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Principles of Teaching 1

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  • 1. •Control the knowledge and learning and use of hisknowledge to guide the science and art of his/herteaching practice.•Disposition and skills to approach all aspects ofhis/her work in a perfectives, collegial and problem– solving manner.•View of learning to teach as lifelong process anddisposition and skills for working towardsimproving his/her own teaching as well asimproving schools.
  • 2. 1. Sense of efficacy – give effect to his/her learner2. Subject matter knowledge – knowledge equipped3. Pedagogical knowledge – have skills in teaching that considers teaching style, methodology, techniques4. Sense of service – dedicated and committed to teach as their badge ; valuated
  • 3. 1. PASSION – the intimate desire tosacrifice2. HUMOR – different ways to makestudents not to bore3. VALUES AND ATTITUDES –Open mindednessImpartiality and fairness4. PATIENCE – a virtue (genuine)5. ENTHUSIASM – eagerness(commitment is a strong promise)
  • 4. 1. Verbal linguistic2. Logical mathematical3. Spatial4. Bodily kinesthetic5. Musical6. Interpersonal7. Intrapersonal8. Naturalist9. Existentialist
  • 5. 1.Learning is an experience which occurs inside the learner and is activated by the learner.2.Learning is the discovery of person meaning and relevance of ideas.3.Learning (behavioral change) is a consequence of experience.4. Learning is a cooperative and collaborative process.5. Learning is a evolutionary process.6. Learning is sometimes is a painful process.7. Learning : one of the richest resources of learning is thelearner himself.8. The process of learning is emotional as well asintellectual.9. The process of problem solving and learning are highlyunique and individual.
  • 6. 1. MASTERY – sensing – thinking2. UNDERSTANDING – intuitive – thinking3. SELF – EXPRESSIVE – intuitive – feeling4. INTERPERSONAL – sensing - feeling
  • 7. 1. LEARNING IS AN ACTIVE PROCESS -This means that we have to actively engage the learners in learning activities if we want them to learn what we intend to teach. We have to give our students opportunities to participate in classroom activities. We have to give varied activities to our students for “hands – on – minds – on” learning. Danielson, 2002; 75% and 90% retention rates are learning by doing. What I hear, I forget. What I see, I remember. What I do, I understand.2. The more senses that are involved in learning, the more and he better the learning“Humans are intensely visual animals. The eyes contain nearly 70 percent of thebody’s receptors and send millions of signals along the optic nerves to the visualprocessing centers of the brain…we take in more information visually than throughany of the other senses” (Wolfe,2001).
  • 8. 3. A non – threatening atmosphere enhances learningA non – threatening and conducive classroomatmosphere is not only a function of physical conditionof the classroom but more a function of a psychologicalclimate that prevails in the classroom.4. Emotion has the power to increase retention andlearningLet us not feel afraid to bring in emotion into ourclassroom. Let us add an emotional touch to learning.Without the emotional dimension, our subject matterwill remain cold and lifeless.5. Learning s meaningful when it is connected tostudent’s everyday life. Give sufficient examplesrelating to student’s experiences.
  • 9. 6. Good teaching goes beyond recall of information.Good thinking concerns itself with HOTS to developcreative and critical thinking. 7. An integrated teaching approach is far more effective than teaching isolated bits of information It considers multiple intelligences and varied learning style of students. 8. An integrated approach incorporates successful, research- based and brain – based instructional strategies .
  • 10. 1. Without rehearsal or constant attention, informationremains in working memory for only about 15 – 20 seconds.This implies the need for memory aids.2. Learning is a process of building neural networks.3. Our brains have difficulty comprehending very largenumbers because we have nothing in our experience to“hook” them to.4. The eyes contain nearly 70% of the body’s sensory receptorsand send millions of signals every second along the opticnerves to the visual processing of the brain.5. Information is embedded I music or rhyme, its recall iseasier than when it is in prose.
