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Texas expunction aka expungement allows for record destruction. Darren Chaker goes into detail about Texas record sealing and destruction, www.DarrenChaker.org, and it serves a legitimate purpose: ...

Texas expunction aka expungement allows for record destruction. Darren Chaker goes into detail about Texas record sealing and destruction, www.DarrenChaker.org, and it serves a legitimate purpose: deducting the stigma of being charged with a crime. Texas record sealing is available for sealing traffic tickets to felony cases.

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Darren Chaker Texas Expungement Darren Chaker Texas Expungement Document Transcript

  • COLLATERAL CONSEQUENCES OF CRIMINAL CONVICTIONS RANDY T. LEAVITT Law Office of Randy T. Leavitt 1301 Rio Grande Austin, Texas 78701 Office: 512/476-4475 Fax: 512/542-3372 randy@randyleavitt.com State Bar of Texas th 35 ANNUAL ADVANCED CRIMINAL LAW COURSE July 20-23, 2009 Dallas CHAPTER 11
  • RANDY T. LEAVITT Law Office of Randy T. Leavitt 1301 Rio Grande Street Austin, Texas 78701 Office: 512/476-4475 Fax: 512/542-3372 randy@randyleavitt.comEducation: B.S. in Education, Southwest Texas State University, 1977 J.D., Texas Tech University School of Law, 1980 Staff & Associate Editor, Texas Tech Law Review, 1978-80Licenses: State Bar of Texas, 1980 United States District Court, Western & Southern Districts of Texas United States Court of Appeals, Fifth CircuitProfessional Activities: Member: Texas Criminal Defense Lawyers Association-Board of Directors, 1993-99 Austin Criminal Defense Lawyers Association College of the State Bar of Texas Travis County Criminal Law & Procedure Section–Former President Texas Bar Foundation-Fellow State Bar of Texas Task Force on Habeas Counsel Training and Qualifications Austin Bar Association Past-Member: Texas District and County Attorneys Association Austin Young Lawyers Association Board of DirectorsPresentations and Publications: Course Director, Advanced Criminal Law Course 2008, San Antonio, Texas Numerous articles of continuing legal education presented at programs throughout the State of Texas including Defenses, Confessions, Pre-Trial Procedures, Exculpatory Evidence, DWI Field Sobriety Testing, and HGN, Cross Examination, Involuntary Manslaughter, Brady: To Tell or Not To Tell, for the State Bar of Texas, Texas District and County Attorneys Association, Austin Criminal Defense Attorneys Association, Texas Criminal Defense Lawyers Association, Texas Association of Counties and Travis County Bar. Fifth Circuit Survey, Criminal Law & Procedure, Texas Tech Law Review, Vol. X, No. 3, 1979 Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus, Voice for the Defense, Vol. 22, No. 9, 1993Honors and Certifications: Board Certified–Criminal Law, Texas Board of Legal Specialization, 1987 – 2009 Selected as a “Texas Super Lawyer” by Texas Monthly Magazine, 2003 – 2008 Mediator-qualified pursuant to § 154.052 Texas Civil Practice Remedies Code  
  • Collateral Consequences of Criminal Convictions Chapter 11 Preface  The originator of the material for this article is Pamela J. Lakatos, a criminal defense lawyer from Plano, CollinCounty, Texas. She wrote an article entitled “Ethical Pitfalls in the Practice of Law” and presented it to the DallasCounty Bar in January, 2007. We have taken Ms. Lakatos’ article, with her permission, and reorganized it somewhat,updated some areas and expanded others but by in large, it is her work-product. I am extremely appreciative andforever indebted to Ms. Lakatos for allowing us to use her article. I also want to thank Matt Harding, a second yearlaw student of the University of Texas Law School, who is currently serving as an intern in the Felony Trial Divisionof the Cook County State’s Attorney Office in Chicago, Illinois, for his tireless research and contributions to thisarticle. I could not have done it without him. Thank you Pamela and Matt. Randy T. Leavitt               
  • Collateral Consequences of Criminal Convictions Chapter 11 TABLE OF CONTENTSI. FINANCIAL CONSEQUENCES .............................................................................................................................. 1II. RESTRICTIONS ON RIGHTS AND PRIVILEGES ............................................................................................... 5III. INDIRECT CRIMINAL CONSEQUENCES.......................................................................................................... 9CONCLUSION............................................................................................................................................................. 10 i
  • Collateral Consequences of Criminal Convictions Chapter 11COLLATERAL CONSEQUENCES OF regulatory agencies, are virtually automatic. Felony convictions, and convictions for crimes of moralCRIMINAL CONVICTIONS turpitude, can lead to the automatic revocation of and ineligibility for a wide variety of federal and state A Texas woman pleads guilty to a misdemeanor licenses. In the past, one could enter a plea to deferredin 1969, successfully completes two years of probation, adjudication and be assured that the offense couldand the charge is dismissed. She subsequently operates never be used against the client. This has changed.a child-care facility, in full compliance with licensing Now deferreds are routinely reported and used as therules, until 1998; in that year, the Texas Department of basis of sentence enhancements and disqualificationsProtective and Regulatory Services amends the as to employment and immigration.licensing rule and attempts to revoke her license. Although the Attorney General’s Office declined 1. Texas Occupations Code § 53.021 allows licensingto address the merits of this particular case, its authorities to revoke, suspend, or deny licensure toconclusion was unequivocal: “The Texas Department anybody convicted of a felony or misdemeanor directlyof Protective and Regulatory