Leading Health Indicators Ten Major Public Health Issues <ul><li>Physical activity </li></ul><ul><li>Tobacco use </li></ul...
Key Objectives: <ul><li>Describe the current epidemic of obesity. </li></ul><ul><li>Define obesity and overweight. </li></...
Headlines
Chronic Disease Epidemic
 
Obesity  Trends  Among U.S. Adults between 1985 and 2003 <ul><li>In 1985 only a few states were providing  obesity data.  ...
Obesity Trends Among U.S. Adults 1985 No Data  <10%  10%–14%
Obesity Trends Among U.S. Adults 1986 No Data  <10%  10%–14%
Obesity Trends Among U.S. Adults 1987 No Data  <10%  10%–14%
Obesity Trends Among U.S. Adults 1988 No Data  <10%  10%–14%
Obesity Trends Among U.S. Adults 1989 No Data  <10%  10%–14%
Obesity Trends Among U.S. Adults 1990 No Data  <10%  10%–14%
Obesity Trends Among U.S. Adults 1991 No Data  <10%  10%–14%   15%–19%
Obesity Trends Among U.S. Adults 1992 No Data  <10%  10%–14%   15%–19%
Obesity Trends Among U.S. Adults 1993 No Data  <10%  10%–14%   15%–19%
Obesity Trends Among U.S. Adults 1994 No Data  <10%  10%–14%   15%–19%
Obesity Trends Among U.S. Adults 1995 No Data  <10%  10%–14%   15%–19%
Obesity Trends Among U.S. Adults 1996 No Data  <10%  10%–14%   15%–19%
Obesity Trends Among U.S. Adults 1997 No Data  <10%  10%–14%   15%–19%  ≥20
Obesity Trends Among U.S. Adults 1998 No Data  <10%  10%–14%   15%–19%  ≥20
Obesity Trends Among U.S. Adults 1999 No Data  <10%  10%–14%   15%–19%  ≥20
Obesity Trends Among U.S. Adults 2000 No Data  <10%  10%–14%   15%–19%  ≥20
Obesity Trends Among U.S. Adults 2001 No Data  <10%  10%–14%   15%–19%  20%–24%  ≥25%
Changes in Obesity Rates For the Traditional College Student age group: <ul><li>In 1991, for adults aged 18-29, 7.1% were ...
<ul><li>How do we define obesity? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>very high amount of body fat in relation to lean body mass, or Bod...
Low risk Moderate risk High risk Desirable Range for adults: 18.5-25 Grade I  Grade II  Grade III
Selected Health Consequences of Overweight and Obesity Table 9.2
ACSM Weight Loss Program Criteria: <ul><li>>1,200 calories per day for normal adults  </li></ul><ul><li>Includes foods acc...
ACSM Weight Loss Program Criteria (continued) <ul><li>Uses behavior modification techniques to identify and eliminate diet...
So Far: <ul><li>Prevalence of obesity. </li></ul><ul><li>Definition of overweight & obesity. </li></ul><ul><li>Associated ...
<ul><li>Dying prematurely  </li></ul><ul><li>Heart disease </li></ul><ul><li>Type II diabetes </li></ul><ul><li>Hypertensi...
<ul><li>Build and maintain healthy bones, muscles and joints </li></ul><ul><li>Promotes psychological well-being </li></ul...
The fitness components that have the greatest impact on health: cardiorespiratory fitness & body composition. Table 10.1
Cardiorespiratory endurance/fitness:   Ability of the circulatory & respiratory systems to supply O 2  during sustained ph...
<ul><li>Smoking in the U.S.:  </li></ul><ul><li>Tobacco use is the  single most preventable cause of death  in the United ...
 
<ul><li>Cancer – American Cancer Society estimates 85-90% of all cases of lung cancer are tobacco related </li></ul><ul><l...
<ul><li>Respiratory disorders – breathlessness, chronic bronchitis, emphysema  </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual disorders –male pe...
<ul><li>One third of smokers attempt to quit each year </li></ul><ul><li>90% of attempts to quit fail </li></ul><ul><li>Br...
 
When Smokers Quit Figure 13.4
Summary <ul><li>Major Health Challenges facing college students today: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Definition Overweight & obesi...
Methods to promote healthy decision-making by students <ul><li>Sessions will have a range of active learning methods, incl...
Example of Stages of Change <ul><li>Precontemplation  - student shows lack of interest in change.  Educate student. </li><...
