Beatrice - 1,2Miguel - 3,4Darrel - 5,6Chapter 1 What Is Personality◆ The Person & The Situation • Both the person and the situation contribute to behavior - there are typical behavioral response patterns to situations - The Main Question: What makes an individuals behavior different from another?◆ Six Approaches To Personality (reference #s in text) • Psychoanalytical Approach (1) - founded by Freud - unconscious mind is responsible for important differences in behavior • Trait Approach (2) - identifies where a person lies along a continuum of various personality characteristics todifferentiate • Biological Approach (3) - behavior is different by inherited predispositions and processes • Humanistic Approach (4) - personal responsibility and feelings of self-acceptance are causes of differnces • Behavioral/Social Learning Approach (5) - B.F. Skinner - conditioning and expectations create differences • Cognitive Approach (6) - difference in the way people process information cause differences in behavior◆ Example of Behavior - Aggression - And the Perspective of the Approaches • (1): unconscious desire to self destruct; unconsciously turned in outward expression; blockedfrom reaching goals. • (2): individual differences and stability of aggressive behavior; ie- child aggressiveness likely tobecome aggressive adults • (3): born with aggressive tendencies; ie- men are more aggressive then women • (4): inherently born good, but their environment shapes them to be aggressive • (5): learn to be aggressive through role models, TV, etc.... • (6): some people are more likely to interpret ambiguous situations as threatening◆ Example of Behavior - Depression - " " • (1): depression is anger expressed/turned inward • (2): predicting behavior by identifying individuals prone to depression • (3): depression is inherited • (4): caused by under-developed self-esteem and no self-acceptance • (5): caused by a lack of positive reinforces and exposure to uncontrollable events making onefeel helpless which in turn, one projects these feelings of helplessness generally to other situations. • (6): how people interpret their inability to control events; interpret incoming information with adepressive filter on.◆ Personality and Culture • People and their personality exist within a cultural context • Individualistic Cultures: western countries; emphasis on individual needs and accomplishments;people view themselves as independent and unique. • Collectivist Cultures: focus on cooperation; belonging to a larger group - family, tribe, nation
• Behavior study in personality have different meanings in different cultures.◆ Theory, Application, Assessment, and Research • Theory - And Approach Perspective - explains the mechanism and how the mechanism is responsible for creating individual behavior - Genetic Vs. Environmental Influences • To what extent are our behaviors inherited or shaped by our environment? a) (1): emphasize innate needs and behavior patterns; unconscious - somewhat Genetic b) (2)&(3): importance of inherited perdispositions - Genetic c) (4),(5),&(6): less likely to emphasize inherited influences - leans toward Enviro. - Conscious Vs. Unconscious • To what extent are we aware? a) (1): unconscious b) (2)&(6): no extreme position but rely heavily on self-reported data (meaning moreconscious) c) (4): middle ground, no extreme position d) (5): people assume they understand and are conscious but really dont understand. - Free Will Vs. Determinism • extent of decisions or outside forces? a) (1): emphasize innate needs, unconscious, outside our controll b) (2)&(3): genetic predisposition tends to limit development c) (4): we have personal choice; take responsibility d) (5): no choosing, direct result of environmental stimuli e) (6): people must recognize how they cause their own problems • Application - psychotherapy • Assessment - people self-report then data is interpreted by psychologist - observing behavior and reporting • Research - Chapter 2.Chapter 2 Research Methods◆ Hypothesis-Testing Approach • Based on previous theory and research, one generates a hypothesis and uses experimentalmethods to collect data and prove hypothesis. Usually with large numbers of participants. • Theory & Hypothesis - Theory: general statement about a relationship between constructs or events a) law of parsimony: simplest theory best explains b) usefulness: theory must be able to generate a testable hypothesis c) a theory is never tested - Hypothesis: formal prediction about a relationship between 2 or more variables logicallyderived from a theory • Experimental Variables - Independent Variable: how groups in experiments are divided; often manipulated byexperimenter. (aka. Treatment Variable) - Dependent Variable: measured and used to compare groups. (aka. Outcome Variable) a) differences in independent variable causes or correlates a change in the dependent variable • Manipulated Vs. Non-Manipulated Independent Variables
- Manipulated: randomly assigned participants to an experimental group will average out otherdifferences; then, introduce independent variable (ie- drugs: one group gets them, other doesnt) - Non-Manipulated (Subject Variable): without researchers intention (ie- male or female)participants determine which group they belong to; cancels the averaged out differences so its difficultto determine cause-and-effect relationships. a) allows researchers to study differences between interesting topics(ie- men and women /introverts and extroverts) • Prediction Vs. Hindsight - Prediction is important because a predicted hypothesis proven or disproved has scientificvalue; whereas, if a scientist does an experiment without a predicted hypothesis, he can argue theoutcome in either direction giving it no scientific value. • Replication - one study may find statistical significance, but to be commonly accepted by the psychologicalcommunity, the experiment must be re-done. to eliminate any special circumstance and to make surethe findings either apply to a small particular group, or a larger population. - downfall to replication: File Drawer Effect - when a replication fails to find significant effects,the researcher says something went wrong and the research is filed away so some may not realize thatproblems exist within the experiment.