Services may revoke the relating to the duties of the licensed occupation. As thelicense of a child-care facility operator who was opening case demonstrates, licensing bodies have wideconvicted of a criminal offense.” Tex. Atty. Gen. Op. latitude in this area, and even a very old conviction canJC-0130, 1999 WL 972571 (Tex.A.G.) be considered for licensure purposes. To illustrate the The idea that a 29-year-old misdemeanor potential impact of this provision, the following is aconviction could result in the loss of a person’s (non-exhaustive) list of Texas occupations for which alivelihood seems counter-intuitive, if not down-right license is required, taken fromdraconian. However, this example illustrates a reality http://www.acinet.org/acinet/licensedoccupations.that may be surprising to both lawyers and laymen • Athletic Traineralike: relatively old and minor criminal convictions can • Attorneylead to a wide variety of major and unexpected • Tax Professionalcollateral consequences. • Emergency Medical Technician When trying to discover all of the ramifications of • Pawnbrokera criminal conviction, one finds that it is not an easy • Stenographertask. The consequences are not laid out in one easy • Occupational Therapistlocatable statute but are scattered throughout various • Physical Therapistcodes and statutes of the state. Restrictions for • Massage Therapistconvictions range from constitutional provisions that“equal rights” do not apply to prohibitions against • Midwifeobtaining professional licenses or occupational permits • Underground Storage Tank Installerand to other unknown restrictions found in the various • Long Term Care Nurse’s Aidecodes of this state. • Nursing Facility Administrator Although there is substantial overlap, these • Opticianconsequences can be roughly divided into three broad • Polygraph Examinercategories: financial consequences, restrictions on • Respiratory Care Practitionerrights and privileges, and indirect criminal • Sanitarianconsequences. This paper attempts to identify and • Athletic Agentsummarize some of the most common consequences. • Teacher • BarberI. FINANCIAL CONSEQUENCES • Speech/Language Pathologist Criminal convictions can have serious and • Professional Counselorsometimes surprising indirect financial consequences • Professional Engineerfor the offender. These are of course in addition to • Hearing Instrument Fitterdirect fines imposed as part of a criminal sentence. • Fire Protection System ContractorPotential financial consequences include loss ofemployment, loss of government funding or assistance, • Securities Dealerand asset forfeiture. • Architect • Interior Designer A. Employment • Landscape Architect State and federal restrictions on certain • Chiropractorgovernment programs, contracts, and licenses can • Land Surveyorsignificantly impact the employability of ex-offenders. • Professional Medical PhysicistMany of these restrictions, even those imposed by • Orthotist/Prosthetist  1
  • Collateral Consequences of Criminal Convictions Chapter 11 • Private Investigator/Security Guard 2. Crimes of Moral Turpitude • Veterinarian In most instances, before a conviction can be used • Licensed Vocational Nurse (LVN) to deprive one of a particular right or privilege it must • Interpreter for the Deaf qualify as a felony or crime of moral turpitude. • Chemical Dependency Counselor Convictions for crimes of moral turpitude can affect a • Firefighter person’s ability to be licensed, obtain security clearances, and be employed. Moral turpitude is: • Law Enforcement Officer • Cosmetologist a. The quality of a crime involving grave • Pesticide Applicator infringement of the moral sentiment of the • Fish Farmer community as distinguished from statutory mala • Code Enforcement Officer prohibita; • Insurance Adjuster b. Conduct that is base, vile, or depraved; and • Insurance Agent c. Something that is inherently immoral or • Water Well Driller dishonest. See Ludwig v. State, 969 S.W.2d 22, 28 • Air Conditioning/Refrigeration (Tex.App. – Forth Worth 1998, pet. ref’d). Contractor • Auctioneer What follows is a list of crimes that have been defined • Boxing Promoter as being ones involving moral turpitude or those that • Child Care Administrator have not: • Funeral Director/Embalmer o Issuance of a bad check – not a crime of • Landscape Irrigator moral turpitude unless it was done • Optometrist with intent to defraud. Dallas County • Real Estate Broker Bail Bond Board v. Danny Mason, 773 S.W.2d 586 (Tex.App. – Dallas, • Real Estate Inspector 1989). Caveat: Even though this is not • Acupuncturist considered a crime of moral turpitude, • Dental Hygienist many employers will automatically • Dentist deny employment because this statute • Dietician is under the “Fraud” section of the • Marriage/Family Therapist Penal Code. • Perfusionist • Criminally negligent homicide is not a crime • Psychologist of moral turpitude. Arnold v. State, 36 S.W.3d • Physician 542, 546-547 (Tex.App. – Tyler 2000) • Registered Nurse (RN) • Prostitution involves moral turpitude. Holgin v. • Pharmacist State, 480 S.W.2d 405 (Tex.Crim..App. 1972) • Plumber • Theft is a crime of moral turpitude. Benshaw v. • Podiatric Physician State, 88 S.W.2d 495 (1935) • Certified Public Accountant • Driving While Intoxicated is not a crime of • Social Worker moral turpitude. Stephens v. State, 417 S.W.2d • County Librarian 286 (Tex.Crim.App. 1967) • Swindling involves moral turpitude. ShermanTexas laws on the subject are helpfully summarized in v. State, 62 S.W.2d 146 (1933)a booklet entitled “Statutory Restrictions on Convicted • Making a False Report is a crime of moralFelons in Texas,” published by The Friends of the turpitude. Lape v. State, 893 S.W.2d 949, 958State Law Library. The booklet can be obtained for (Tex.App. – Houston [14th Dist.] 1994, pet$10.00 from the State Law Library by calling (512) ref’d)463-1722. Relevant federal laws can be found at • Assault by a man against a woman is a crimeSusan M. Kuzma, Federal Statutes Imposing of moral turpitude. Hardeman v. State, 868Collateral Consequences Upon Conviction 10–11 S.W.2d 404, 405 (Tex.App. – Austin 1993,(2000), available at pet. dism’d)http://www.usdoj.gov.pardon/collateral_ • Indecent Exposure is a crime of moralconsequences.pdf . turpitude because “by his intent to sexually arouse either himself or another, acts upon motives of baseness, vileness, and depravity.” 2
