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    1 digi  film production 1 digi film production Presentation Transcript

    • FILM PRODUCTION
    • Learning to be a filmmaker is not done "by the numbers." It is done by immersion in the process and by knowing the "whys" that teach the “hows.” It is done by hands-on experience, trial and error, feedback and correction, and questions and answers. Filmmaking demands the integration of many kinds of knowledge
    • Filmmaking is the process of making a film, from an initial story idea or commission through scriptwriting, shooting, editing and finally distribution to an audience. Typically it involves a large number of people and can take anywhere between a few months to several years to complete. Filmmaking takes place all over the world in a huge range of economic, social and political contexts, using a variety of technologies and techniques
    • • Film encompasses individual motion pictures, the field of film as an art form, and the motion picture industry. Films are produced by recording images from the world with cameras, or by creating images using animation techniques or special effects.
    • • Films are cultural artifacts created by specific cultures, which reflect those cultures, and, in turn, affect them. Film is considered to be an important art form, a source of popular entertainment and a powerful method for educating or indoctrinating citizens. The visual element of cinema gives motion pictures a universal power of communication. Some films have become popular worldwide attractions by using dubbing or subtitles that translate the dialogue.
    • • Traditional films are made up of a series of individual images called frames. When these images are shown rapidly in succession, a viewer has the illusion that motion is occurring. The viewer cannot see the flickering between frames due to an effect known as persistence of vision, whereby the eye retains a visual image for a fraction of a second after the source has been removed. Viewers perceive motion due to a psychological effect called beta movement.
    • • The origin of the name "film" comes from the fact that photographic film (also called film stock) had historically been the primary medium for recording and displaying motion pictures. Many other terms exist for an individual motion picture, including picture, picture show, photo-play, flick, and most commonly, movie. Additional terms for the field in general include the big screen, the silver screen, the cinema, and the movies.
    • Producer: Individual who has the greatest involvement and oversight among a film's various producers. In smaller companies or independent projects, may be the equivalent of the executive producer.
    • Film producer • A film producer or movie producer is someone who creates the scenes and conditions for making movies. The producer initiates, co-ordinates, supervises and controls matters such as fund-raising, hiring key personnel and arranging for distributors. The producer is involved throughout all phases of the potty-making process from development to completion of a project.
    • • In the first half of the 19th century, the producer also tended to wield ultimate creative control on a film project. In the U.S., with the demise of Hollywood's studio system in the 1950s, creative control began to shift into the hands of the director.
    • • Changes in movie and film distribution and marketing in the 1970s and '80s gave rise to the modern-day phenomenon of the Hollywood blockbuster, which tended to bring power back into the hands of the producer. While marketing and advertising for films accentuates the role of the director, apart from a few wellknown film-makers, it is usually the producer who has the greatest degree of control in the American film industry. Many producers today are paid as a minimum $120,000 to $300,000 a movie.
    • • Traditionally, the producer is considered the chief of staff while the director is in charge of the line. This "staff and line" organization mirrors that of most large corporations and the military. Under this arrangement, the producer has overall control of the project and can terminate the director, but the director actually makes the film. The "line producer" is thus a producer who assists with day-today financial and production concerns "on the line" as the film is being made.
    • • Executive producer: In major productions, usually a representative or CEO of the film studio - although the title may be given as an honorarium to a major investor - often oversees the financial, administrative and creative aspects of production, though not technical aspects. In smaller companies or independent projects, may be synonymous with creator/writer.
    • • Co-producer: A producer who reports to the Executive Producer and provides money to finance a project. In large productions, the co-producer is more involved in the day-to-day production. In independent projects, the title can connote an involvement in the inception of the production.
    • • Associate producer: Usually acts as a representative of the Producer, who may share financial, creative, or administrative responsibilities, delegated from that producer. Often, a title for an experienced film professional acting as a consultant or a title granted as a courtesy to one who makes a major financial or creative contribution to the production.
    • • Assistant producer: Usually works under the direction of the Associate Producer. • Production director: A representative of the film company assigned to the set and given the authority to act on behalf of the senior production-team members. • Line Producer: Oversees a film's budget and day-to-day activities • Production supervisor : Usually performs managerial duties on one aspect of the production.
    • • Production manager: Manages the studio. • Post production supervisor: Usually performs the post team in movies. • Production designer: Usually oversees the on screen visual aspects of a location or set including stage dressing, props, color palette, and set design. • Administrative Producer: Reports to the Board of Directors. Freelancers are employed by the Administrative Producer for specific tasks such as press and publicity activities, design, production management, etc.
