Facilitating Learning

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  • Ex. Of assimilation - child who pretends that a chip of wood is a boat or a banana is a phone.Ex. Of accommodation - imitating
  • Positive…decisions about students regarding special education had to be based on unbiased assessment information, and the rights of parents were outlined and clear procedures put into place to ensure that any disagreements with school districts would be addressed in an inpartial wayNegative…it did not mark an end to the debate about appropriate programs and services
  • Refer to the preferred way an individual processes information.
  • Positive…decisions about students regarding special education had to be based on unbiased assessment information, and the rights of parents were outlined and clear procedures put into place to ensure that any disagreements with school districts would be addressed in an inpartial wayNegative…it did not mark an end to the debate about appropriate programs and services
  • Facilitating Learning

    1. 1. Facilitating learning:A Meta-cognitive Process
    2. 2. “If you teach a person what tolearn, you are preparing that person for the past. If you teach a personhow to learn, you are preparing that person for its future.” - Cyril Houle -
    3. 3. Teaching – giving/transferringLearning – acquiring/accepting EDUCATIVE PROCESSLearner – given focusTeacher – prime moverLearning Environment – headway
    4. 4. Learner – embodied spiritSentient body - rational soulExperiencing sensation - self-reflection - free will - intellectual abstractions cognitive & affective faculties instinct feelings imagining emotions intellect free rational memory volition
    5. 5. Influences/different Factors to become Different to each other: -environment/home - biological aspect -Teacher -Personal attributes -Professional attributes Badge of Profession – sense of service (teacher)Effective – doing the right thingEfficiency – time, effort, motivation, method
    6. 6. 7m’s should beManaged: P – lanningM- oney O – rganizingM- aterials L – eadingM- oment C – ontrollingM- anpower S – taffingM- achineM- arketM- anner
    7. 7. LEARNER-CENTERED PSYCHOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES The following 14 psychological factorspertain to the learner and the learningprocess. They focus on psychological factorsthat are primarily internal to and under thecontrol of the learner rather thanconditioned habits or physiological factors.However, the principles also attempt toacknowledge external environment orcontextual factors that interact with theseinternal factors.
    8. 8. The principles are intended to dealholistically with learners in the context ofreal-world learning situations. Thus, they arebest understood as an organized set ofprinciples; no principle should be viewed inisolation. The 14 principles are divided intothose referring to 1)cognitive and meta-cognitive, 2)motivational andaffective, 3)developmental and social, and4)individual difference factors influencinglearners and learning.
    9. 9. Cognitive and Meta-cognitive Factors1. Nature of the learning process learning of complex subject matter2. Goals of the learning process can create meaningful, coherent representations of knowledge.3. Construction of knowledge can link new information with existing knowledge in meaningful ways.
    10. 10. 4. Strategic thinking can create and use a repertoire ofthinking and reasoning strategies to achievecomplex learning goals.5. Thinking about thinking beyond thinking/ deepening of knowledge6. Context of learning influenced by environmental factors
    11. 11. Motivational and Affective Factors7. Motivational and emotional influences onLearning What and how much is learned?8. Intrinsic motivation to learn learners creativity, higher orderthinking, and natural curiosity (w/in yourself)stimulated by tasks of optimal novelty9. Effects of motivation and effortacquisition of complex knowledge and skills
    12. 12. Developmental and Social Factors10. Developmental influences on learningdifferent opportunities and constraints for learningphysical, intellectual, emotional, and social domains.* appropriateness of material* intellectual, social, emotional, and physical domains* macro skills – interest and level of the student* prior or past experiences – fromschool, home, culture, and community factors.* early and continuing parental – language interactionsand two-way* awareness and understanding of developmentdifferences among children – understand differences
    13. 13. 11. Social influences on learning influenced by socialinteractions, interpersonal relations, andcommunication with others.Individual Differences Factors12. Individual differences in learning different strategies, approaches, andcapabilities for learning that are a function ofprior experience and heredity.