  • Collateral Consequences of Criminal Convictions Chapter 11 Polk v. State, 865 S.W.2d 627 (Tex.App. – 1. Education Funding Fort Worth 1993) Several forms of educational funding are • Bigamy by a lawyer is a crime of moral unavailable to those convicted of certain offenses: turpitude, not by non-lawyer. Ruhe v. State Bar, 1994 Tex.App. Lexis 3948, 1994 WL a. Basic federal education grants are 649395 (Tex.App.—Dallas 1994) (unreported) unavailable to those who are incarcerated in • Misdemeanor marihuana possession is not federal or state penal institutions. see, The Violent crime of moral turpitude. Hernandez v. State, Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994, 976 S.W.2d 753, 756 (Tex.App. – Houston [1st Pub.L.No. 103-322, 20411, 108 Stat. 1796(1994). Dist.], pet denied, 980 S.W.2d 652 (Tex.Crim.App. 1998) b. Students who have been convicted of “any • Failure to Identify is a crime of moral offense under any Federal or State law turpitude. Lape v. State, 893 S.W.2d 949, 958 involving the possession or sale of a (Tex.App. – Houston [14th Dist.] 1994, pet. controlled substance” can become ref’d) temporarily or permanently ineligible for federal loans or grants, under the Drug Free • Unlawfully carrying weapon not crime of Student Loans Act of 1998, 20 USC 1091(r), moral turpitude. Thomas v. State, 482 S.W.2d 2002. That statute contains a table outlining 218, 219 (Tex.Crim.App. 1972) the length of ineligibility, ranging from a • Resisting arrest does not involve moral one-year period for a first possession offense turpitude. Williams v. State, 449 S.W.2d 264, to an indefinite period for a third possession, 265 (Tex.Crim.App. 1970) or second sale, offense. • Criminal Mischief does not involve moral turpitude. Gonzalez v. State, 648 S.W.2d 740, There are some limitations to these provisions, 742 (Tex.App. – Beaumont 1983, no pet.) however. • Criminal Trespass does not involve moral turpitude. Hutson v. State, 843 S.W.2d 106, i. Convictions that have been dismissed or 107 (Tex.App. – Texarkana 1992, no pet.) expunged, and juvenile court delinquency • Use of abusive language to police officer does findings, do not disqualify a candidate, per not involve moral turpitude. Hartford Accident 20 USC 1091(r) (2) (B). & Indem. Co. v. Williams, 516 S.W.2d 425, 428 (Tex.Civ.App. – Amarillo 1974, writ ref’d ii. The disqualification ends if the conviction is n.r.e.) reversed. • Delivery of a Simulated controlled substance is a crime of moral turpitude. United States v. iii. A student whose eligibility has been Ekpin, 214 F. Supp. 2d 707, 714-715 (U.S. suspended may resume eligibility before the Dist., 2002) end of the eligibility period if the student • A conviction for the misdemeanor offense of successfully completes a drug rehabilitation violation of a protective order will be program that is approved by the Secretary of considered a crime of moral turpitude when the Education and includes at least two underlying, uncharged offense is one of family unannounced drug tests. violence or the direct threat of family violence. Polk v. State, 865 S.W.2d 627, 630 (Tex App. c. State education funding can also be lost as a result – Fort Worth 1993) of criminal convictions. • Failure To Stop And Render Aid (sometimes) Tate v. State Bar of Texas, 920 S. W. 2d 727 1. Pursuant to Texas Education Code § (Tex. App. Houston [1st Dist.] 1996, writ 54.633, one who commits a felony or Class denied) A misdemeanor, or an offense under Chapter 481 of the Health and Safety CodeB. Loss of Funding and Assistance (the Texas Controlled Substances Act), A criminal conviction can result in the loss of forfeits a prepaid higher educationfunding in two main ways: ineligibility for or scholarship. This includes the offenses ofrevocation of education funding, and ineligibility for or possession of marijuana, possession orrevocation of federal assistance programs. delivery of drug paraphernalia, and falsification of drug test results. 3
  • Collateral Consequences of Criminal Convictions Chapter 11 2. One is not eligible to receive a TEXAS benefits for up to five years after grant or TEXAS II grant for two years after conviction, and second offenders completing a sentence for a felony or an for up to ten years; third offenders offense under Chapter 481 of the Health are permanently ineligible as a and Safety Code, per Education Code §§ mandatory sanction. 56.304 and 56.354. Moreover, Education Code §§ 56.305 and 56.355 render one ii. Under section (b), in the ineligible to continue to receive a TEXAS discretion of the court, individuals grant or a TEXAS II grant if already convicted of a first federal or state receiving one when convicted. This drug possession offense may be apparently would include Class B and C rendered ineligible for all federal misdemeanors under the Texas controlled benefits for up to one year, and Substance Act. second offenders for up to five years; and third offenders are 3. Many schools have adopted “zero mandatorily ineligible permanently. tolerance” policies which cover any type of Section (b) sanctions may be criminal offense, not only those offenses waived if a person declares himself that occur on campus or at sponsored an addict and undergoes treatment, activities. Thus, any criminal conviction or or is declared rehabilitated. deferred adjudication may be grounds for disciplinary action or loss of school d. Federal housing policies allow for the benefits. Most universities have exclusion of drug offenders from federally disciplinary codes that allow for denial of subsidized or funded housing, per 42 