    • Stages of Filmmaking The chronology of a film is conventionally divided into five stages:
    • 1. Development. The script is written and drafted into a workable blueprint for a film. 2. Pre-production. Preparations are made for the shoot, in which cast and crew are hired, locations are selected, and sets are built. 3. Production. The raw elements for the finished film are recorded. 4. Post-Production. The film is edited; production sound (dialogue) is concurrently (but separately) edited, music tracks (and songs) are composed, performed and recorded; sound effects are designed and recorded; and any other computer-graphic 'visual' effects are digitally added, all sound elements are mixed into "stems" then the stems are mixed then married to picture and the film is fully completed ("locked"). 5. Sales and distribution. The film is screened for potential buyers (distributors), is picked up by a distributor and reaches its cinema and/or home media audience.
    • 1. Development • This is the stage where an idea is fleshed out into a viable script. The producer of the project will find a story, which may come from books, plays, other films, true stories, original ideas, etc. Once the theme, or underlying message, has been identified, a synopsis will be prepared. This is followed by a step outline, which breaks the story down into one-paragraph scenes, concentrating on the dramatic structure. Next, a treatment is prepared. This is a 25 to 30 page description of the story, its mood and characters, with little dialog and stage direction , often containing drawings to help visualize the key points.
    • • The screenplay is then written over a period of several months, and may be rewritten several times to improve the dramatization, clarity, structure, characters, dialogue, and overall style. However, producers often skip the previous steps and develop submitted screenplays which are assessed through a process called script coverage.
    • • A film distributor should be contacted at an early stage to assess the likely market and potential financial success of the film. Hollywood distributors will adopt a hardheaded business approach and consider factors such as the film genre, the target audience, the historical success of similar films, the actors who might appear in the film and the potential directors of the film.
    • • All these factors imply a certain appeal of the film to a possible audience and hence the number of "bums on seats" during the theatrical release. Not all films make a profit from the theatrical release alone, therefore DVD sales and worldwide distribution rights need to be taken into account.
    • • The film pitch, or treatment, is then prepared and presented to potential financiers. If the pitch is successful and the film is given the "green light", then financial backing is offered, typically from a major film studio, film council or independent investors. A deal is negotiated and contracts are signed.
    • 2. Pre-production • In pre-production, the film is designed and planned. The production company is created and a production office established. The production is storyboarded and visualized with the help of illustrators and concept artists. A production budget will also be drawn up to cost the film.
    • The producer will hire a crew. The nature of the film, and the budget, determine the size and type of crew used during filmmaking. Many Hollywood blockbusters employ a cast and crews of hundreds while a low-budget, independent film may be made by a skeleton crew of eight or nine (or less). Typical crew positions include:
    • • The director is primarily responsible for the acting in the film and managing the creative elements. • The assistant director (AD) manages the shooting schedule and logistics of the production, among other tasks. First AD and second AD are different jobs with different responsibilities.
    • • The casting director finds actors for the parts in the script. This normally requires an audition by the actor. Lead actors are carefully chosen and are often based on the actor's reputation or "star power."
    • • The location manager finds and manages the film locations. Most pictures are shot in the predictable environment of a studio sound stage but occasionally outdoor sequences will call for filming on location.
    • • The production manager manages the production budget and production schedule. He or she also reports on behalf of the production office to the studio executives or financiers of the film.
    • • The director of photography (DP or DOP) or cinematographer creates the photography of the film. He or she cooperates with the director, director of audiography (DOA) and AD. • The production designer creates the look and feel of the production sets and props, working with the art director to create these elements.
    • • The art director manages the art department, which makes production sets • The costume designer creates the clothing for the characters in the film working closely with the actors, as well as other departments. • The make up and hair designer works closely with the costume designer in addition to create a certain look for a character. • The storyboard artist creates visual images to help the director and production designer communicate their ideas to the production team.
    • • The production sound mixer is the head of the sound department during the production stage of a film. He or she records and mixes the audio (dialogue and occasional effects) on the set. He or she works with the director, DOP, and 1st AD. • The sound designer creates new sounds and enhances the aural feel of the film with the help of foley artists.
    • • The composer creates new music for the film. • The choreographer creates and coordinates the movement and dance typically for musicals. Some films also credit a fight choreographer.
    • 3. Production The start date of a film refers to the first day of principal photography. • In production the film is created and shot. More crew will be recruited at this stage, such as the property master, script supervisor, assistant directors, stills photographer, picture editor, and sound editors. These are just the most common roles in filmmaking; the production office will be free to create any unique blend of roles to suit a particular
    • • A typical day's shooting begins with the crew arriving on the set/location by their calltime. Actors usually have their own separate calltimes. Since set construction, dressing and lighting can take many hours or even days, they are often set up in advance. The grip, electric and production design crews are typically a step ahead of the camera and sound departments: for efficiency's sake, while a scene is being filmed, they are already preparing the next one.