  • 11. 1. Involving Students in Real – life or Authentic Problem Solving.2. Student asks us when and where they need this and that they are learning in school. This question implies that students hardly see the relevance and the practical application of what they taught in school. 3. Simulations and Role plays and Meaning Makers 4. Classroom Strategies Using Visual Processing 5. Mnemonic Strategy 6. Writing Strategy 7. Active Review 8. Hands – on Activity
  • 12. 1. Instructional objectives2. Nature of subject matter3. Nature of the learners4. Teacher5. School policies
  • 13. A. Guiding Principles in the Selection and Organization ofContent1. One guiding principle related to subject matter content is to observethe following qualities in the selection and organization of content:a. Validity – teaching are the content that we ought to teach according tonational standard; explicit in the Basic Education Curriculum; it alsomeans teaching the content in order to realize the goals and objectives ofthe course as laid down in the basic education curriculumb. Significance – respond to the needs and interest of the learner, hencemeaningful and significant.c. Balance – Content includes not only facts but also concepts and values.The use of the three-level approach ensures a balance ofcognitive, psychomotor and affective lesson content.
  • 14. d. Self-sufficiency – Content fully covers the essentials. Learningcontent is not “mile-wide-and-inch-deep”. The essentials are sufficientlycovered and are treated in depth. This is a case of “less is more”.e. Interest – Teacher considers the interest of the learners, theirdevelopmental stages and cultural and ethnic background.f. Utility – Will this content be of use to the learners? It is not meant onlyto be memorized for test and grade purposes. What is learned has afunction even after examinations are over.g. Feasibility – feasible in the sense that the essential content can becovered in the amount of time available for instruction.2. At the base of the structure of cognitive subject matter content arefacts. We can’t do away with facts but be sure to go beyond facts byconstructing an increasingly richer and more sophisticated knowledgebase and by working out a process of conceptual understanding.
  • 15. 3. Subject matter content is an integration of cognitive, skills, and affective elements - it is an integration of facts, concepts, principles, hypotheses, theories, and laws, thinking skills, manipulated skills, values and attitudes. 1. “begin with the end in mind” a. We must begin our lesson with a clearly defined lesson objective.2. Share lesson objective with studentsa. Make known to our students our instructional objective and encourage them to make the lesson objective their own.3. Lesson objectives must be in the two or three domainsknowledge (cognitive), skill (psychomotor) and values(affective).
  • 16. a. A lesson is worthwhile if it gets connected to everyday life, how the students is and ought to be concerned with it, what difference it makes for a fuller existence4.Work on significant and relevant lesson objectives.5. Lesson objective must be aligned with the aims ofeducational as embodied in the Philippine Constitution andother laws and on the vision – mission statements of theeducational institution of which you are part.6.Aim at the development of critical and creative thinking.7. For the accountability of learning, lesson objectives must beSMART. i.e., Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Result o orientedand Relevant, Time bound and Terminal.
  • 17. Benjamin Bloom’s Cognitive domain Knowledge Comprehension Application Analysis Synthesis EvaluationAnita Harlow’s psychomotor domain Imitation Manipulation Precision Articulation Naturalization
  • 18. Receiving Responding Valuing Organization Characterization Different Approaches and Methods Direct/ Expositive Instruction ApproachDirect Instruction- is a way of teaching which is aimed athelping students acquire some basic skills and “proceduralknowledge”
  • 19. Instructional Characteristics1. The strategy is teacher- directed.2. The emphasis is on the teaching of skill.3. Taught in a step-by-step fashion, it ensures thelearning of the entire procedure with no step missed.4. Lesson objectives include easily observedbehaviors that can be measured accurately.5. This is a form of learning throughimitation, sometimes termed “behavioral modeling”.Deductive Method-starts from the general to specificAdvantages of the Deductive Method1. Coverage of a wider scope of subject matter.2. No bother on the part of the teacher to lead learners to the formulation of the generalization or rule.
  • 20. Disadvantages of the Deductive Method1. It is not supportive of the principle that learning is an activeprocess.2. Lesson appears uninteresting at first.Inductive Method-starts from the specific to generalAdvantages of the Inductive Method1. The learners are more engaged in the teaching-learningprocess.2. Learning becomes more interesting at the outset becausewe begin with the experiences of our students.3. It helps the development of our learner’s higher-order-thinking skills.Disadvantages of the Inductive Method1. It requires more time and so less subject matter will becovered.2. It demands expert facilitating skills on the part of theteacher.