    14. 14. 13. Learning and diversity Learning is most effective whendifferences in learnerslinguistic, cultural, and social backgroundsare taken into account.14. Standards and assessment Setting appropriately high andchallenging standards and assessing thelearner as well as learning progressincluding diagnostic, process, and outcomeassessment are integral parts of the learningprocess.
    15. 15. Alexander & Murphy summary of the 14 Principles: 1. The knowledge base 2. Strategic processing and control 3. Motivation and affective4. Development and Individual differences 5. Situation or context
    16. 16. Review of theDevelopmental Theories
    17. 17. Freud3 Components of Personality Erikson Piaget 5 Psychosexual Stages of 8 Psycho-social Stages of 4 Stages of Cognitive development Development Development Theories Related To The Learner’s Development Vygotsky Kohlberg • On Language Brofenbrenner3 Stages and 6 Substances of •Zone of Proximal Bio-Ecological System Moral Development Development
    18. 18. Freud Psycho-Sexual Theory• Freud proposed that there were 5 stages of development. Freud believed that few people successfully completed all 5 of the stages. Instead, he felt that most people tied up their libido at one of the stages, which prevented them from using that energy at a later stage.
    19. 19. Stage Erogenous Zone FixationOral (birth to 18 months) Mouth Drinking , eating, smoking or nail biting Anal (18-32 months) Anus Anal retentive and anal expulsive Phallic (3 – 6 years) Genitals Oedipus Complex and Electra Complex Latency (6- puberty) Genital (puberty +) Genitals
    20. 20. Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development “The principle goal of education is to create men who are capable of doing new things ,not simply to repeating what other generaions have done – men who are creative, inventive and discovers”.
    21. 21. CognitiveJean Piaget development theory • Children "construct" their understanding of the world through their active involvement and interactions. • Studied his 3 children to focus not on what they knew but how they knew it.
    22. 22. • Schema: – The term “schema” to refer to the cognitive structures by which individuals intellectually adapt to and organize their environment.• Assimilation: – This is the process of fitting a new experience into an existing or previously created cognitive structure or schema.• Accommodation: – This is the process of creating a new schema.
    23. 23. • Equilibration – Achieving proper balance between assimilation and accommodation – Disequilibrium • this means there is a discrepancy between what is perceived and what is understood. We then exert effort through assimilation and accommodation to establish equilibriumonce more.
    24. 24. Piaget’s Cognitive Development Stages• Sensori-motor – Ages birth - 2: the infant uses his senses and motor abilities to understand the world• Pre-operation – Ages 2-7: the child uses metal representations of objects and is able to use symbolic thought and language• Concrete operations – Ages 7-11; the child uses logical operations or principles when solving problems• Formal operations
    25. 25. Piaget’s Cognitive Development Stages• Stage 1 : Sensory Motor Stage.(birth to infancy) – This is the stage when child who is initially reflexive in grasping, sucking, and reaching becomes more organized in his movement and activity.