USC degrees and expulsion for violations of 1437(1)(b) (2002). In fact, drug related criminal statutes. See, Institutional Rules on activity alone may result in eviction from Student Services and Activities, Chapter II, public housing, even in the absence of a Student Discipline and Conduct, University conviction. Indeed, the existence of an of Texas (2008-09) illegal drug user in a household will cause the entire household to be evicted and barred2. Food Stamps and other Federally Funded from public housing under 42 USC 1437(d) Assistance Programs (1) (5). Narcotics convictions can result in the loss of For a thorough discussion of the effect of criminal federal assistance in four ways: convictions on federal benefits, see General Accounting Office, Report to Congressional a. Federal law imposes a lifetime ban on food Requesters, Drug Offenders: Various Factors May stamps and federally funded public assistance Limit the Impacts of Federal Laws That for drug felons unless a state elects Provide for Denial of Selected Benefits (September otherwise, under 21 USC 862a (2002). 2005). Texas does not opt out, and imposes the federal ban in its entirety. C. Asset Forfeiture b. Federal law imposes mandatory ineligibility Asset forfeiture is a possibility in both state and for federal health care benefits for those federal courts, especially in narcotics cases. Both civil convicted of distribution offenses under 42 and criminal forfeiture statutes vary widely by USC 1320a-7 (1999). There does not appear jurisdiction, but are often very broad, applying not just to be any exceptions. However, § 1320a-7(f) to cash and automobiles, but homes and businesses as and (g) provide for appeals and applications well. for early termination. c. Federal grant, licenses contracts, and other 1. Some jurisdictions attempt to seize the homes benefits are restricted as to drug offenders of sex offenders who commit offenses in their under 21 USC 862. houses on the basis that they are instrumentalities of crime. i. Section (a) provides that, in the discretion of the court, individual 2. In U. S. v. Bentancourt, 422 F.3d 240 (5th Cir. convicted of a first federal or state 2005), the defendant’s interest in a five million drug distribution offense may be dollar lottery win was forfeited because he rendered ineligible for all federal 4
  • Collateral Consequences of Criminal Convictions Chapter 11 could not show he made money except by A. Possession of Firearms dealing cocaine. Both state and federal law restrict the possession of firearms for certain convictions. For instance, Texas 3. DWI felons can have their vehicles forfeited, law prohibits a convicted felon from possessing a as can sex offenders who use their vehicles in firearm. § 46.04 Tex. Penal Code. Therefore, one that the commission of a sexual performance by a has been convicted of any felony, whether placed on child or criminal solicitation of a minor. See, community supervision or not, violates both state and e.g., City of New Brighton v. 2000 Ford federal law if he/she possess a firearm unless they have Excursion, 622 N.W.2d 364 (Minn.App. 2001) been discharged from probation with an order setting (upholding vehicle forfeiture for a DWI aside the conviction and releasing them from all offense). penalties and disabilities pursuant to art. 42.12 § 20 Tex. Code Crim. Proc. Although under these D. Surcharges circumstances it is clear they are not in violation of As of September 1, 2003 the Legislature passed state law it is not so settled under federal law.new legislation that imposes surcharges uponindividuals who have certain convictions and license 1. State Law: It is important to recognize the impactsuspensions. These charges apply only to offenses that that an order discharging a person from probationoccurred after September 1, 2003. This is covered by (community supervision) has on an individual’s rightthe Driver Responsibility Program as set out in Chapter to possess a firearm both from a federal and state708 of the Transportation Code. perspective. Pursuant to Art. 42.12 §.20 Tex. Code Surcharges for certain convictions: Each year the Crim. Proc., after a defendant has satisfactorilydepartment shall assess a surcharge on the license of completed one-third of the original communityeach person who during the preceding 36-month period supervision or two years, whichever is less, the courthas been finally convicted of an offense relating to the may reduce the term of community supervision andoperating of a motor vehicle while intoxicated. The discharge the defendant. If the court does so it may setamount of the surcharge under this section is $1,000 aside the verdict or permit the defendant to withdrawper year, except that the amount of the surcharge is: his plea, and shall dismiss the complaint, information$1,500 per year for a second or subsequent conviction or indictment, who shall thereafter be released from allwithin a 36-month period; and $2,000 for a first or penalties and disabilities. (There are two exceptionssubsequent conviction if it is shown on the trial of the not applicable to firearms). See. Art. 42.12 §offense that an analysis of a specimen of the person’s 20(a)(1)(2) Tex. Code Crim. Proc. Therefore, if ablood, breath, or urine showed an alcohol defendant receives an “early discharge order” pursuantconcentration level of 0.16 or more at the time the to art. 42.12 § 20, then he is not subject to theanalysis was performed. The surcharge is for three restrictions of §46.04(a) Tex. Penal Code – felon inyears only. A surcharge for conviction of driving while possession offense. On the other hand, if one onlylicense invalid or without financial responsibility shall completes probation and the court does not enter an art.be assessed at $250 per year. (includes Sections 42.10 §20 order, then it can be argued that the521.457, 601.191, or 601.371) defendant’s civil rights have not been restored and he is subject to both the federal and state restrictionsII. RESTRICTIONS ON