  • 21. Demonstration MethodDemonstration- is a learning activity which is performed by a student, agroup of 3 to 4 members or a teacher while the rest become observers.Advantages of Demonstration Method1. It follows a systematic procedure, hence students will be able to learnfrom a well-tried procedure since the demonstrators are selected andadjudged to be skilled.2. The use of expensive equipment and machines will be maximized.3. Possible wastage of time, effort and resources will be avoided since thedemonstration is supposed to be well- planned in advance.4. It will not result to trial-and-error learning as what happens withunplanned learning activities.5. The findings are reliable and accurate since the procedure has beentried before.
  • 22. Guided/ Expository Approach Inquiry Approach -sometimes termed “discovery”, “heuristic” and “problem solving” is simply a teaching method which is “modeled after the investigative processes of scientists. Instructional Characteristics 1. Investigative processes such as inferring, measuring, predicting, classifying, analyzing and experimenting, formulating conclusions and generalizations are employed. 2. The procedure in gathering information is not prescribed by the teachers.3. The children are highly motivated to search, hence activeparticipation is the best indicator or inquisitiveness.4. The answers arrived at are genuine products of their ownefforts.5. Focused questions before, during and after are criticalingredients that provide direction and sustain action.
  • 23. Problem Solving MethodProblem Solving is a teaching strategy that employsthe scientific method in searching for information. 5 Basic Steps of the Scientific Method 1. Sensing and defining the problem 2. Formulating hypothesis 3. Testing the likely hypothesis 4. Analysis, interpretation and evaluation of evidence 5. Formulating conclusion Advantages of Problem Solving Method 1. This approach is most effective in developing skill in employing the science processes. 2. The scientific method can likewise be used effectively in other non-science subjects. 3. The student’s active involvement resulting in meaningful experiences serves as a strong motivation to follow the scientific procedure in future undertaking. 4. Problem solving develops higher level thinking skills.
  • 24. 5. A keen sense of responsibility, originality andresourcefulness are developed, which are much-needed ingredients for independent study.6. The students become appreciative and grateful forthe achievement of scientists. 7. Critical thinking, open-mindedness and wise judgment are among scientific attitudes and values inculcated through competence in the scientific method. 8. The students learn to accept the opinions and evidence shared by others.Project Method-is a teaching method that requires the students to presentin concrete form the results of information gathered abouta concept, principle or innovation.
  • 25. ADVANTAGES1. It is a teaching strategy that emphasizes “learning by doing”2. Constructing projects develops the students’ manipulative skills.3. The planned design of the project tests the students’ originality in choosing thematerials to be used. They become resourceful and innovative.4. It can be employed among students who are weak in oral communication5. The completed project adds to one’s feeling of accomplishment andsatisfaction, thus motivating students to continue constructing new projectsin school and at home.6. It instills the values of initiative, industry and creativity.7. Working on a project in groups develops the spirit of cooperation andsharing of ideas.8. In addition to learning a concept, students become productive andenterprising
  • 26. Metacognitve Approach -“meta” means beyond• An approach that goes beyond cognition that makes students think about theirthinking and think it aloud.The Constructivist Approach•Is anchored on the belief that every individual constructs and reconstructmeanings depending on past experiences and continue reflecting and evaluatingaccumulated knowledge with an end in view of constructing new meaning. Reflective Teaching •Is anchored on the ability of the teacher to guide students to reflect on their own experiences in order to arrive at new understanding and meanings. CHARACTERISTICS 1.An ethic of caring • Confirmation • Dialogue • Cooperative process 2. Constructivist approach 3. Tactful problem solving
  • 27. STRATEGIES1. Self – analysis2. Writing journals3. Keeping a portfolio4. Observation of students’ responses5. Questions at the end of every lessonCOOPERATIVE LEARNING APPROACH - An approach makes use of classroom organization where students work in groups or teams to help each other learn.PEER TUTORING -Is commonly employed when the teacher requests the older, brighter and more cooperative member of the class to tutor other classmates.TUTORING ARRANGEMENTSa. Instructionalb. Same agec. Monitoriald. Structurale. Semi – structured
  • 28. -method implies, this learning with a partner. A student chooses partner fromamong his/her classmates. This may also means assigning “study habit”.APPROPRIATE LEARNING ACTIVITIES IN THE DIFFERENT PHASESOF THE LESSON.•Introductory activities•Developmental activities•Concluding activities•GUIDING PRINCIPLES IN ASSESSMENT OF LEARNING•These principles "adapted" from Corpus and Salandanan, 2007)•1. Teaching and learning is never complete without assessment. This means thatassessment is an integral part of the teaching-learning process. We need to test how far the learners have learned, either before, during or afterinstruction, in line with our objectives. Thus, if learners are made to realize about this, negative attitudes about assessment will be minimized since the quizzes and tests will be just "usual" to them. They will come to realize the purpose of assessment, that is, to check how far they have learned.