    26. 26. Eriksons Stages of Psychosocial Development
    27. 27. Stage Crisis Maladaptation Malignancy Virtue Infancy Trust vs. Sensory Withdrawal Hope Mistrust DistortionEarly Adulthhood Autonomy vs. Impulsivity Compulsion Will Power Shame & Doubt Pre-school Initiative vs. ruthlessness Inhibition Purpose Guilt School Age Industry vs. Narrow Inertia Competence Inferiority Virtuosity Adolescence Identity vs. Role Fanaticism Repudiation Fidelity ConfusionYoung Adulthood Intimacy vs. Promiscuity Exclusivity Love IsolationMiddle Adulthood Generativity vs. Over extention Rejectivity Care Stagnation Maturity Ego Integrity vs. Presumption Disdain Wisdom Despair
    28. 28. Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development• Assessed moral reasoning by posing hypothetical moral dilemmas and examining the reasoning behind people’s answers• Proposed three distinct levels of moral reasoning: preconventional, conventional, and postconventional• Each level is based on the degree to which a person conforms to conventional standards of society• Each level has two stages that represent different degrees of sophistication in moral reasoning
    29. 29. Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development
    30. 30. Lev VygotskySocio-Cultural Theory
    31. 31. • Definition – Sociocultural theory results from the dynamic interaction between a person and the surrounding social and cultural forces. – 3 claims of Vygotsky – a) Fundamentally shaped by cultural tools – b) Functioning emerges out of social processes – c) Developmental methods (Zone of Proximal Development)
    32. 32. • Strategies to utilize the benefits of ZPD• a) Scaffolding –requires demonstration, while controlling the environment so that one can take things step by step.• b) Reciprocal teaching – open dialog between student and teacher which goes beyond simple question and answer session.•
    33. 33. • Vygotsky theorized that human development is not something that is fixed and eternal. It will change as a result of historical development.Cultural Influences – a) Imitative learning – b) Instructed learning – c) Collaborative learning Principles – a) Cognitive development is limited to a certain range at any given age. – b) Full cognitive development requires social interaction.
    34. 34. 5 Main Points• a) Use of Zone of Proximal Development• b) Interaction with other people is important for cognitive growth• c) Culture can make daily living more efficient and effective.• d) Advanced mental methods start through social activities.• e) Increase of the independent use of language and thought during a child’s first few years of life.•
    35. 35. Developmental Systems Theory The belief thatdevelopment cantbe explained by a single concept, but rather by a
    36. 36. Urie Bronfenbrenner Ecological Systems Theory or bioecological theory• The varied systems of the environment and the interrelationsh ips among the systems shape a childs development.• Both the
    37. 37. Bronfenbrenner’s Bio-Ecological Model• The microsystem - activities and interactions in the childs immediate surroundings: parents, school, frie nds, etc.• The mesosystem - relationships among the entities involved in the childs microsystem: parents interactions with teachers, a schools interactions with the daycare provider• The exosystem - social institutions which affect children indirectly: the parents work settings and policies, extended family networks, mass media, community resources• The macrosystem - broader cultural values, laws and governmental resources• The chronosystem -
    38. 38. Outline of 20th Century Theories• Psychoanalytical Theories – Psychosexual: Sigmund Freud – Psychosocial: Erik Erikson• Cognitive Theories – Cognitive Development: Jean Piaget – Socio-cultural: Lev Vygotsky• Systems Theories – Ecological Systems: Urie Bronfenbrenner
    39. 39. Students with Exceptionalities What is Special Education? Specially designed instruction, at no cost to theparents, to meet the unique needs of a child with a disability. Before 1975 and the passage of the first federal special education law, four million children withdisabilities did not receive the help they needed in school and another one million were completely excluded from school.
    40. 40. Discrimination and the Beginning of Change• Shortly after the 1954 Brown vs. Board of Education decision clarifying that “separate cannot be equal,” some professionals began questioning whether separate classes provided students with disabilities with an appropriate education• After decades of research, what had become clear was that the special education was not just a means of assisting children with disabilities; it had also become a means of discriminating against students who might be perceived by educators as more challenging to reach
    41. 41. Prevalence of Students with Disabilities• Although statistics are difficult to obtain, it has been estimated that between 10 and 13 percent of the school-age population has exceptionalities. Thus, in an average-size classroom of 25 students, it is conceivable that 3 or 4 individuals will exhibit one or more exceptionalities• Students with specific learning disabilities represent approximately half of all those receiving special education, followed by speech or language impairments, mental retardation, and emotional disabilities
    42. 42. Prevalence of Students with Disabilities• In the past decade, the number of students indentified in having disabilities has grown significantly• Some suggest that this increase is in part because of the desire on the part of educators and parents to give help to struggling students• What other factors do you think might contribute to this rise?