RIGHTS AND regarding felons in possession of weapons. See PRIVILEGES Cuellar v. State, 70 S.W. 3d 815 (Tex. Crim. App. – Perhaps the most serious collateral consequence 2002)of a criminal conviction is the potential restriction of Also, 46.04(b) Tex. Penal Code makes it a class Avarious rights and privileges of the offender. Although misdemeanor for a person convicted of a misdemeanorthere are many such potential restrictions, this paper family violence assault (22.01 Tex. Penal Code) tofocuses on the following: restrictions on firearm possesses a firearm before the fifth anniversary of theownership; temporary or permanent loss of one’s later of: (1) the release from confinement or (2) thedriver’s license; loss of one’s passport; loss of certain date of discharge from probation. It is questionablecivil rights; loss of child custody; and mandatory sex whether an art. 42.12 § 20 Tex. Code Crim. Proc.offender registration. Notably absent from this list are discharge would be a defense to prosecution under thisimmigration consequences, which are beyond the section since the statute specifically prohibitsscope of this paper. For immigration consequences see possession until five years after release fromMarina Gureia Marmolejo’s article, Chapter 10, community supervision.Immigration and Deportation Issues for Criminal Additionally, a conviction will affect a person’sPractioners, Advanced Criminal Law 2009, ability to obtain a concealed handgun license. Tex.TexasBarCLE Gov. Code § 411.172 et seq. see, Tune v. Department of Public Safety, 23 S. W. 3d 358 (Tex.2000). 5
  • Collateral Consequences of Criminal Convictions Chapter 11 Texas law allows a convicted felon to possess a prohibits one from possessing, transporting etc.gun at his/her residence after five years has passed firearms. 524 U. S. 308, 118 S. Ct. 2007 141 L.since the release from confinement or community Ed. 2d 303 (1998). Such was the holding in a 5thsupervision, parole or mandatory supervision, Circuit case where the court upheld a convictionwhichever date is later. Tex. Penal Code 46.04 of a §922(g)(1) violation (felon in possession),However, Texas rules do not necessarily control wherein the defendant had successfully completedfederal laws. See U.S. v. Daugherty, 264 F3d 513 (5th his Texas probation but had not had hisCir. 2001). (.But see federal section 2.c. below). conviction set aside and had not received a full restoration of his rights under art. 42.12 § 20 Tex.2. Federal law: Federal restrictions may be even more Code Crim. Proc. See United States v. Daugherty,restrictive. 264 F. 3d 513 (5th Cir.-2001). Daugherty’s discharge order had merely recited that his a. Federal law bans the possession, shipping, probation term had expired and had been receiving, or transporting of a firearm or satisfactorily fulfilled and that he was discharged ammunition by one who is convicted of an offense from probation. Daugherty at 514 FN 1. Thus his with a maximum punishment of more than one conviction for being a felon in possession was year in prison. 18 USC 922(g) and (n). affirmed. Moreover, one cannot acquire firearms or ammunition while under indictment for such an B. Driver’s License Restrictions offense. A person is under indictment if they have Texas imposes a wide variety of suspensions been placed on deferred adjudication pursuant to upon final conviction for various offenses. Below art. 42.12(13) Tex. Code Crim. Proc. because their are numerous examples and periods of indictment is still technically pending. suspension: b. A defendant who has been convicted of a 1. Graffiti § 28.08 Tex. Penal Code-–discretionary misdemeanor crime of domestic violence is one year suspension for conviction or probation prohibited from possessing, shipping, receiving, Tex. Transp. Code § 521.320; or transporting a firearm. 18 USC 922(g)(9). 2. Racing § 545.420(a) Tex. Transp. Code- c. Interestingly, state law can affect federal mandatory one year suspension. If under 18 must restrictions: If a felon has had his civil rights perform 10 hours of community supervision and restored by the convicting jurisdiction, and the can have an occupational license only for felon is not expressly deprived of the right to attendance to school. § 521.350 Tex. Transp. possess a firearm elsewhere under state law, he Code. can legally possess a gun. In 1986 Congress enacted a statute that modified an earlier Supreme 3. Acquiring motor fuel without payment-theft, § Court decision, Dickerson v. New Banner 31.03 Tex. Penal Code-coupled with an Institute, Inc., 460 U.S. 103, 103 S. Ct. 986, 74 L. affirmative finding pursuant to art. 42.019 Tex Ed. 2d 845 (1983), that held that federal law Code Crim. Proc.-automatic 180 suspension first determined what constitutes a conviction for felon offense, 1 year for second offense. § 521.349 Tex. in possession purposes. The current statute now Transp. Code; reads “[w]hat constitutes a conviction of such a crime shall be determined in accordance with the 4. Furnishing alcohol to a minor § 106.06, law of the jurisdiction in which the proceeding Alcohol Beverage Code-automatic 180 day were held. Any conviction which has been suspension first offense, 1year second offense. § expunged, or set aside or for which a person has 521.351 ex. Transp. Code; been pardoned or has had his civil rights restored shall not be considered a conviction for purposes 5. Possession of fake driver’s license, allowing of this chapter, unless such pardon, expungement, another to use one’s driver’s license, possessing or restoration of civil rights provides that the more than one driver’s license, falsifying person may not ship, transport, possess, or receive information on an application for a driver’s firearms” 18 USC § 921 (a))20). See, e.g., United license, or use of a driver’s license to represent States v. Dupaquier, 74 F.3d 615, 617 (5th one is over 21 when they are not, § 521.451 and § Cir.1996). In Caron v. United States, the 521.453 Tex. Transp. Code-mandatory but Supreme Court held, however, that if a state law duration determined by the court, suspension for has any exception to the restoration of rights not less than 90 days nor more than 1 year. § regarding firearms, then the felony conviction 521.346 Tex. Transp. Code; 6
