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A practical guide to building websites with HTML5 & CSS3
 

A practical guide to building websites with HTML5 & CSS3

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HTML5 & CSS3 - with an emphasis on using these technologies in your projects now.

HTML5 & CSS3 - with an emphasis on using these technologies in your projects now.

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A practical guide to building websites with HTML5 & CSS3 A practical guide to building websites with HTML5 & CSS3 Document Transcript

  • HTML5 CSS3 - Greetings. I’m a designer, nerd, htmler, csser. i’ve built many a wordpress site. - Wordpress is HTML and CSS from top to bottom. from wp-admin to themes & plugins. Wordpress3’s default theme twenty ten is HTML5—so I thought I’d show you how you can use it now in your sites right now! - covering a lot today so stop me if you have questions - I’m no expert, just a fanboy. Every day I learn something new about HTML5 and CSS3, so please use this opportunity to teach me a thing or two, too.
  • HTML5 CSS3 HTML5 New Elements Forms Semantics Javascript CSS3 Selectors Properties Fonts I’m not covering everything as there’s so much! My aim today is to show you the useful bits that I find myself using quite often.
  • HTML5 CSS3 New Elements Forms Semantics Javascript HTML5 New Elements Forms Semantics Javascript CSS3 Selectors Properties Fonts I’m not covering everything as there’s so much! My aim today is to show you the useful bits that I find myself using quite often.
  • HTML5 CSS3 New Elements Selectors Forms Properties Semantics Fonts Javascript HTML5 New Elements Forms Semantics Javascript CSS3 Selectors Properties Fonts I’m not covering everything as there’s so much! My aim today is to show you the useful bits that I find myself using quite often.
  • WHATWG TF? What is HTML5 - the next version of HTML - html started in 1991 by TBL - historically W3C is the governing body - distracted by XML and so began the XHTML movement - XHTML2.0 complete non-backward compatible rebuild, total disaster - in 2004 some disgruntled ex w3c people formed the Web Hypertext Application Technology Work Group WHATWG - w3c = democratic vote - WHATWG = final decisions where made by one guy Ian Hickson - lots of contributors but final decision made by Iain Hickson - but now everyone is playing nicely - W3C+WHATWG are combining their efforts
  • WHYTML5? - Built on a set of design principles, key one being “Support Existing Content” - Phrases like Don’t reinvent the wheel and Pave the cowpaths - if there’s a common way designers are doing something—even if it isn’t the best way—it should be put in the HTML5 standard. aka If it aint broke don’t fix it. - so html5 is built on existing standards and conventions - make your life easier - could mean your code could end looking a bit all over the place... - make your code good looking, semantic and accessible - as we move through you’ll realise why you should be using HTML5
  • You’re all familiar with this. I spent many an angered hour trying to convince people this is the way to go! Things have started to change. Huge advances in mobile technology has meant that we’re having to surf the web like it’s 1999 again. High speed internet hasn’t made it into our pockets. The number of bytes and server calls are actually a concern again - who wants to pwn your mobile data plans downloading characters and bytes...
  • That’s why this makes much more sense. It’s doing exactly the same thing as the previous example but is so much slimmer.
  • For me HTML5 is more about semantics, usability and accessibility than syntax. The smart HTML5 people have done some serious research into the way in which we write HTML and noticed hundreds of regularly trodden paths.
  • embedding audio and video on websites is way more common now thanks to increased bandwidth
  • Blogs are full of time based articles and sections.
  • The very layouts we create everyday contain headers, footers, navigation and sidebars.
  • And this is a high level view of how those semantics might pan out. I’ll dive into each of the main structural elements - with reference to what the spec says and show an example. This will be a quick-fire run through. but these slides are available online for further perusal.
  • <header> Typically used to group a set of h1–h6 elements to mark up a page’s title with its subtitle or tagline. May contain more than just the section’s headings and subheadings — e.g., version history information or publication date.
  • <header> <header>    <h1>Dontcom</h1>    <h2>The  home  of  Darren  Wood</h2> </header>
  • <nav> The nav element is a section containing links to other documents or to parts within the current document. Not all groups of links on a page need to be in a nav element — only primary navigation links. In particular, it is common for footers to have a list of links to various key parts of a site - you wont need the nav element - the footer element will suffice.