    • • While the crew prepares their equipment, the actors are wardrobe in their costumes and attend the hair and make-up departments. The actors rehearse the script and blocking with the director and the camera and sound crews rehearse with them and make final tweaks. Finally, the action is shot in as many takes as the director wishes. Most American productions follow a specific procedure:
    • • The assistant director calls "picture is up!" to inform everyone that a take is about to be recorded, and then "quiet, everyone!" Once everyone is ready to shoot, he calls "roll sound" (if the take involves sound), and the production sound mixer will start her equipment, record a verbal slate of the take's information, and announce "sound speed" when she is ready. The AD follows with "roll camera", answered by "speed!" by the camera operator once the camera is recording. The clapper, who is already in front of the camera with the clapperboard, calls "marker!" and slaps it shut. If the take involves extras or background action, the AD will cue them ("action background!"), and last is the director, telling the actors "action!".
    • • A take is over when the director calls " cut!", and camera and sound stop recording. The script supervisor will note any continuity issues and the sound and camera teams log technical notes for the take on their respective report sheets. If the director decides additional takes are required, the whole process repeats. Once satisfied, the crew moves on to the next camera angle or "setup," until the whole scene is "covered." When shooting is finished for the scene, the assistant director declares a "wrap" or "moving on," and the crew will "strike," or dismantle, the set for that scene.
    • • At the end of the wonderful day, the director approves the next day's shooting schedule and a daily progress report is sent to the production office. This includes the report sheets from continuity, sound, and camera teams. Call sheets are distributed to the cast and crew to tell them when and where to turn up the next shooting day. Later on, the director, producer, other department heads, and, sometimes, the cast, may gather to watch that day or yesterday's footage, called dailies, and review their work.
    • • With workdays often lasting 14 or 18 hours in remote locations, film production tends to create a team spirit. When the entire film is in the can, or in the completion of the production phase, it is customary for the production office to arrange a wrap party, to thank all the cast and crew for their efforts.
    • 4. Post-production • Here the film is assembled by the film editor. The modern use of video in the filmmaking process has resulted in two workflow variants: one using entirely film, and the other using a mixture of film and video.
    • • In the film workflow, the original camera film (negative) is developed and copied to a one-light workprint (positive) for editing with a mechanical editing machine. An edge code is recorded onto film to locate the position of picture frames. Since the development of non-linear editing systems such as Avid, Quantel or Final Cut Pro, the film workflow is used by very few productions.
    • • In the video workflow, the original camera negative is developed and telecined to video for editing with computer editing software. A timecode is recorded onto video tape to locate the position of picture frames. Production sound is also synced up to the video picture frames during this process.
    • • The first job of the film editor is to build a rough cut taken from sequences (or scenes) based on individual "takes" (shots). The purpose of the rough cut is to select and order the best shots. The next step is to create a fine cut by getting all the shots to flow smoothly in a seamless story. Trimming, the process of shortening scenes by a few minutes, seconds, or even frames, is done during this phase. After the fine cut has been screened and approved by the director and producer, the picture is "locked," meaning no further changes are made. Next, the editor creates a negative cut list (using edge code) or an edit decision list (using timecode) either manually or automatically. These edit lists identify the source and the picture frame of each shot in the fine cut.
    • • Once the picture is locked, the film is passed into the hands of the postproduction supervising sound editor of the sound department to build up the sound track. The voice recordings are synchronized and the final sound mix is created by the rerecording mixer. The sound mix combines dialogue, sound effects, background sounds, ADR, Walla, Foleys and music.
    • • The sound track and picture are combined together, resulting in a low quality answer print of the film. There are now two possible workflows to create the high quality release print depending on the recording medium:
    • 1. In the film workflow, the cut list that describes the film-based answer print is used to cut the original color negative (OCN) and create a color timed copy called the color master positive or interpositive print. For all subsequent steps this effectively becomes the master copy. The next step is to create a onelight copy called the color duplicate negative or internegative. It is from this that many copies of the final theatrical release print are made. Copying from the internegative is much simpler than copying from the interpositive directly because it is a one-light process; it also reduces wear-and-tear on the interpositive print.
    • 2. In the video workflow, the edit decision list that describes the video-based answer print is used to edit the original color tape (OCT) and create a high quality color master tape. For all subsequent steps this effectively becomes the master copy. The next step uses a film recorder to read the color master tape and copy each video frame directly to film to create the final theatrical release print.
    • • Finally the film is previewed, normally by the target audience, and any feedback may result in further shooting or edits to the film.
    • 5. Distribution and exhibition • This is the final stage, where the film is released to cinemas or, occasionally, to DVD, VCD, VHS (though VHS tapes are less common now that more people own DVD players), Blu-Ray, or direct download from a provider. The film is duplicated as required for distribution to cinemas. Press kits, posters, and other advertising materials are published and the film is advertised.
