li></ul>Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
    10. 10. Theory X and Theory Y <ul><li>Lazy </li></ul><ul><li>Routine </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid Responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Follower </li></ul><ul><li>Orthodox </li></ul><ul><li>Lower Level </li></ul><ul><li>Active </li></ul><ul><li>Challenging Job </li></ul><ul><li>Take Responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible </li></ul><ul><li>High Level </li></ul>
    11. 11. Hertzberg's Two-Factor Theory Hygiene Factors Motivational Factors <ul><li>Quality of supervision </li></ul><ul><li>Rate of pay </li></ul><ul><li>Company policies </li></ul><ul><li>Working conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Relations with others </li></ul><ul><li>Job security </li></ul><ul><li>Career Advancement </li></ul><ul><li>Personal growth </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Achievement </li></ul>High High Job Dissatisfaction Job Satisfaction 0
    12. 12. The Theory of Needs David McClelland Need for Achievement (nAch) Need for Power (nPow) Need for Affiliation (nAff)
    13. 13. Cognitive Evaluation Intrinsic Motivators Extrinsic Motivators
    14. 14. <ul><li>Specificity </li></ul><ul><li>Intention </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Participation </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult Goals </li></ul>Goal-Setting Theory
    15. 15. SELF EFFICACY THEORY <ul><li>Meaning : </li></ul><ul><li>Ability </li></ul>
    16. 16. JOINT EFFECTS OF GOALS AND SELF EFFICACY ON PERFORMANCE Individual has confidence that gives Level of performance will be attained Manager sets difficult Specific, goals for job or task Individual sets higher Personal (selfset) Goals for their performance Individual has higher level of job or task performance
    17. 17. Expectancy Theory Victor vroom’s Expectancy theory
    18. 18. Theory Focuses on 3 Relationships 3. Rewards-personal goals relationship 1. Effort-performance relationship 2. Performance-rewards relationship
    19. 19. Process Individual Performance Personal Goals Organizational Rewards 1 2 3 Individual Effort
    20. 20. Managerial Implications of Expectancy Theory <ul><li>Identify good performance so that appropriate behaviors can be rewarded. </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure employees can achieve targeted performance levels. </li></ul><ul><li>Link desired outcomes to targeted levels of performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure changes in outcomes are large enough to motivate high effort . </li></ul>
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