  • 29. 2. Assessment tool and objectives must be collinear. The test/quiz or anyassessment techniques must be in line with the objectives. This also includes thetype of assessment appropriate for a certain objective. This is like a teacher whohas an objective about "Singing the Philippine National Anthem". Which ismore appropriate assessment tool: let the student write down completely theanthem, or let them sing the anthem?3. Assessment results should be fed back to the students. This is one of themortal sins of some of the teachers. They will give quizzes, tests, projects, etc yetthey fail to return these to the students, or to just inform the grade/score thestudents acquired.The purpose of assessment is to give learners a feedback to what extent theirlearning is. How will the learners learn this if the teacher wont give their scoresor return their papers?4. In assessment, consider learners multiple intelligences and learning styles.The traditional paper and pencil test puts verbally and linguistically intelligentstudents at the advantage.
  • 30. 5. It is wise to give some positive feedback as well as constructive criticisms. Dontforget to praise the students on a job well done. This can boost their morale tostudy and appreciate the value of success. Further, lets give them someconstructive criticisms on the areas they need to improve. Remember that thebiggest room in the world is the room for improvement.6. Emphasize self-assessment. Assessment must be intracomparative rather thanintercomparative. In short, if learning is as well a personal process, then, let thelearners assess their performance on their own against a certain criteria. Let thembe aware of and reflect on their own progress.7. Build the culture of success in the classroom. Avoid the bell curve mentality, orthe belief that it is normal that some students pass while some fail. Have thatmentality that ALL learners can achieve.8. Never use assessment as a disciplinary action or a punishment. This distortsthe true purpose of assessment. This will enkindle the negative attitudes towardassessment.
  • 31. 9. Assessment should be communicated regularly and clearly to parents. Take notehowever the importance of accountability, transparency and confidentiality.10. Emphasize on real world application that favors realistic performances over out ofcontext drill items. Hence, assessment must focus on real life application, as well asdeveloping higher ordered thinking skills such as analyzing, evaluating and most of allcreating.Selection and Use of Instructional MaterialsPRINCIPLES1.All instructional materials are aids to instruction. They do not replace the teacher.2.Choose the instructional material that best suits your instructional objectives.3.If possible, use a variety of tools.4.Check out your instructional materials before class starts to be sure it is workingproperly.5.For results, abide by the general utilization guide on the use of media given:a. Learn how to use the instructional materialsb. Prepare introductory remarks, questions or initial comments you may need.c. Provide a conducive environment.d. Explain the objectives of the lesson.e.Stress what to be watch or listened to carefully.f. State what they will be expected to do with the information they will learn.g.There is a need to summarize or review the experience.
  • 32. 1.Audio-recordings Includes Tapes, record and compact disc.2.Overhead Transparencies and Overhead Projector (OPH)- a transparencycan show pictures, diagrams and sketches at a time when they are needed in adiscussion.3.Bulletin boards- usually stationary on a wall or it can be removable.4.Chalkboard- this includes not only those with flat and wide surfaces but alsothe portable types which can be moved or even serve as dividers.5.Charts- may be in form of maps, graphs, photographs, and cut-outs.6.Mock-ups- is a replica of an object that may be larger or smaller in scale.7.Realia- stands for the real thing that is to studied like using real insects andplants.8.Video Tapes/Films- in form of 8 mm and 16 mm. can be purchased orrented.9.Models- scaled replicas of a real object.10.Pictures- these include flat, opaque and still pictures.11.Books- textbooks and all kinds of books are also classified as media or sub-strategies.12.Electronic Materials- CD, DVD, CD-ROMS and the internet.