◆ Case Study Method (qualitative) • In depth study of at least one individual. • Semi-structured interview on a personal level that is taped; in a location that is comfortable forthe subject. • Researcher will describe their impressions of the behavior rather then report stats. • The tape is the transcribed to a Coding Document: placing the subject in a category; ie- level oftrauma • Strengths - detailed analysis that other methods dont allow for - generating a hypothesis a) "high mundane realism" > studying what you actually want - studying rare cases - illustrating a treatment - demonstrating possibilities a) ie- easily hypnotized people can form blisters on their skin when imagining its on fire • Weaknesses/Limitations - generalizing from a single individual to other people - cant determine cause&effect; just correlation - investigators subjective judgments interfere with scientific objectivity - no control over independent variables - relying on recalled memories which can be shaped by current emotions a) "retrospective bias" ; "retrospective distortion"◆ Statistical Analysis of Data • Statistical Significance - telling if different group averages on dependent variables represent real effects a) Analysis of Variance b) Chi-Square Test c) Correlation Coefficient - Statistical significance
a) if two averages differed by a small amount that could be chance > no stat. significance b) if two averages differed by a large amount, not likely caused by chance, and reflects a truedifference > stat. significance • Stats tell us the probability of the difference being caused by chance • Significance level is 0.5 - means that the difference is so large that it occurs less than 5% of the time by chance◆ Correlation Coefficient • Statistical test to understand the relationship between two measures. - data is reduced to one number ranging from 1.00 to -1.00 a) the closer to 1.00 or -1.00 the stronger the relationship • Positive Correlation: high score on one measure indicates a higher score on other measure • Negative correlation: high score on one measure indicates a lower score on other measure◆ Personality Assessment (survey method) - (quantitative) • questionnaire with exact questions • Strengths - many people participate giving a lot of information - leads to better statistics - allows for anonymity, assumed more truthful • Weaknesses - same weaknesses as case study - wording of question and response options; bias - subject bias because of "social desirability norm" - certain people will agree to take or send back the questionnaire. • Reliability - how consistently the test measures over time a) test-restest reliability coefficient - internal consistenty a) when all items on the test measure the same thing b) internal consistency coefficient • Validity - extent to which a test measures what it is designed to measure a) how well is validity demonstrated? - Hypothetical Construct: describe concepts that have no physical reality; ie- intelligence,masculinity, social anxiety • Construct Validity - demonstrates that a test accurately gauges the personality dimension being measured • Face Validity - the test obivously and straightforwardly measures a contruct • Congruent Validity - extent to which test scores correlate to other methods of measuring the same construct • Discriminant Validity - extent to which test scores dont correlate to scores of theoretically unrelated constructs • Behavioral Validation - test scores should be able to predict relevant behaviorChapter 3 The Psychoanalytic Approach 1. Freud Discovers the Unconscious
a. Sigmund Freud - Neurologist back in the early 1900s b. Joseph Breuer, a physician, and Jean-Martin Charcot, a neurologist, were both hypnosis to treat hysterical patients i. Hysteria is a disorder that consists of a variety of physical symptoms such as blindness, deafness, and inability to walk or use an arm, etc. a. One of Breuers patients, Anna O., had hysteria, inability to move left arm, and she could only speak English when her native toungue was German i. After several sessions of hypnosis, she was able to move her left arm and was able to speak German again. a. Freud began to get disillusioned with hypnosis and looked for alternative methods, he wanted patients to be able to say whatever was in their mind i. Free Association - a procedure used in psychoanalysis in which patients say whatever comes into their mind. a. Freuds approach to treatment was so radical that many respected physicians considered it absurd b. Gradually, Freuds theory gained acceptance within the growing field of psychology2. The Freudian Theory of Personality a. The Topographic Model i. Originally divided into conscious, preconscious, and unconscious. 1. Conscious - The part of personality that contains the thoughts we are currently aware of 2. Preconscious - The part of personality that contains thoughts that can be brought into awareness with little difficulty 3. Unconscious - The part of personality that contains material that cannot easily be brought into awareness a. The Structural Model i. Freud felt the topographic model was too limited in description of human personality ii. Divides personality into the id, ego and the superego 1. ID - The selfish part of you, concerned only with satisfying your personal desires, pleasure principle a. Wish Fulfillment - if the desired object is not available, the id will imagine what it wants b. Freud described id as being buried entirely in the unconscious 1. Ego - Based on the reality principle, the primary job of the ego is to satisfy the id impulses but in a manner that takes into consideration the realities of the situation. a. Unlike the id, the ego is free and moves between the unconscious, preconscious and conscious. b. The ego is also responsible to satisfy the id but at the same time reducing tension i. Example: your id desire is hunger, which makes you want to grab any food you see, but the ego is the realization that you cant just grab any food you see because it is unacceptable, thus lessoning the tension, and, in a way considers the consequence.