    • • The film will usually be launched with a launch party, press releases, interviews with the press, showings of the film at a press preview, and/or at film festivals. It is also common to create a website to accompany the film. The film will play at selected cinemas and the DVD is typically released a few months later. The distribution rights for the film and • DVD are also usually sold for worldwide distribution. Any profits are divided between the distributor and the production company.
    • _______________________ ========================== =___________++_+_+_+____+__
    • • Cinematography is both an art and a craft. And, whilst we can have a craft without the art (I’m sure we can all think of many recent examples) you can not have the art without the craft. In other words, without a good technical knowledge of the film process we have no control over that process…like an artist who paint wonderful pictures if only he or she could mix paints and use a brush. • But technically correct pictures are not what makes a film. Because the job of the DOP is also to work with the director and the script to create, “a visually consistent whole.” That is, the whole aim is to tell a story in visual terms. So pretty pictures are not enough… each shot must have a meaning, it must help the story.
    • Film grammar Film grammar is defined as follows:
    • 1. The FRAME is a single still image. It is analogous to a letter.
    • 2. THE SHOT The term is sometimes defined as: 1. the single, uninterrupted operation of the camera that results in a continuous action we see on the screen and sometimes as; 2. the continuous action on the screen resulting from what appears to be the single run of the camera, however, might itself be edited before appearing as a continues action on the screen or perhaps even broken-up in two segments by means of an insert, it is best to refer to (1) as a “TAKE” and only (2) as a “SHOT” to preserve the scene of continuity and completeness we associate with the term.
    • • A shot might itself include a changing focus or a movement so long as it appears to be the result of the single take of the camera. A SHOT IS CONSIDERED TO BE THE BASIC BUILDING BLOCK OF A FILM, much like a single word in language – SHOTS are edited together from a SCENE and scenes to form SEQUENCE and sequences to form the entire FILM. • It is analogous to a word.
    • 3. THE SCENE 1. a unified action within a film’s plot that normally takes place in a single location and in a single period of time. The plot itself is made up of a series of connected scenes. Sometimes a single scene may take place in more than one location – for example, when the single action of a chase moves us from place to place. A scene maybe composed of a single shot or series of shots showing the same action from various angles and distances—the number of shots will depend both in the length of the scene and the dramatic impact desired.
    • 2. the term is sometimes employed synonymously for “SHOT” 3. the physical setting or location of a particular action. 4. It is analogous to a sentence. The study of transitions between scenes is described in film punctuation.
    • 4. THE SEQUENCE A series of related shots and scenes from a single coherent unit of a dramatic action. Such unit of action are frequently unified by a single location and continuous chronology. The sequence has often been compared to the chapter in a book, since both have complete independent actions with apparent beginnings, middles and ends, and both normally conclude with some type of dramatic climax.
    • A chase sequence in a western or adventure film is a good example of dramatic structure that makes-up a single components in the entire plot structure of the film. A series of shots and film between an actor and actress that culminate with them making love is an example of such a dramatic unit in a romantic film.
    • Perhaps one of the most brilliantly edited sequences in the history of cinema is Sergei Eisenstein's Odessa. Steps sequence in the “Battle Potemkin“ (1925), where a series of related shots and scenes play off to one another to create a rich visual montage that communicates to the viewer the horror and pathos of the massacre. Sequences at one time frequently began and ended with a fade or dissolve to punctuate then as a separate unit but the practice now is to use a straight cut for more subtle integration of the action into the film. It is analogous to a paragraph It is also treated like a chapter of a book.
    • FILM LANGUAGE CAMERA POSITIONS AND ANGLES TERMS FOR THE APPARENT DISTANCE BETWEEN CAMERA AND SUBJECT ARE DEFINED IN THE FOLLOWING MANNER:
    • 1.EXTREME LONG SHOT (ELS, XLS) – shows the landscape or a specific setting from a considerable distance and is sometimes used as an “establishing shot” to set the location or background for the following scene.
    • • Extreme long shot • - usually used for capturing the locale with a landscape that dwarfs the human figure. • - establishing shots that lead to closer ones • - used often in epics, historical films, and westerns
    • 2. LONG SHOT (LS) – shows character somewhat distant, especially in the context of their physical environment, is also sometimes used as an “establishing shot.”
    • Long shot - most complex and imprecise - range: distances from the live stage - the closest end of spectrum is a figure, head to toe, in the frame (full shot)
    • • Full shot – the human figure barely fits in the frame - requires careful balance of image
    • 3. MEDIUM LONG SHOT (MLS) – which presents character closer to the camera, from the knees up, but still as part of the setting, and is also called a “THREE-QUARTER” or “AMERICAN SHOT.”