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Leading Health Indicators

  1. 1. Leading Health Indicators Ten Major Public Health Issues <ul><li>Physical activity </li></ul><ul><li>Tobacco use </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible sexual behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Mental health </li></ul><ul><li>Access to health care </li></ul><ul><li>Overweight &obesity </li></ul><ul><li>Substance abuse </li></ul><ul><li>Injury & violence </li></ul><ul><li>Immunization </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental quality </li></ul>
  2. 2. Key Objectives: <ul><li>Describe the current epidemic of obesity. </li></ul><ul><li>Define obesity and overweight. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe health consequences of obesity. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe benefits of physical activity </li></ul><ul><li>Describe current rates of participation in physical activity. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the tobacco use & the adverse health affects. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Headlines
  4. 4. Chronic Disease Epidemic
  5. 6. Obesity Trends Among U.S. Adults between 1985 and 2003 <ul><li>In 1985 only a few states were providing obesity data. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1991, four states had obesity prevalence rates of 15-19 percent and no states had rates at or above 20 percent. </li></ul><ul><li>In 2003, 15 states had prevalence rates of 15-19 percent; 31 states had rates of 20-24 percent; and 4 states had rates more than 25 percent. </li></ul>
  6. 7. Obesity Trends Among U.S. Adults 1985 No Data <10% 10%–14%
  7. 8. Obesity Trends Among U.S. Adults 1986 No Data <10% 10%–14%
  8. 9. Obesity Trends Among U.S. Adults 1987 No Data <10% 10%–14%
  9. 10. Obesity Trends Among U.S. Adults 1988 No Data <10% 10%–14%
  10. 11. Obesity Trends Among U.S. Adults 1989 No Data <10% 10%–14%
  11. 12. Obesity Trends Among U.S. Adults 1990 No Data <10% 10%–14%
  12. 13. Obesity Trends Among U.S. Adults 1991 No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19%
  13. 14. Obesity Trends Among U.S. Adults 1992 No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19%
  14. 15. Obesity Trends Among U.S. Adults 1993 No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19%
  15. 16. Obesity Trends Among U.S. Adults 1994 No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19%
  16. 17. Obesity Trends Among U.S. Adults 1995 No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19%
  17. 18. Obesity Trends Among U.S. Adults 1996 No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19%
  18. 19. Obesity Trends Among U.S. Adults 1997 No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% ≥20
  19. 20. Obesity Trends Among U.S. Adults 1998 No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% ≥20
  20. 21. Obesity Trends Among U.S. Adults 1999 No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% ≥20
  21. 22. Obesity Trends Among U.S. Adults 2000 No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% ≥20
  22. 23. Obesity Trends Among U.S. Adults 2001 No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% ≥25%
  23. 24. Changes in Obesity Rates For the Traditional College Student age group: <ul><li>In 1991, for adults aged 18-29, 7.1% were obese. </li></ul><ul><li>In 2000, 13.5% were obese. </li></ul><ul><li>More than 60% of U.S. population is overweight or obese </li></ul><ul><li>Source: CDC Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System </li></ul>
  24. 25. <ul><li>How do we define obesity? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>very high amount of body fat in relation to lean body mass, or Body Mass Index (BMI) of 30 or higher. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Overweight? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BMI between 25.0 to 30.0 or a Body wt in excess of a reference standard such as a mean wt for a given ht & frame size grouped by gender. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is Body Mass Index? </li></ul><ul><li>Body Mass Index (BMI): a measure of an adult’s weight in relation to his or her height, specifically the adult’s weight in kilograms divided by the square of his or her height in meters. </li></ul>
  25. 26. Low risk Moderate risk High risk Desirable Range for adults: 18.5-25 Grade I Grade II Grade III
  26. 27. Selected Health Consequences of Overweight and Obesity Table 9.2
  27. 28. ACSM Weight Loss Program Criteria: <ul><li>>1,200 calories per day for normal adults </li></ul><ul><li>Includes foods acceptable to the dieter in terms of cultural or religious background, usual habits, taste, cost, and ease in acquisition and preparation (these foods should be low in total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, and sodium). </li></ul><ul><li>Negative caloric balance (not to exceed 500 to 1,000 calories per day), resulting in gradual weight loss. </li></ul><ul><li>Maximal weight loss of two to three pounds/week. </li></ul>
  28. 29. ACSM Weight Loss Program Criteria (continued) <ul><li>Uses behavior modification techniques to identify and eliminate diet habits that contribute to improper nutrition. </li></ul><ul><li>Includes an exercise program that promotes a daily caloric expenditure of more than 300 calories per day (for many people, this may be accomplished best with moderate intensity, long duration exercise, such as walking). </li></ul><ul><li>Provides that new eating and physical activity habits can be continued for life to maintain the achieved lower body weight. </li></ul>
  29. 30. So Far: <ul><li>Prevalence of obesity. </li></ul><ul><li>Definition of overweight & obesity. </li></ul><ul><li>Associated health problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Next: </li></ul><ul><li>Physical activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only 22% of U.S. adults engage in regular activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4 in10 adults never engage in any exercise, sports, or physically active hobbies (NCHS) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is physical activity? </li></ul><ul><li>Activity performed by the body that results in e - usage above resting </li></ul>
  30. 31. <ul><li>Dying prematurely </li></ul><ul><li>Heart disease </li></ul><ul><li>Type II diabetes </li></ul><ul><li>Hypertension </li></ul><ul><li>Colon cancer </li></ul><ul><li>Feelings of depression and anxiety </li></ul>Risks of Not Exercising
  31. 32. <ul><li>Build and maintain healthy bones, muscles and joints </li></ul><ul><li>Promotes psychological well-being </li></ul><ul><li>May reduce symptoms of depression & anxiety, & improve mood </li></ul><ul><li>Helps immune functioning </li></ul><ul><li>Helps prevent/reduce high blood pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Weight control </li></ul><ul><li>Improved cardiorespiratory fitness </li></ul>Health Benefits of Physical Activity?