a. As children interact with their environment during their first 2 years, the second part, ego, gradually develops 1. Superego - by the time children reach age 5 the third part, superego, is formed; represents societys - and, in particular, the parents - values and standards a. Superego places more restrictions on what we can and cant do b. Primary weapon that superego brings is guilt c. Provides ideals the ego uses to determine if a behavior is virtuous and thus worthy of praisea. Libidy and Thanatos i. Topographic provides playing field, structural provides characters, libido and thanatos sets this Freud theory in motion 1. Triebe - internal forces that human behavior is motivated by i. Libido - The limited amount of psychic energy that powers mental activity, life or sexual instinct ii. Thanatos - the self-destructive (death) instinct, which is often turned outward in the form of aggression 1. Energy within a physical system does not disappear but exists in finite amounts a. So if the ego has to expend large amounts of energy to control the id, it has little energy left to carry out the rest of its functions efficientlya. Defense Mechanisms 1. Neurotic anxiety - vague feelings of anxiety sparked by the sensation that unacceptable unconscious thoughts are about to burst through the awareness barrier and express themselves in consciousness i. Defense Mechanisms - devices the ego uses to keep threatening material out of awareness and thereby reduce or avoid anxiety 1. Repression - the ego pushes threatening material out of awareness and into unconscious. a. Example - a boy sees his father abuse his mother and when asked about the experience, the boy insists he never saw anything. Although he may not be lying but he may have found it too horrific to accept it. 1. Sublimation - Threatening unconscious impulses are channeled into socially acceptable behaviors a. Example - Football players, or other athletics: aggressive athletes are often considered heros 1. Displacement - A response is directed at a nonthreatening target instead of the unconsciously preferred one a. Example - as a result of mistreatment or abuse, a woman might carry with her a great deal of unconscious anger 1. Denial - When we simply refuse to accept that certain facts exist 2. Reaction Formation - People act in a manner opposite to their unconscious desires
a. A daughter that goes around saying how much she LOVES her mother might actually be masking strong unconscious hatred for her mother 1. Intellectualization - The emotional content of threatening material is removed before it is brought into awareness, that is, by considering something in a strictly intellectual way and not emotional. 2. Projection - Ones own unconscious thoughts and impulses are attributed to other people. a. Example - the woman who thinks everyone in her neighborhood is committing adultery may be harboring sexual desires for the married man living next doora. Psychosexual Stages of Development i. Freud argued that the adult personality is formed by experiences from the first 5-6 years of life. ii. Freud thinks that our adult personalities are formed in different stages called psychosexual stages of development iii. Fixation - Tying up psychic energy at one psychosexual stage, which results in adult behaviors characteristic of that state iv. Oral Stage - the psychosexual stage of development in which the mouth, lips, and tongue are the primary erogenous zones, that is, you dont have to look at a 6 month old baby to realize that everything pretty much enters the body through the mouth 1. People with oral personalities are considered dependent on others as adults i. Anal stage - psychosexual stage in which the anal region is the primary erogenous zone 1. When children enter 18 months old, they enter anal stage. 2. In this stage most children are toilet trained i. Phallic Stage - psychosexual stage where the genital region is the primary erogenous zone and in which the oedipus complex develops also referred to as the oedipus complex 1. Oedipus - greek mythical character that unknowingly married his mother i. Castration anxiety - when boys are scared that their fathers will discover their thoughts and want to cut off their penis 1. If they have seen their sisters genitals, they assume that the fate had already reached his sister. 2. Girls develop Penis Envy, the desire to have a penis i. After the oedipus complex, the child passes into latency stage, right before puberty. Sexual desires begin to form and get stronger when the genital stage comes througha. Getting at Unconscious Material i. Dreams - Freud called it the "royal road to the unconscious" 1. Dreams provide id impulses with a stage for expression, they are a type of wish fulfillment. Dreams represent the things we want or desire 2. Many of our thoughts and desires are presented symbolically.