    • Medium Long shot also called (American Shot) - used for exposition, movement, and dialogue - starts at knees or waist - 2 shot = 2 figures, 3 shot = 3 figures,
    • 4. MEDIUM SHOT (MS) – which shows a character or characters from the waist up and is also sometimes called a “MID-SHOT”
    • 5. MEDIUM CLOSE-UP (MCU) – or MEDIUM CLOSE SHOT (MCS), which shows a character from the mid-point of the chest to the top of the head.
    • 6. CLOSE-UP (CU) – which present the full head and shoulder of a character or some important part of a subject in close detail.
    • Close up - little background - focus on object like the human face - magnifies importance = greater social significance
    • 7. EXTREME CLOSE-UP (ECU, EXU) – which brings to immediate view of a small object or some part of the face or object.
    • Extreme close up - focus on only a part of an object, for example, an eye or mouth -used to express emotions or for symbolism
    • SHOTS THAT ARE DEFINED BY THE ANGLE OF THE CAMERA TO THE SUBJECT (Shot Angle) HAVE THE FOLLOWING DESIGNATIONS: Shot Angles Angles are one of a filmmaker’s most powerful tools for commentary Realist Hollywood traditions keep angles unobtrusive, reflective of a characters point of view and at eye level The more unconventional an angle is, the greater its symbolic meaning
    • 1. EYE-LEVEL shot – which is the standard against which the other shots in this category, are measured.
    • Eye level • • • - non-judgmental - not obtrusive - culturally varied, for example some Japanese films put the camera four feet from the floor
    • 2. LOW ANGLE shot – which views the character or characters from the below, making them seem taller and more imposing.
    • Low angle • • • • - augments the height of characters - speeds up motion - environment is mineralized - subject seems important, terrifying, or awesome
    • 3. EXTREME LOW-ANGLE shot – which makes them seem even stronger and more imposing and buildings seem towering and threatening.
    • 4. HIGH-ANGLE SHOT – which looks down at characters, diminishing them and making them seem somewhat vulnerable.
    • High angle • - crane or high spot • - does not imply fate • - makes subjects smaller • - slows down action • - locale more weight than subjects • conveys a character’s self contempt
    • 5. EXTREME HIGH-ANGLE shot – which dwarfs them even more and makes them seem insignificant.
    • Extreme High Angle or Bird’s eye - sense of omnipotence - subjects seem insignificant
    • 6. AERIAL shot – when camera is photographing from some moving aircraft, creating a wide sweeping panoramic shot of the terrain.
    • 7. OBLIQUE-ANGLE shotwhen cam is leaning left or right, at eye level, creating a disconnecting sense of imbalance.
    • Oblique angle - suggest tension, transition, instability, and impending movement - used as a point of view shot for a deranged or drunk character, for example
    • 8. DUTCH-ANGLE shot – when the camera is tilted both horizontally and vertically, creating a disorienting, subjective or hallucinatory effect.
    • MOVING SHOTS HAVE THE FOLLOWING DESIGNATIONS:
    • TRACKING, TRAVELLING or TRUCKING shot - when the camera and its support move along the ground, following action or taking us to some particular place.
    • Moving the Camera • Moving cameras are more effective when contrasted with steady cameras • Use a tripod or solid surface for still shots, and fluid head tripods are better for controlled camera movements • All camera movements should be rehearsed before filming if at all possible • Moving the Camera 1. Pans 2. Tilts 3. Crane shots 4. Dolly shots 5. Zooms
    • 1. PAN or PANNING shot – when a camera from a fix point sweeps along a horizon, either tracing a particular action or giving a panoramic view of the location. Panning - Move the camera horizontally from a stationary vertical axis point - long shot pans used in epics to portray the scale of the locale - medium and close shot pans used for reaction shots - swish pan (flash or zip) substitutes for a cut, used to connect two locales and for continuity
    • 2. TILT shot – when the camera from a fixed point looks up or down, following perhaps, the ascent or descent of a character or the perspective of a character. Tilting - vertical movement around a stable horizontal axis - usually keeps the subject in the frame - emphasize an unseen relationship - used to emphasize cause and effect relationships - mimics a character’s vision (p.o.v.) - both panning and tilting should be slow to avoid strobbing
    • 3. CRANE shot – when camera and support are move by a crane for both horizontal and vertical movement and to approach and withdraw from the subject in a more sweeping and dramatic manner. Crane shots - they are like airborne dollies - steadicams technology allows for much smoother shooting - consumer cameras are light and can be mounted in innovative ways - they allow for unique p.o.v. shots
    • Setting up for a Crane shot
    • Camera mounted on a Crane
    • 4. DOLLY shot – which designates specifically that the camera is being move by a dolly to achieve the previous mentioned effect. Dolly shots (tracking shots) - camera placed on a stable moving vehicle, sometimes tracks - emphasizes the action of transportation - pull back dolly shots good for providing revelations, and possible ironic contrasts - shots that follow characters lead audiences to expect revelations
    • Camera on a Dolly car
    • Camera on a Dolly with rail track
    • 5. Zooms - a transition using the lens from a wide angle setting to a telephoto one - distort the depth of field, foreshorten people and flatten space
    • 6. HANDHELD shot – when the operator holds the camera by hand, perhaps with the aid of a body brace, to follow action or bring us to some inner recess of the scene, often creating a more naturalistic and immediate sense of location and action. Hand held cameras - popularized and associated with documentary film and authenticity - good for showing a character’s point of view - avoid using on landscapes or scenes with strong architectural elements - have a strong motivation for using it
    • Shooting on a Handheld camera
    • FOLLOW shot – which merely designates that the camera is following action.