  • <nav> <nav>    <ul>      <li><a  href=”/”>Home</a></li>      <li><a  href=”/about”>About</a></li>      ...    </ul> </nav>
  • <aside> Content that is tangentially related to the content around the aside element - considered separate from that content. Such sections are often represented as sidebars in printed typography.
  • <aside> <aside>    <h2>Blogroll</h2>    <ul>      <li><a  href=”#”>Keith</a></li>      <li><a  href=”#”>Amber</a></li>      <li><a  href=”#”>Kim</a></li>    </ul> </aside>
  • <section> Represents a generic document or application section. A section is a thematic grouping of content, typically with a header, possibly with a footer. Examples: chapters in a book, various tabbed pages in a tabbed dialog box, a home page could be split into sections for an introduction, news items, contact information.
  • <section> <section>    <h1>Level  1</h1>    <section>        <h1>Level  2</h1>        <section>            <h1>Level  3</h1>        </section>    </section> </section>
  • <article> Forms an independent part of a document, page, or site. A forum post, a magazine or newspaper article, a Web log entry, a user-submitted comment, or any other independent item of content. Think of it as an item that can be syndicated via RSS or ATOM
  • <article> <article>    <header>        <h1>Blog  Post  Title</h1>        <h2>Sub  title</h2>    </header>    <p>Synergistically  optimize  flexible    communities  via  cross-­‐unit    information.  Objectively  impact    bricks-­‐and-­‐clicks  catalysts  for    change  rather  than  reliable.</p> </article>
  • <footer> Typically contains metadata about its enclosing section, such as who wrote it, links to related documents, copyright data, etc.
  • <footer> <footer>    <p>&copy;  Darren  Wood  2010</p> </footer>
  • <video> Represents a video or movie. Content may be nested inside the video element. User agents should not show this content to the user. Authors should use this content to force older browsers to use a legacy video plugin or to inform the user of how to access the video content.
  • <video> <video  controls  poster="poster.jpg"   width="320"  height="240">    <source  src="video.ogv"  />    <source  src="video.m4v"  />    <!-­‐-­‐  flash  embed  here  -­‐-­‐> </video>
  • <audio>
  • See Video
  • GOOD FORM
  • type= search email url tel range number date datetime datetime-­‐local time month color so far only webkit browsers and opera will support those types. But that’s OK, because other browsers will just default to type=”text”. So USE these fields.
  • placeholder=”enter  something  here” autofocus required autocomplete=”off”
  • SEMANTICS - new elements means less divs - richer meaning in documents - helps SEO - helps accessibility - extensibility (think XML—creating new tags, etc) - microformats
  • <a  href=”/about”>    <h1>About  Us</h1>    <h2>Learn  more  about  what  we  do</h2> </a> awesome a elements
  • JAVASCRIPT - HTML5 includes javascript stuff too - I’m no programmer so I’ll be brief - I haven’t used these things, I just saw them in a movie - what’s interesting to note is that IE has been supporting a lot of these things for quite some time. They did after all invent AJAX back in the IE5 days.
  • Drag & Drop dragover dragenter drop dataTransfer Drag & Drop HTML 5 DnD is based on Microsoft’s - Internet Explorer 5! - you can see this now with attachments in gmail
  • Canvas var  canvas  =  document.getElementById("c"),        context  =  canvas.getContext("2d"); context.fillRect(10,  20,  200,  100); Canvas - environment for creating dynamic images - drawing shapes - filing colours - gradients/patterns - all browsers except ie6, 7 &8. IE9 does support. // x = 10, y = 20, width = 200, height = 100
  • Geolocation navigator.geolocation.getCurrentPosition(); Geolocation - your browser is capable of knowing where you are - don’t ask me how. - google maps uses it.
  • Get Elements by Class Name document.getElementsByClassName('test') document.querySelectorAll('.testClass') getElementByClassName - IE9 - like the name suggests—top one returns a node list of elements with a class containing test - querySelectorAll() is similar to the way jquery selectors work.