a. Example - Body is represented as a house, parents as king queen, children as small animals and peniss as phallic looking objects. i. Projective Tests - Those ink blob tests where you look at and try to explain in the form of a story or identification of object. There is no right or wrong answer ii. Free association - it is the fundamental rule of psychoanalysis. To be able to just say whatever is on your mind, and express the unconscious iii. Freudian slip - when a patient accidently calls his wife by her maiden name or says that her mind is her "breast" feature. This is insightful because the husband may not have ever wanted to marry her and her best feature might really be her breasts iv. Hypnosis - It is the pipeline to the unconscious v. Accidents - say your arguing with someone and "accidently" knock over and break a statue, is it really an accident? 1. Resistance - when a patient for whatever reason starts missing regular therapy meetings i. Symbolic Behavior - example: say your moms favorite flower is the daisy and you have a doormat outside your house with a bunch of daisies on it. You come every day from work and rub your shoes all over the door mat, symbolically the daisies represent the mother and you are stomping on your mother. 3. Application: Psychoanalysis a. Freud was the first person to outline and advocate a system of psychotherapy b. Psychoanalysis - The system of psychotherapy i. Its goal is to bring crucial unconscious material into the conscious where it can be examined and dealt with ii. Typically, the psychoanalysis client lies on a couch while the therapist sits behind them out of sight iii. The bulk of time during these sessions is getting out the unconscious, its very difficult because the ego is programmed to keep the unconscious where it is at iv. Transference - When clients bring out emotions of past clients v. Countertransference - when the therapist actually brings out his own emotions into the mix 4. Assessment: Projective Tests a. Types of Projective Tests i. Rorscharch Inkblot test -…the inkblot..thats all it is... ii. Thematic apperception test (TAT) - consists of series of ambiguous pictures, the test takers are asked to tell a story about each picture iii. Human figure drawing test - where the test taker is asked to draw a person, or a family or a tree. It tests level of intelligence in children as wellChapter 4 1. People dont always believe the Freudian theory, some even ridicule it. 2. Freud tried several ways to validate his findings 3. Chapter 4 is about testing whether or not Freuds theory(s) is correct.
4. Dream Interpretation i. Dream interpretation was popularized by Freud a. The Meaning of Dream Content i. According to Freud, dreams provide meaning to what is in the unconscious ii. Dreams could either be symbols, usually sexual symbols in Freudian tradition 1. Dream researchers have different procedures where theyll ask a patient to write their dreams down in a diary first thing in the morning, or talk about a last or recurrent dream i. Experiment - participants spent several nights in a sleep laboratory, they would be woken up in the middle of every night to be asked about their dreams. When they were suggested of a dream, they were able to actually focus on what was suggested to them. ii. Womens dreams typically have an equal amount of males and females iii. Men typically dream of more male characters, and this difference is found in all ages 1. Males make up 50% of females dreams and 65% of male dreams 2. This is so because men usually never get over issues with their fathers 3. Nothing can really be proven as to why males dream of more males than females, but there are i. Recurrent Dreams - they can represent anxiety or unresolved issues. The unconscious conflict comes out at night and the anxiety comes out during the day. People who have these dreams are thought of having more anxiety ii. Sexual symbols - hasnt been proven that objects in dreams are sexual symbols 1. It is believed that people who cant express their sexual desires when they are awake express them when they are asleep 2. There was a test done on a few people for 10 days where they basically recorded their anxiety level and their dreams. Although the more anxiety did in fact bring out more symbols, the theory still remains elusive a. The Function of Dreams i. Freud believed people dream because unconscious impulses cant be suppressed forever ii. REM Sleep - Rapid eye movement. People experience REM between 1 1/2 to 2 hours a night spread over several preiods 1. REM sleep has much more dreams and non-REM sleep has significantly less dreams i. Researchers believe that depriving someone of REM sleep can bring serious psychological distrurbances ii. REM sleep is essential for having less difficulty with stressful tasts iii. People with traumatic experiences usually ignore those during the day but they come out at night during sleep a. Conclusion i. Nothing has really been proven about dreams, but we can definitely agree that REM sleep brings some sort of psychological positive benefits5. Defense Mechanisms i. People use defense mechanisms unconsciously all the time and dont even realize it