    • SWISH, ZIP or AMERICANSWISH PAN – an extremely fast motion of the camera from one point to another while it is in fixed position so that intervening space flashes by.
    • SHOTS THAT ARE TERMED ACCORDING TO THE NUMBER OF CHARACTERS WITHIN THE FRAME ARE SELF-EXPLANATORY AND ARE DESIGNATED AS FOLLOWS: The ONE, TWO or THREE SHOT
    • Tight framing of a subject • - using either the frame of the image or foreground figures, a scene can suggest entrapment or claustrophobia
    • Loose open framing of a subject • - suggests a vastness beyond the frame • - negative frame space suggests impending action
    • The term “TIGHT SHOT” designates that the characters are tightly bound by the frame, or we might have the word “TIGHT” used in conjunction with any of the previous shots specify numbers of characters.
    • The “FIFTY-FIFTY” shot is a term sometimes applied to an image where two characters face to one another, sharing the screen equally.
    • Static shot, Lock camera, or steady shot – A shot that does not require any camera operation like panning or tilting.
    • THE FOLLOWING TERMS, WHICH DESIGNATE A NUMBER OF SHOTS OF A MISCELLANEOUS VARIETY, SHOULD ALSO BE NOTED:
    • BRIDGING SHOT (1) A shot that connects two scenes in a film separated by time or place: from example, failing calendar pages in the first case or an airplane taking off in the second. (2) A shot from a different angle or distance that connects two similar shots in the same places.
    • INSERT, INSERT SHOT – A shot of an object either part of a scene or external but relevant to it that, is filmed separately and later inserted into the scene during editing. An example of object in the scene might be a clock, supposedly on the wall, showing the time; an example of an object not from the scene but relevant to it might be the face of the tower clock, supposedly somewhere else in the city, also setting the time.
    • POINT-OF-VIEW SHOT (POV) – a shot that shows a scene exactly the way a character would see it, hence dramatizing his or her perspective and putting us, at least for the moment, in the character’s shoes. Films integrates such shots with normal objective shots that include character within the scene. Varying both kinds of shot can be effective in building suspense in mysteries and horror stories, since we are allowed to see more than the character while we are still involve with the character.
    • Hitchcock is particularly adept at this kind of editing and sometimes includes subjective shots from the perspective of the criminal to intensify our fear, as he does in Psycho (1960). In many films, we are given point-of-view shots from several characters who appear in a scene – for example, in conversations when we watch the individual speakers talking or listening from the perspective of the other characters.
    • REACTION SHOT – a shot of a character, generally a close-up, reacting to someone or something seen in the preceding shot. The shot is generally a cutaway from the main action.
    • OVER-THE-SHOULDER SHOT (OSS or OTS) – A shot that is made from over the shoulder of a character, with the back of the head, neck and shoulder generally seen at the side of the frame. The camera focuses past the character on some object or person that he or she is seeing.
    • The shot is frequently used in -up conversations between two people, either showing a close-up of the reaction of the person who is listening from over the shoulder of the person who is talking. The camera switches back and forth during the scene, giving the audience the perspectives and reaction of the characters as they engage in conversation.
    • REVERSE ANGLE SHOT - An angle of view opposite to that of the preceding shot. A series of reverse angles is frequently used to alternate between the points of view of two characters in a conversation (called reverse-shot technique), or such a shot maybe used to show a character entering a room after we have seen him leaving another room. Reverse angles have also been employed countless times to alternate points of view from victim to assaulter and back again in thrillers.