  • Client/Web Storage localStorage Client Storage - Basically Cookies on crack. - Rather than a few bytes this can store megabytes. - uses an SQL like syntax for retrieval
  • Offline Application Cache <html  manifest=”/cache.manifest”> Offline Application Cache - Means your browser can access the cache without being online. - great for mobile apps - can trigger events when browser comes back online, etc
  • CSS3 And now time for some fun stuff. Javascript even bores programmers half to death! - show you all available css3 selectors; then show you some of the more useful ones - the new properties - media queries - fonts
  • SELECTORS everything you’re about to see works on all browsers (ie9)
  • many new selectors. a lot of them are quite similar to each other so I’m going to show you the one’s I’ve found most useful.
  • Substring matching attribute selector div[class^="nav"]  {  background:#ff0;  } div[class$="nav"]  {  background:#ff0;  } div[class*="nav"]  {  background:#ff0;  } Extends the attribute selector 1) Starts with NAV 2) Ends with NAV 3) Contains NAV
  • The :nth-child() pseudo-class p:nth-­‐child(3)  {  color:#f00;  } li:nth-­‐child(odd)  {  color:  #eee;  } li:nth-­‐child(3n+10)  {color:  #eee;  } The :nth-child() pseudo-class targets an element that has a certain number of siblings before it in the document tree. The arguments can be a number, a keyword, or a formula. 1) Matches third p element that is the 3rd child of it’s parent 2) Matches every first, third, fifth, etc li element 3) Contains NAV
  • The :last-child pseudo-class li:last-­‐child  {  border-­‐bottom:  0;  } The :last-child pseudo-class targets an element that is the last child of its parent element.
  • The :empty pseudo class p:empty  {  display:  none;  } Matches an element that contains no children (including text nodes). great for cleaning up potentially dodgy wysiwyg editor code
  • The :target pseudo class http://www.dontcom.com/about#contact p:target  {  background:  #ff9;  } Matches an element that is the target of the referring URL.
  • The ::selection pseudo class p::selected  {  background:  #ff9;  } Matches the portion of an element that is currently selected or highlighted by the user.
  • PROPERTIES This is where things get interesting
  • VENDOR PREFIXES A small note on vendor/browser prefixes: - browsers have adopted a method of including “cutting edge” CSS properties - “cutting edge” in this case means the CSS is still in draft with the W3C - means you can use them and thus help vendors test their specific implimentation of the CSS standard. - some debate whether this is good or bad. I’m on the fence. I use them and it doesn’t really bother me.
  • -­‐ms-­‐border-­‐radius: -­‐moz-­‐border-­‐radius: -­‐webkit-­‐border-­‐radius: -­‐khtml-­‐border-­‐radius: -­‐o-­‐border-­‐radius: Here they are - Microsoft - Mozilla - Webkit - Konquerer - Opera
  • Colour & Opacity opacity:  0.8; opacity:  1; background-­‐color:  rgba(153,0,0,0.5); background-­‐color:  hsla(0,100,60,0.5); Opacity sets the degree of opacity of the entire object. This affects all children. ie9 Use vendor prefixes for opacity RGBA HSLA can be used for any colour settings: border-color, color, background-color, etc ie9
  • Background & Borders background-­‐size:  200px  30px; sets the width and height of a background image pixels or percentage use vendor prefixes for Firefox IE9
  • Background & Borders Multiple Background Images background-­‐image:  url(img01.png)  no-­‐repeat,                                    url(img02.png)  no-­‐repeat; Finally! Multiple background images! You can position them using the usual background position methods IE9
  • Background & Borders Border Image border-­‐image:  url(border.png)  0  10  0  10  stretch; Allows you to create image borders. You position the image much like you would position a background image. Quite difficult to explain - but if you’ve used CSS sprites before it’s a similar concept.