  • 33. Graphic Organizers - is an instructional tool used to illustrate a student or classs prior knowledge about a topic or section of text.Spider MapUsed to describe a central idea: a thing (ageographic region), process(meiosis), concept (altruism), or proposition
  • 34. Series of Events ChainUsed to describe the stages of something(the life cycle of a primate); the steps in alinear procedure (how to neutralize an acid);a sequence of events (how feudalism led tothe formation of nation states); or thegoals, actions, and outcomes of a historicalfigure or character.
  • 35. Paragraph Graphic Organizer
  • 36. Inferencing Writing Graphic Organizers
  • 37. Story Film Sequencing Organizer
  • 38. KWL Graphic Organizer
  • 39. LANGUAGE Graphic Organizers
  • 40. Sandwich Graphic Organizer
  • 41. MANAGING THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT Furniture Arrangement The physical features in the classroom must be located in areaswhere the contents could be viewed well and be made available for use.Well – arranged, they make the room look spacious and orderly. Also thechairs and tables must be positions appropriately. White board for writing and clarifying lesson discussions, togetherwith bulletin boards, are available for posting important messages andoutstanding pieces of students work, art and illustrations.Seating Arrangement It deserves foremost consideration since the students stay in eachat the longest time during the day. Match the seating arrangement with theformat and activities of your lesson plan. The semi – permanent arrangement of the chairs is one where theyare arranged in four rows with six to eight in a row. Sufficient space isallotted in the aisles and in – between the seats for ease in moving around.If the activities need groupings, the chairs are organized in groups of fouror five facing each other for fast exchange of communication.
  • 42. Clean rooms, hallways and surroundings arewholesome places to stay in. the teacher should schedule whois responsible for their neatness on a regular basis. Usedinstruments and devices must be returned to their properplaces. Always erase the board after use. It must be a safe place where curious, overactive andenergetic children are always on the go. Avoid slipperyfloors, rickety chairs and old furniture.For a lively and freshlook, potted indoor plants can be p[laced at the corners andflowers on the teachers table. Proper lightning and ventilation must be provided andmaintained for everybody’s comfort.Noise and disciplineproblems in the physical environment can be avoided in anorderly and well – managed classroom.Let us not forget that equally important, if is the psychologicalatmosphere that reigns in the classroom.
  • 43. Teaching assistants always have a long list of things we need toaccomplish – and generally, too little time in which to do them. Here aresome helpful hints on how to make the best of your classroom time whilemaintaining a realistic approach to how much you can accomplish.BASIC PRINCIPLES OF CLASSROOM TIME MANAGEMENT Define your objectives for each class and try to remain focused onthem. Allowing the class to digress too far, or for too long, may sacrificemore critical discussion or activities. Become comfortable early on with compromise. You’ll rarelyaccomplish everything you ideally would like to accomplish. “Getting out of the way”. Recognize when you should step asideand let the students take over; be responsive to the classroom dynamic. Be flexible. Be able to reshape your lesson plan on the fly, torespond to the demands of different groups.
  • 44. Review the assigned material, even if you’ve taught thematerial before. If you’re working through problem sets withstudents, make sure you do the problem sets yourself first. Workthrough any exercises yourself first, etc. This will allow you toidentify potential problem areas and plan your lesson accordingly. Take into account other time demands, such as the need toreview assignment requirements. Allow for time for questions on difficult topics/concepts.Build time for questions into your lesson plan. Estimate the time each task will take, and be prepared to findout that your estimate is low. Be aware of course objectives, not just class objectives.Longer-term planning allows you to make connections betweenmaterial across weeks, as well as divide other tasks such as preparingfor assignments into more manageable ‘units’. It also lets you seewhere there are ‘lighter’ weeks in the syllabus.
  • 45. •Assess what your students already know, and the time availableversus the number of tasks that need to be accomplished.•Prioritize your established tasks to ensure that you cover themost important concepts/subjects.•Keep the classroom dynamic in mind. Is the group fond ofdebates (allow more time) or do they have difficulty participatingin discussion? The extra time it takes to get a discussion going willaffect your planning for the class. Try to experiment with allowingtime for individual writing in response to a question instead ofalways running a discussion.•Consider making use of time-controlled activities (groupwork, role-playing, in-class writing, individual presentations, etc).•Be aware of hidden time demands (administrativeissues, explanation of test procedures or assignments, questionsfrom lectures, setting up technology, rearranging the room, etc.).