  • Collateral Consequences of Criminal Convictions Chapter 11 6. Fake license plate or Safety inspection of the offenses under the Alcoholic Beverage certificate, § 502.409 (a)(4) and § 548.603(a)(1) Code will result in suspensions for minors. Tex. Transp. Code,-automatic 180 days suspension. § 521.4366 Tex. Transp. Code; 13. Multiple traffic violation can result in suspension, § 521.292 and 37 Tex. Admin. Code § 7. Criminally negligent homicide (with a motor 15.82; vehicle) § 19.05, Evading arrest or detention § 38.04, Intoxication assault § 49.07, DWI with a 14. Offenses involving commercial driver’s child passenger § 49.045, Intoxication license see § 522.081 Tex. Transp. Code and 37 manslaughter § 49.08 Tex. Penal Code, and any Tex. Admin. Code § 15.82; state jail felony with a motor vehicle offense involving personal injury or death-automatic one 15. Certain Sex Offenses, § 521.348-if required year suspension. § 521.341 Tex. Transp. Code; to register pursuant to Chapter 62 Tex. Code Crim. Proc. and they fail to apply for a renewal as 8. Tampering with a government record-motor required by art. 62.060 Tex. Code Crim. Proc. vehicle registration or license plate § 37.10 Tex. their license is revoked until at such time as they Penal Code-automatic two year suspension. § come into compliance. 521.3466 Tex. Transp. Code; Despite its length, this list is necessarily incomplete. 9 . DWI (minor under 21) § 49.04 Tex. Penal For a comprehensive list of suspensions see Ken Code-automatic 1 year suspension § 521.344 Tex. Anderson & John Bradley, Texas Sentencing §9(b), Transp. Code. However, compare art. 42.12 § Fourth Edition, LEXIS Law Pub. 13(n)(1)Tex. Code Crim. Proc.-90 days up to one year if set by the court. Note: DPS will C. Loss of Passport Privileges automatically suspend for one year, unless the The federal government retains broad discretion in defendant is required not to operate a motor denying and revoking the passports of convicted vehicle unless it is equipped with an ignition offenders. interlock device; § 521.342 Tex. Transp. Code; 1. An offender may not receive a passport if he 10. Purchase or attempt to purchase, possession crossed an international boundary or used the passport or consumption of alcohol by a minor § 106.071 in committing the offense, per 22 USC 2714(a)(1), Alcohol Beverage Code-automatic 30 days (b)(1) (2000). suspension first offense, 60 days second offense and180 days third offense. A prior order of 2. An issued passport may be revoked, even for deferred disposition is considered a conviction for misdemeanor drug offenses, if the government finds enhancement purposes. § 106.071(f)(2); that the offense should give rise to such However, a deferred disposition on the first disqualification, per 22 USC 2714 (b) (2) (2000). offense does not require suspension. D. Civil Rights and Privileges 11. Drug offenses under the Texas Controlled Substance Act-automatic 180 days minimum Criminal convictions can result in the loss of suspension and must complete a drug education several civil rights under Texas law. program before the suspension is lifted. §521.372 Tex. Trans. Code. For offenders under the age of 1. Voting 21, the period of suspension ranges from 180 days A convicted felon may not vote in a public to 1 year and the court determines whether a drug election. A conviction is considered final whether the education program will be required. § 521.342 sentence is imposed or suspended, as long as it is not Tex. Transp. Code; on appeal. Tex. Election Code § 11.002(4). §11.002(4)(A) and (B) state that this ineligibility lasts 12. A minor’s license can be suspended on until the offender has been pardoned, or has “fully receipt by the Texas Department of Public Safety discharged the persons sentence, including any term of of an order to suspend issued by a juvenile court incarceration, parole, or supervision, or completed a under § 54.042 of the Texas Family Code or a period of probation ordered by any court.” court under § 106.115 of the Alcoholic Beverage Code. Finally, a juvenile held in contempt of 2. Public Office court can also lose his license. § 521.3451 Tex. A defendant convicted of a felony may not run Transp. Code . Additionally, convictions for most for, or be appointed to, public elective office in Texas. 7
  • Collateral Consequences of Criminal Convictions Chapter 11Probation counts as conviction. The offender is barred his community supervision has expired. Tex. Occ.for life unless pardoned “or otherwise released from Code §1701.312(b), 1702.371. These time-limitedthe resulting disabilities.” See Texas Election Code § restrictions are not the only limitations. For the rest of141.001(4). his life he cannot be a bail bond surety or a peace officer… and cannot obtain a license to carry a3. Jury Service concealed handgun (citations omitted). He may be A person convicted of, or currently charged with a denied a license as a speech pathologist or audiologist.misdemeanor theft or any felony may not serve on a (citations omitted) Further, … he still must register aspetit jury. This also applies to one who is serving a sex offender for the rest of his life, if he hasdeferred adjudication. § 62.102(7) Tex. Gov’t. Code committed a sex offense.”and art. 35.15 Tex. Code of Crim. Proc.. These samerestrictions apply to service on a grand jury. Tex. Code E. Divorce and Child Custodyof Crim. Proc. art. 19.08. see, Hoffman v. State, 922 Convictions of family violence, including bothS.W.2d 663 (Tex. App. Waco 1996, pet. ref’d) and physical and sexual abuse, can have seriousVolkswagen of America, Inc. v. Ramirez, 79 S.W.3d consequences in regard to divorce and child custody113 (Tex. App.