  • Background & Borders Border Radius border-­‐radius:  10px; border-­‐top-­‐right-­‐radius:  10px; Yay! Rounder corners! Can set individual borders. vendor prefixes for webkit and mozilla ie 9
  • Background & Borders Box Shadow box-­‐shadow:  10px  10px  10px  #333 Drop shadows are go! horizontal offset vertical offset blur radius color vendor prefix for mozilla webkit ie9
  • Text Text Shadow text-­‐shadow:  10px  10px  10px  #333; Text shadow horizontal offset vertical offset blur radius color
  • Text Text Overflow text-­‐overflow:  ellipse; Allows you to set what happens when text overflows. The useful solution is to use an ellipse. Firefox nightlies
  • Text Text Overflow text-­‐overflow:  ellipse; Allows you to set what happens when text overflows. The useful solution is to use an ellipse. Firefox nightlies
  • CSS Transforms #skew  {  transform:skew(35deg);  } #scale  {  transform:scale(1,0.5);  } #rotate  {  transform:rotate(45deg);  } #rotate-­‐skew-­‐scale-­‐translate  {   transform:skew(30deg) scale(1.1,1.1) rotate(40deg) } change the angle/shape of objects. - skew - scalex scale y - rotate - all together USE VENDOR PREFIXES
  • CSS Animated Transforms img  {   position:absolute;   left:0;   transition:  opacity  1s  ease-­‐in-­‐out; } img:hover  {   opacity:0; }   change the angle/shape of objects. - skew - scalex scale y - rotate - all together USE VENDOR PREFIXES
  • EMBEDDING FONTS font face allows you to embed fonts. Licensing issues. Use a service like typekit.com. It’s cheap, deals with licensing and has a huge number of fonts.
  • Font Face @font-­‐face  {    font-­‐family:  'Titillium  Body';    src:  url('Titillium.eot');    src:  local('☺'),      url('Titillium.woff')  format('woff'),    url('Titillium.ttf')  format('truetype'),    url('Titillium.svg#webfont')  format('svg'); } This is the total cross browser implementation. the smily face prevents the browser from showing a flash of unstyled content EOT = Embedded Open Type for IE WOFF = Web Open Font Format - the standard - includes IE TTF = true type - all browsers
  • http://typekit.com/ http://www.fontsquirrel.com/ http://code.google.com/webfonts Typekit - subscription service - good number of fonts - deal with very good type foundries Fontsquirrel - lots of free for use fonts. - creates @font-face css for you - has all font formats Google - deal with typekit - small number of free fonts
  • MAKING IT WORK
  • Modernizr is a script you add to your site which enables you to use these new HTML5 features as well as a host of the new CSS3 stuff.
  • document.createElement('nav'); first thing it does is makes everything play nice in IE6,7,8 but creating all the new HTML5 elements.
  • based on your browser (this example is firefox 3.6) modernizr adds an array of classes to the HTML element which enables you to hook in via CSS
  • .multiplebgs  div  p  {    /*  properties  for  browsers  which    support  multiple  backgrounds  */ } .no-­‐multiplebgs  div  p  {    /*  properties  for  browsers  which    don’t  support  multiple  backgrounds  */ }
  • it also creates a moderniz javascript object which you can test against. This example is checking to see if your browser supports the new input type of date. If it doesn’t you can then provide a suitable fallback.
  • LINKS AND RESOURCES There are loads of websites what will help you generate cross browser CSS. Including the oldschool ie filters and vendor specific properties
  • http://mediaelementjs.com/ http://css3pie.com/ http://css3please.com/ http://www.html5test.com/ http://www.html5rocks.com http://html5doctor.com/ http://mediaelementjs.com/ HTML5 <video> and <audio> with H.264, FLV, WMV, or MP3 on any browser http://css3please.com/ - A collection of cross browser css properties and IE filters that will render CSS3 effects like dropshadows, etc http://css3pie.com/ - an IE HTC include which makes ie6-ie8 render css3 features: - border-radius, box-shadow, border-image, multiple background, rgba, gradients http://www.html5test.com/ - will tell you what your browser supports http://www.html5rocks.com - a great place to see examples of awesome html5 stuff http://html5doctor.com/ - THE resource for HTML5
  • THANKS! http://www.slideshare.net/darren131 http://www.dontcom.com @darren Thanks! Questions, etc...