  • 46. •Make students aware of your learning objectivesfor the day. It is sometimes helpful to put anoutline for that day’s class on an overheadtransparency or in one corner of the board.•Indicate not only what activities you’ll be doingand what exercises/problems you’ll be workingon, but how much time you’ll be allotting eachpart of the class. Indicate what the overall goal isfor that day.•Always keep an eye on the passage of time duringclass.•Assess the success of the lesson plan aftereach class and adapt for the next week.
  • 47. Routines have to be learned. We get used to doing them in order for themto become reutilized. It is, therefore, necessary that we identify andexplain specific rules and procedures in our classrooms. The first days ofschool will be most timely.TRANSITIONSManagement of most instructional interruptions is fully within the teacher’scontrol. Transitions can either be anticipated or unanticipated.EXAMPLES OF ANTICIPATED INTERRUPTIONS ARE:• Beginning of an instructional episode• Between instructional episodes• After an instructional episode• Equipment set up and take-down• Material distribution/ collection• From teacher-to-student-centered activity• Beginning/ end of class or school day
  • 48. Make clear your rules and procedures on the distribution andcollection of materials, storage of common materials, the teacher’sdesk and storage areas, students’ desk and storage areas, the use ofthe pencil sharpener.GROUP WORK Research shows that group work like cooperative learninghas a positive impact on student achievement, interpersonalrelationships and attitudes about learning.RULES AND PROCEDURES ON GROUP WORKADDRESS THE FF. AREAS:• Movement in and out of the group• Expected behaviors of students in the group• Expected behaviors of students not in the group• Group communication with the teacher
  • 49. RULES AND PROCEDURES IN THESE AREAS PERTAIN TO:• Student attention during presentations• Student participation• Talking among students• Obtaining help• Out-of-seat behavior• Behavior when work has been completed. HERE ARE SOME EFFECTIVE SIGNALS USED BY NEW AND EXPERIENCED TEACHERS: • 5,4,3,2,1 countdown 5 for freeze 4 for quiet 3 for eyes on the teacher 2 for hands free (put things down) 1 for listen for instructions • Raise you hand if you wish to participate. • To obtain teacher’s attention: One finger= I need to sharpen my pencil Two fingers= I need a tissue Three fingers= I need your help
  • 50. Teacher’s hand signal means:• Freeze (Stop what you are doing)• Gently tap on your neighbor’s arm to get his/her attention to freeze• Face the teacher and listen to instructionsDISCIPLINE -is a controlled behavior. It constitutes the next important concernof teachers as part of good management. No matter how well managed alearning environment is, students will occasionally misbehave. Teachersmust be ready to deal with them with utmost care and consideration.CAUSES OF DISCIPLINARY PROBLEMS1. Unfavorable learning conditions•Overcrowded with more than the regular number of students to a class.•Poor lightning facilities and inadequate ventilation.2. Teacher’s poor management skills•Knowledge and skill in employing a wide range of classroomstrategies and procedures•Personal and emotional attributes3. Student’s varied background•Family background•Physical and mental capacities•Emotional traits among others
  • 51. •Employ more group – oriented methodologies•Use varied teaching techniques•Develop patience, compassion, genuine respect and care for your students.Various modes of establishing discipline/classroom control•student’s responsibility•teachers exclusive responsibilities•a result of effective teaching strategies•an effect of group dynamics on behaviorARE YOU A GOOD DISCIPLINARIAN?Tips that can make a teacher a good disciplinarian.•Can face a class with varied behavior tendencies•Know your students•Show sincere concern for their welfare•Commendable behavior is reciprocal•Calm, poised and tactful•Are firm and consistent•Enthusiastic•Have a sense of humor•Have a well – modulated voice•Humble.
  • 52. Acceptable and effective•Use verbal reinforces that encourage good behaviorand discourage bad tendencies.•Use non verbal gestures, frown or a hard look todissuade them from mischief.•Dialogues can help in discovering problems andagreeing on mutually beneficial solution.•Focus attention on one who is unruly and is about todisturb the neighbors. Lead him/her to a secluded areaand nicely convince him/her to be quiet.•Award merits for good behavior and demerits for cconsistencies and lapses.•A private one – on – one brief conference can lead to abetter understanding of mistakes that need to beremedied or improved.•Give students the freedom to express or explainagitated feeling and misgivings rather than censurethem right away.