- Corpus Christi 2002) (reversed on issues. “Family violence” is a term of art, defined byother grounds) suggest that Code of Crim. Proc. Texas Family Code § 71.004.§42.12(5)(c), removes this ineligibility. However,Dempsey v. Beaumont Hosp., Inc., 38 S.W.3d 287 1. If the court is considering sole or joint(Tex. App. -Beaumont 2001) and R.R.E. v. Glenn, 884 conservatorship, and there is evidence of abusiveS.W.2d 189 (Tex. App.- Fort Worth 1994) take the physical force by a party against the party’s spouse;view that only an executive pardon can remove the child’s parent; or any person younger than 18 years ofineligibility. age, and it was within a 2 year period before the suit was filed or during its pendency, then the court shall4. Ramifications of early discharge consider the evidence, per Texas Family Code § Once a person has been convicted of a felony in 153.004(a).Texas numerous restrictions apply to that individualeven after successful completion of community 2. If there is evidence of a history or pattern ofsupervision, sometimes for life. Professors Dix and physical or sexual abuse by one parent directed atDawson have recognized that the consequences of a another parent, a spouse, or a child, then the court maydismissal of a charge pursuant to art. 42.12 § 20 Tex. not appoint joint managing conservatorship, per TexasCode Crim. Proc. (early discharge) are quite limited. Family Code § 153.004(b). Likewise, the court mayThey explain “that §20 operates to restore civil rights- not appoint joint managing conservators (JMCs) if oneto vote, serve on juries, and hold public office-that parent became pregnant due to a sexual assault by thewere lost by the conviction or accusation of crime. other parent, regardless of the prior relationship of theHowever, the dismissal is not an expunction and does parents, under TFC § 153.004(b).not preclude other collateral consequences of acriminal conviction.” George E. Dix and Robert O. 3. If the court is considering access to a child and itDawson, Texas Practice: Criminal Practice and has been shown by a preponderance of the evidenceProcedures § 40.136 (2d ed. 2001) that there is a history or pattern of family violence In a dissent in Cuellar v. State, 70 S.W.3d 815, during the two years preceding the date of filing the834, (Tex. Crim. App.-2002), Judge Keasler lawsuit, then the court may not allow a parent to havesummarizes the lingering impacts a successfully access to the child unless the court finds that: accesscompleted probation has on an individual, would not endanger the child’s physical health or“[s]ignificantly, regardless of the language of § 20 emotional welfare and would be in the best interest ofremoving all penalties and disabilities, there are a the child; and the court renders a possession order tonumber of statutes that impose various restrictions on a protect the safety and well-being of the child and anyperson who has successfully completed his community other person who has been the victim of familysupervision. Specifically, this person still cannot violence committed by the parent, per TFC §change his name until two years after his community 153.004(d).supervision has expired, Tex. Family Code § 45.103,cannot practice law until after five years…Tex. R. 4. A finding of a history of family violence removesGovern. Bar Adm’n IV, Rule IV(d)(2), cannot work at the rebuttable presumption that the appointment ofa bingo establishment until ten years after…Tex. Occ. parents as JMCs is in the best interest of the child, perCode 2001.105(a)(6), cannot obtain a lottery license TFC § 153.131.until ten years…Tex. Gov’t Code § 466.155(a)(1)(A),and cannot be a corrections officer until ten years after 8
  • Collateral Consequences of Criminal Convictions Chapter 115. If a conservator has been convicted of, or placed include a requirement that the probationer not consumeon deferred adjudication for, indecency with a child, alcohol during the period of probation, that one attendsexual assault, or aggravated sexual assault, then this is drug or alcohol treatment programs, performa material and substantial change of circumstances community service, or attend any programs that thesufficient to justify a temporary order and modification court deems appropriate. They may also, however,of an existing order regarding conservatorship or include a prohibition against using a computer orpossession and access to a child, per TFC § 156.104(a). accessing the internet for the period of probation. See Tex. Code Crim. Pro. Art. 42.12 § 11(a); United States6. A party may obtain a protective order if there are v. Crandon, 173 F.3d 122 (3d Cir. 1999).facts and circumstances of family violence, per TFC §§ One extreme example of a condition of probation82.009, 83.001(a) and (b), 85.001(a)(2), and 85.001(b) was discussed in Bennett v. State, 665 S.E.2d 365 (Ga.and (c). App. 2008). In Bennett, the court indicated that until Georgia law was changed in 2006, “a defendantF. Sex Offender Registration convicted of aggravated child molestation [could be State and federal law both impose significant ordered] to undergo chemical castration as a specialrestrictions and requirements on sex offenders. condition of probation.” Bennett, 665 S.E.2d at 386. Similarly, a Louisiana case holds that certain offenders1. People convicted of certain sexual offenses may are not eligible for probation or parole “unless certainbe required to register, per Texas Code of Criminal conditions, such as sterilization, are imposed . . . .”Procedure art. 62. State v. Dagenhart, 908 So.2d 1237, 1242 (La. App. 2d Cir. 2005). A local Texas judge recently ordered a2. The Adam Walsh Act (42 USCS § 16901) states, probationer not to procreate during her term ofamong other things, that anyone who must register as a community supervision. Fortuitously, the probationersex offender gives up any right of electronic privacy, was pregnant at the time of her sentencing!requiring them to make their “computer, other 2. There are some limitations on the conditions a courtelectronic communication or data