  32. 33. The fitness components that have the greatest impact on health: cardiorespiratory fitness & body composition. Table 10.1
  33. 34. Cardiorespiratory endurance/fitness: Ability of the circulatory & respiratory systems to supply O 2 during sustained physical activity. Aerobic exercise improves cardiorespiratory fitness.
  34. 35. <ul><li>Smoking in the U.S.: </li></ul><ul><li>Tobacco use is the single most preventable cause of death in the United States </li></ul><ul><li>Each year, 444,000 die of tobacco related diseases </li></ul><ul><li>College Students and Smoking </li></ul><ul><li>Cigarette smoking among U.S. college students increased 32% between 1991 and 1999. </li></ul><ul><li>70% of students who smoke have tried to quit. </li></ul>Our Smoking Society
  35. 37. <ul><li>Cancer – American Cancer Society estimates 85-90% of all cases of lung cancer are tobacco related </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiovascular disease – smokers have a 70% higher death rate from heart disease than nonsmokers (smoking ages the arteries) </li></ul><ul><li>Stroke – smokers are twice as likely to suffer a stroke </li></ul>Health Hazards of Smoking
  36. 38. <ul><li>Respiratory disorders – breathlessness, chronic bronchitis, emphysema </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual disorders –male performance problems 2-4 times more likely in smokers verses non smokers </li></ul><ul><li>Other effects: gum disease; use of more medications </li></ul>Health Hazards of Smoking (continued)
  37. 39. <ul><li>One third of smokers attempt to quit each year </li></ul><ul><li>90% of attempts to quit fail </li></ul><ul><li>Breaking the nicotine addiction: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nicotine replacement products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pills, inhaler, gum, patches, nasal sprays </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Antismoking therapies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aversion therapy, operant strategies, self-control strategies, group support </li></ul></ul>“ To cease smoking is the easiest thing. I ought to know. I’ve done it a thousand times. “ - Mark Twain
  38. 41. When Smokers Quit Figure 13.4
  39. 42. Summary <ul><li>Major Health Challenges facing college students today: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Definition Overweight & obesity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Body Mass Index Healthy Range </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Key components of a weight loss program </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical Activity? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cardiorespitory fitness, Aerobic exercise </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Benefits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Health hazards of tobacco use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Benefits of quitting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Methods of quitting </li></ul></ul></ul>
  40. 43. Methods to promote healthy decision-making by students <ul><li>Sessions will have a range of active learning methods, including practical exercises, role-plays, debates, group problem-solving and presentations. </li></ul><ul><li>Dietary analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Fitness assessments </li></ul><ul><li>Health quackery project – consumer ed </li></ul><ul><li>Physical activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use stages of motivational readiness for change model with pedometers to educate students about the importance of daily physical activity. </li></ul></ul>
  41. 44. Example of Stages of Change <ul><li>Precontemplation - student shows lack of interest in change. Educate student. </li></ul><ul><li>Contemplation - thinking about change. Show them risks & benefits of not changing (e.g. starting an exercise program) </li></ul><ul><li>Preparation – student is doing some physical activity but not meeting recommendations. </li></ul><ul><li>Action – student is doing recommended amount of exercise but it’s < 6 mo.’s </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance – action maintained > 6 mo.’s </li></ul>
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