  • 53. •Scolding and harsh words as a reprimand will have a negative effect on theentire class.•Nagging and faultfinding, together with long “sermons” are repugnant andnasty.•Keeping a student in a “detention area” during or after classes as a penalty formisbehavior is a waste of time and occasion for learning. The shamefulexperience is not easy to forget.•Denying a student some privileges due to unnecessary hyperactivity can all themore encourage repetition.•Assignment of additional homework compared to the rest can make themdislike the subject.•Use of ridicule or sarcasm could humiliate and embarrass a for mentor.•Grades for academic achievement should not be affected due to misdemeanor.•Assignment of additional homework compared to the rest can make themdislike the subject.•Use of ridicule or sarcasm could humiliate and embarrass a for mentor.•Grades for academic achievement should not be affected due to misdemeanor.
  • 54. To establish discipline, use acceptable ways of dealing with discipline problemsand avoid the unacceptable measures by all means.MotivationHighly Motivated Students•Actively participates in every class activity•Often seen procuring over additional references•Curiously examining the proboscis of a butterfly•Volunteers to borrow and return materials used Poorly motivated Students•Passively stuck to the seat during discussions•Uninterested look and facial expression•Endlessly bother neither rather than listen•Unable to follow simple instructions•Leaves learning task half done Meaning of MotivationMotivation is a driving force that impels one to react. It refers to the teacher’s and thestudent’ rationale or purpose
  • 55. Intrinsic Motivation – is also called internal motivation. It originates fromthe students’ inner selves or from factors inherent in the task beingperformed.Intrinsic Motivation is greatly influenced by the innate values and attitudespossessed by the students.Extrinsic Motivation-is also called external motivation. It originates from thestudents’ learning environment or from factors external to the students andunrelated to the task at hand. It takes the form of rewards or incentives orrecognitions.Effective Questioning and Reacting TechniquesTypes of Questions According to PurposeAssessing Cognition – used to determine one’s knowledge in understanding. Theypromote high level of thinking.Verification – determines the exactness or accuracy of the results of anactivity or performance.Creative thinking- it probes into one’s originalityEvaluating – it elicits responses that include judgments, value and choice
  • 56. Productive thinking – it includes cognitive reasoning. It analyzes facts, recognizespatterns or trends and invokes memory and recallMotivating – a number of questions about the topic can serve to arouse their interestand focus attentionInstructing – directs, guides and advise on what and how to do an activityTypes of Questions According to Level / Answer•Low Level Question•High Level Question•Convergent Question•Divergent QuestionQuestioning Skill•Varying type of question•Asking non- directed question•Calling on non-volunteers•Rephrasing•Sequencing logically•Requiring abstract thinking•Asking open-ended question•Allowing sufficient wait time•Assessing comprehension•Involving as many as possible
  • 57. •Know your own style of questioning•Request colleague to critique your own style•Increase your own repertoire of type of questions•Consider the individual abilities and interests of the students•Spend time reflecting on the type of question you askEncourage Questions from StudentsThe teacher’s questioning technique is the key in encouraging students to askcorrect, relevant and high level questions. Her questions can serves as good examples•Attend to their questions. Avoid dismissing irrelevant questions. Assist in clarifyingor refocusing in order to solicit correct responses•Praise the correctly formulated questions. It develops confidence and makesknowledge search easy and satisfying.•Allot an appropriate time slot for open questioning. This will encourage the slowthinkers to participate freely.Handling Pupil’s Responses•Providing feedback on the correctness or incorrectness of a response•Giving appropriate praise to high quality responses•Making follow up questions
  • 58. •Redirecting questions•Following up a student’s response with related questions•Rephrasing the seemingly unclear questions•Showing non-verbal encouragement•Encouraging learners to ask questions HomeworkAway of extending the school day by providing students the opportunity torefine and extend their knowledge.Function of Homework•Extend of practice•Is advance preparation for the nextlesson•Help cultivate good study habit•Is an assessment tool