a. Identifying and Measuring Defense Mechanisms i. Identification - People who use this mechanism associate themselves with powerful and successful individuals. 1. Plays a big role in development of gender identity 2. Young men identify with their fathers and young women with their mothers (generally speaking) a. Developmental Differences i. Adults have much more defenses they can use to ward off anxiety than children. Children usually can only result to denial ii. Around middle elementary school, kids begin to realize that denying things every happened doesnt make them go away iii. Older kids use projection 1. Projection - protects us from threatening anxiety by attributing unacceptable thoughts and feelings to someone else a. Example: If I extremely disliked my hair - unconsciously - I would probably be criticizing other peoples hair as well. a. Defense Style i. Some people depend rely on some defense mechanisms more than others, this is called defense style ii. Identifying a persons defense style can say a lot about his or her general well- being iii. Some say that defense mechanisms can be normal and even adaptive 1. Sublimation - Turning the unconscious impulse into a socially acceptable action - can serve a dual function of relieving anxiety and improving a persons life situation i. Its not normal for adults to still use the same childhood defense mech. Such as denial or projection ii. People who deal with high level of stress during their child hood might end up depending more on denial and projection as adults6. Humor a. Freuds Theory of Humor i. Freud saw two different kinds of jokes: (1) those dealing with hostility and (2) those dealing with sex ii. Freud believed that aggressive jokes allow the expression of impulses ordinarily held in check 1. A good insulting joke allows us to express these same aggressive desires in a socially appropriate manner i. Catharsis - A release of tension or anxiety 1. Freud thought that we laugh at those kind of jokes not because they are clever or witty, but because the punch line of the joke allows for catharsis a. Research on Freuds Theory of Humor i. A group of students were tested to test Freuds theory and to their surprise, they performed just as Freud would believe they would
1. They showed them a picture with no sense of sexuality or anything and asked to write a funny caption, all the students came up with something like "I was late because I was with your wife" i. Several investigators support Freuds theory that people find aggressive and sexual themes funny 1. People find cartoons and shows funnier when they reference to aggression, pain or sex 2. If hostile humor allows us to satisfy aggressive impulses, we should find a joke funnier when it pokes fun at a person or group we dont like i. Hostile humor reduces aggression because of the catharsis hostile humor creates. 1. Example - There was an experiment where angry participants read cartoons that expressed hostility toward women, later they were given the opportunity to give electric shocks to a woman as an "experiment". These participants gave less intense and shorter shocks than angry participants who had not seen the cartoons i. But hostile humor doesnt only reduce aggression, in some cases it could actually increase it7. Level of Tension and Funniness a. A person nervous and slightly frightened person is more vulnerable to a funny joke than someone who is calm and therefore tensionless b. The more tension people experience before a punch line, the funnier the joke will be i. There were experiments that tested this theory and proved it right a. Interpreting the Findings i. Researchers have uncovered some evidence to support Freuds theory of humor, but the thing is that there is always alternative explanations for things.8. Hypnosis a. Hypnosis taps an aspect of the human mind that is otherwise difficult to reach. b. Neodissociation theory - Hilgards theory, which maintains that consciousness is divided into aware and unaware parts during hypnosis i. The part of you that is aware of the hypnosis is called the "hidden observer" ii. Some researchers argue that hypnosis is not some magical thing thats going on, that is, that people do things they are told during hypnosis not because they are in a trance but because they think they are supposed to 1. They also argue that nothing done during hypnosis cannot be done without hypnosis as well a. Why do some people claim to forget what they did when hypnotized? i. Some researchers believe its because the events that happen during hypnosis is stored in a pocket of the mind created by ego ii. Others argue that people dont remember because they dont expect to remember anything thus not making an effort to remember anything. a. The hypnotist isnt what makes the difference, it’s the participant. i. Some participants respond more to hypnosis than others, this has very little to do with the actual hypnotist ii. Absorption - the ability to become highly involved in sensory and imaginative experiences