storage devices or may impose, however: A Texas case holds that courtsmedia” available to police examination without a have the power to “impose conditions of probationwarrant at any time. It also creates a national sex which are reasonably related to the treatment of theoffender registry to be run by the FBI, with “relevant probationer and the protection of the general public.”information” on each person. It funds a series of pilot Fielder v. State, 811 S.W.2d 131, 134 n.2programs, lasting up to three years, to tag sex offenders (Tex.Crim.App. 1991). By contrast:with tracking devices that would let them be monitoredin real time. The devices include a GPS downlink (to To be found invalid, a condition ofprovide exact coordinates), a cellular uplink (to community supervision must: (1) havetransmit the coordinates to the police), and two-way no relationship to the crime; (2) relatevoice communications. Additionally, the duty to to conduct that is not in itself criminal;register is imposed for life for most sex offenses. and (3) forbid or require conduct that is not reasonably related to the future3. Recently, Texas Governor Rick Perry vetoed a criminality of the defendant or doesHouse Bill that would allow those convicted of not serve the statutory ends ofindecency with a child for “Romeo and Juliet” type probation.cases to petition for exemption from the state sexoffender registry. For more information, see Belt v. State, 127 S.W.2d 277, 281 (Tex. App.http://governor.state.tx.us/news/veto/12604/. – Fort Worth 2004).III. INDIRECT CRIMINAL CONSEQUENCES In Texas, however, it is important to note that a Two major indirect criminal consequences of defendant “must complain at trial to conditions heconvictions are conditions attached to probation and finds objectionable” in order to preserve the error onenhanced punishment for subsequent offenses. appeal. Speth v. State, 6 S.W.3d 530, 534 (Tex.Crim.App. 1999).A. Conditions of Probation1. Courts have broad power to impose conditions upon B. Punishment Enhancementprobationers. A court may impose any condition of A criminal conviction can have a serious impactprobation that is reasonable and designed to protect or on an offender’s punishment, both for the currentrestore the community, protect or restore the victim, or offense and for future offenses. Unsurprisingly, thepunish, rehabilitate, or reform the probationer. Every circumstances and features of a criminal act cancriminal practitioner knows that conditions may profoundly affect the offender’s punishment for that 9
  • Collateral Consequences of Criminal Convictions Chapter 11act; what is surprising is the extent to which this is • Note, however, that United States v. Booker, 543true: U.S. 220 (2005) made the federal sentencing 1, Current offense guidelines advisory rather than mandatory. Subsequent cases have made clear that federal a. Allegations that the offense occurred in a judges must place the offender and the offense on drug free zone can result in a significantly the sentencing guideline grid, but then have increased sentence, and this sentence may not be discretion to deviate from the guidelines (in either run concurrently with punishment for a conviction direction) as much as they deem appropriate. under any other criminal statute. See Texas Health and Safety Code § 481.134. These results may not seem especially surprising or unjust, but they do illustrate the serious consequences b. Defendants convicted of certain offenses of criminal convictions. (including felonies in which a deadly weapon was used or displayed) are not eligible for mandatory CONCLUSION supervision (parole), per Tex. Gov. Code § Criminal convictions carry with them a wide 508.149. range of serious collateral consequences, including indirect legal ramifications; financial penalties; and 2. Provisions such as these can add years of actual loss of rights and privileges. Although some of these jail time spent in prison. There are two ways in consequences are common and intuitive, many are which prior criminal convictions can affect future quite surprising. As noted earlier in this paper, punishment: offenders are often not informed of the full range of potential consequences of their convictions and, a. When faced with a range of punishments indeed, their imposition is often at the government’s for a given offense, a judge may consider an discretion. This lack of information, combined with offender’s past criminal acts when deciding the uneven enforcement, means that most criminal severity of his sentence. This is true even if the defendants and many lawyers do not have a realistic offender was not convicted of the past criminal and comprehensive idea of the consequences of a act, provided the judge finds sufficient evidence potential conviction. Therefore, a significant duty to believe that he is guilty. TEX. CODE CRIM. PRO. should be imposed upon lawyers to inform clients art. 37.07 § 3(a)(1). about the myriad possible consequences, direct and indirect, of a criminal conviction. b. Some statutory schemes allow increased punishment or create entirely new offenses for repeat offenders. c. A conviction, deferred adjudication, or successfully-completed probation for misdemeanor assault family violence can be used to enhance a subsequent family violence offense to a third degree felony. TEX. PEN. CODE §22.01(b)(2). d. A previous sexual assault can be used to enhance a subsequent sexual assault so that the punishment is a mandatory life sentence. TEX. PEN. CODE §12.42.A state conviction can sometimes subject a defendantto a federal sentence, and the sentences may be stackedwith respect to both state and federal time. In the federal system, the existence of a prior stateor federal conviction may subject a client to a newfederal offense for which he may otherwise have beenineligible, or may escalate the sentence faced in federalcourt for subsequent charges under the federalsentencing guidelines. See U.S.S.G. Section 4A1.1(Criminal History Category). 10