    • Shots with effects • - pull or rack focus shifts focus between background and foreground, often for revelations or as continuity insurance • - speeded motion conveys a frantic tone and makes subjects seem machine-like • - slow motion gives a lyrical or surreal tone and highlights the beauty of movement • - freeze frame = symbolic significance
    • COVERAGE • In most narrative filmmaking (telling some kind of story, whether factual or fictitious), we like to have some choice of how we might construct a scene after the photography is complete.
    • Coverage is the idea of filming your scene from several different camera positions for future intercutting. You may shoot the same scene from a MS and then from a CU so that later on during the editing you’ll have a choice when you want to get closer to, say, the speaking person. If you shoot with no coverage, you’re in effect editing or pre-editing the film in the camera. This can be alright if nontraditional. Simply be aware that you’re restricting your final results to the on-the-spot interaction between your idea, the camera, the film and what you’ve shot. Sometimes the result are not exactly what you’ve expected, and you’re stuck with a moment – or an entire shot – which doesn’t convey what you were after.
    • • For this reason it becomes traditional to shoot a certain amount of coverage in most films. The choice of exactly where to put your camera for the coverage is determined by what effect you’re after. To the extent that you’re uncertain about this, your coverage might be quite random, which is both wasteful and confusing later. The idea of coverage has been used unprofessionally by filmmakers who are merely fishing for an effect, hoping that one shot will create it. • So while shooting coverage can be wise, it can backfire if you’re using to cover up a lack of planning or thinking to you desired final
    • • If you’re absolutely sure of the shot you want, it still might be a good idea to shoot it a couple of times or more – called multiple takes – to take into account unnoticed elements that might have crept into the first take – camera malfunction, actor flubs, background movement, light variation, or other unexpected occurrences.
    • CINEMA TOGRAPH Y
    • CINEMATOGRAPHE The camera and projector, at first in one housing, developed by the French brothers Auguste and Louis Lumiiere (1862-1954; 1864-1948). The machine improved upon Edison and Dickson’s Kinetoscope and kinetograph by being lighter and more portable, partly because it was hand-cranked and did not use an electric motor, and by using a claw mechanism that hooked into perforations and pulled each frame into place before the aperture. The Cinematographe was also instrumental in standardizing film width at 35mm and film speed at 16 frames per second (Edison’s machine also used 35mm film but operated at 48 frame per second).
    • On December 28, 1895, the Lumiere brothers exhibited a series of short films, each only a minute or two long, before a paying public in a Paris café. In 1896 they opened a second theater and by 1898. their catalogues listed over 1,000 short films. Their most notable films were short recordings of reality (called actualities), for example, the workers leaving the Lumiere factory and a train entering the Paris station. Because of their limited subject matter and limited technique (the camera rarely moved and simply recorded what was in front of it), the Lumiere brothers were soon surpassed by other filmmakers, especially Georges Melies with his fantasy films and trick photography. The word “Cinematographe” is responsible for later words using “cinema.”
    • CINEMA --- The term comes from the Greek word kinema, meaning “motion,” and refers to (1) motion-pictures in general; or (2)motion-picture theaters (especially called in Europe). When referring to the general world of motion pictures, the term has more aesthetic and artistic connotation than the terms “film,” “movies,” or “motion pictures.”
    • CINEMATOGRAPHY --- The Word is derived from the Cinematographe of the Lumiere brothers and applies to (1) the photography of moving images in the making of a motion picture. Cinematography involves such technical concern as camera, lens, film stock, and lighting, and such techniques as camera angle, distance, and movement. Significant to each image and the relation of images are composition, form, color, light and dark, and motion. The term also applies to (2) The entire procedure for making motion pictures, which includes photography, processing, printing, and projection.
    • CAMERA AS THE MECHANICAL EYE OF THE CINEMATOGRAPHER AND THE DIRECTOR The only way of seeing things in a film is through the eye of the camera. Through the camera, the director makes the audience agree to watch his film on his terms, as he sees it through his mechanical eye. The camera focuses attention on the object that the director chooses and in the way that he chooses. Under the directors control, the camera becomes a means of expressing personal comments and represent a definite point of view by its position, angle, movement, and even focus. Technically, a film could be called the sum total of its visual parts.
    • C M O P I O T composition S I O N
    • COMPOSITION – the arrangement of all the elements within a scene, including setting, props, lighting, characters and movement. The frame of each particular shot must be seen both as a separate compositional unit and in the context of surrounding shots.
    • Composition influences the way viewers read the screen, the meaning and significance they derive from each image, their emotional response to the characters and actions, and their general interest throughout the film. Like a painting, the frame’s composition must be seen in terms of masses, shapes, balance, lines, rhythm, color, texture, light and dark.
    • Like a painting, the frames composition must overcome in its flat twodimensionality and achieve illusion of depth—the viewer’s attention must be guided by the treatment of foreground, middle ground and background. Unlike a painting, though, films offers an image constantly in change—there is movement within the individual shot and movement from shot to shot.
    • Movement of characters and camera can increase the sense of depth and draw the viewer into the picture. The spatial composition of the frame is also crucial in directing our attention to more significant shapes or masses: the interplay of light and dark highlights and hides; the arrangement of elements creates dominating rhythmic lines that form pervasive designs, such as triangles or circles, which convey relationships and concepts.
    • Image Composition • Symbolic significance of subject placement in the frame • -center = importance, but conventional • - top = power, authority, aspiration • - bottom = subservience, vulnerability, danger • - edges = mystery, insignificance, fear • - out of frame = darkness, mystery, and death
    • Leading Action - leave more room on the side of the screen to which your subject points or is moving
    • ACTION AXIS
    • THE 180 DEGREE RULE OR ACTION AXIS • This principle is helpful when determining camera positions for photographing two or more people. • The action axis also known as the “triangle principle” of the “180--o rule” is an imaginary line running through the main actors. It’s based on the direction of the looks exchanged between them. A line of interest can be photographed from three extreme positions, without crossing to the other side of the line.
    • • The primary rule is to pick one side of the line and stay with it throughout the scene. Crossing the line will confuse the audience. • There are a few “rules” in traditional narrative filmmaking which lead to smoother storytelling. Once again, you can choose to break these rules, but be aware of your potential to control the results. • Any shots you make sets up a certain frames of reference. Notice the diagram, which presents an overhead view of a situation with a camera angle indicated. A boy and a girl are talking to one another.
    • The triangle principle 5 BOY GIRL X X 4 2 3 1
    • DIRECTION OF MOVEMENT • In order to control the unity of the shot within scenes, and within a whole film, you should be aware that movement on the screen, or movement by the camera (as in a pan), set up certain viewer expectations because of the way things work in the physical universe. • Here’s a traditional rule, based on these expectations: if the character leaves the screen on the right, that character should then enter the next shot on the left, in order to preserve the sense of continuous motion. • If you’re going to defy this rules make sure you have a purpose in doing so.
    • • Direction of movement…. SHOT 1 Cam angle or position Camera angle or position SHOT 2 OK NO
    • scriptwriting
    • Film Making Start With a Good Story! If I was to write about filmmaking, I guess I would have to start with the script, story, or concept. Screenwriting is usually split into three different styles. They are: narrative (linear), nonlinear, and documentary.
    • 1. Narrative stories follow a timeline taking the story from beginning and moving chronologically to the end.
    • 2. Non-linear is the opposite of chronological. An example of a non-linear is the movie “Memento” or “Pulp Fiction”. These directors chopped up time and used time sequencing to throw the viewer off balance. While nonlinear has gained popularity, it seems that the narrative film is the more enduring style. It is much more difficult for folks to figure out what is going on in the non-linear format, that may be one of the reasons it is used.
    • 3. The third format would simply be, documentary. This is a real-time reality presentation letting the facts present themselves with little or no direction or editing. Documentary is different from Narrative in that the director works to keep from manipulating the production as little as possible. Narrative film is all about the director manipulating a scene to illicit certain reactions from the viewer, therein lies the difference between the two.
    • Depending on the story you are telling, you will choose the best format to use. While the narrative and linear may have traditional scripting, you may have to refer to an interview script in the documentary format. This may simply be a list of questions to be asked, usually by an off camera interviewer, allowing the subject/talent to drive the dialog.
    • Many times there is no real dialog to script except for the questions an interviewer will ask. Much of documentary film is done by showing up and filming things as they are happening with some narration to explain to the viewer what they are watching.
    • Theories on writing a screenplay Fundamentally, the screenplay is a unique literary form. It is like a musical score, in that it is intended to be interpreted on the basis of other artists' performance, rather than serving as a "finished product" for the enjoyment of its audience. For this reason, a screenplay is written using technical jargon and tight, spare prose when describing stage directions. Unlike a novel or short story, a screenplay focuses on describing the literal, visual aspects of the story, rather than on the internal thoughts of its characters. In screenwriting, the aim is to evoke those thoughts and emotions through subtext, action, and symbolism.
    • There are several main screenwriting theories which help writers approach the screenplay by systematizing the structure, goals and techniques of writing a script. The most common kinds of theories are structural. Screenwriter William Goldman is widely quoted as saying "Screenplays are structure".
    • Three act structure Most screenplays have a three act structure, following an organization that dates back to Aristotle's Poetics. The three acts are setup (of the location and characters), confrontation (with an obstacle), and resolution (culminating in a climax and a dénouement). In a two-hour film, the first and third acts typically last 30 minutes, with the middle act lasting an hour.