    43. 43. Providing an Unwavering Commitment• At no point in history have we, as a nation, taken such bold and noble measures to mandate the educational rights of all children, including those with disabilities and exceptionalities• Under the Individuals with Disabilities Act and the guarantee for a free and appropriate public education, the courts have repeatedly and consistently ruled that schools simply must provide the necessary resources to teach all children, regardless of the physical or mental handicaps they may manifest.
    44. 44. The Law and Exceptional Children• PL 94-142 Education for all handicapped children act (1975)• First law to clearly define the rights of disabled children to free appropriate public education• It requires the school systems to include the parents when meeting about the child or making decisions about his/ her education• It mandated an individualized education program (IEP) which must include short and long term goals• It also requires that the child be placed in the least restrictive environment
    45. 45. Least Restrictive Environment• "Least restrictive environment" means that a student who has a disability should have the opportunity to be educated with non-disabled peers, to the greatest extent possible.• They should have access to the general education curriculum, extracurricular activities, or any other program that non-disabled peers would be able to access• The student should be provided with supplementary aids and services necessary to achieve educational goals if placed in a setting with non-disabled peers
    46. 46. Individualized Education Program (IEP)• If team members decide that a student is eligible for special education, they then prepare an IEP• This document summarizes all of the information gathered concerning the student, sets the expectations of what the student will learn over the next year, and it prescribes the types and amount of special services the student will receive.• Must be received and updated annually
    47. 47. Required Components of an IEP• Must address how the student’s disability affects involvement and progress in the general education• Annual goals and short term objectives• Supplementary aids and services, assistive technology, participation with peers who do not have disabilities, accommodations for testing, dates of effectiveness of IEP
    48. 48. The Law and Exceptional Children• PL 98-199 Education of the Handicapped Act Amendments (1983)• Allows for federal funding to create parent training and information centers so that parents can learn how to protect the rights of their child• Also provided financial incentives for transition services from school to adult living for students with disabilities
    49. 49. The Law and Exceptional Children• PL 101-476 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)(1990)• Renamed earlier laws and their amendments• More importantly, it replaced the word “handicapped” with the word “disabled”, therefore expanding services for these students• It strengthened the law’s commitment to greater inclusion in community schools
    50. 50. Accomplishments andDisappointments of Special Education Law• The passage of federal special education law was revolutionary and it had many positive effects; many students who had been completely left out of the public school system were now guaranteed an education• However, the passage of the law did not address all the issues of educating students with disabilities
    51. 51. Confidentiality• IDEA specifies that information regarding a student’s disability is highly confidential• That information may not be shared with anyone who is not directly working with the student• Once records are not longer needed, a procedure must be in place so that they are destroyed
    52. 52. Who Receives Special Education? • Hearing impairments• Specific learning disabilities • Orthopedic impairments• Speech or language impairments • Other health impairments• Mental retardation • Autism• Emotional disturbance • Traumatic brain injury• Deaf/ blindness (both) • Multiple disabilities• Visual impairments • Developmental delays
    53. 53. Educational Practices• Inclusive Practices…lots of debates!• Inclusion is a belief system shared by every member of a school as a learning community about the responsibility of educating all students so that they can reach their potential.• Inclusion encompasses students who are gifted and talented, those who are at risk for failure because of their life circumstances, those with disabilities, and those who are average learners.• Accommodations…mark in book, separate setting, extended time, read alouds, reduced number of items per page, alternate test
    54. 54. Inclusion• In today’s schools, what is considered inclusive practice varies widely depending on state and local policies related to inclusion, the resources available, teacher and administrator understanding and commitment, and parent and community support• It may look like an EC teacher who is in your room every day for the entire class period or a few times a week for ½ a class period
    55. 55. Implications• Exceptional Children’s teachers in North Carolina are reporting all too often the hardships they face due to the lack of available resources• The state must do all within its means to secure the necessary funding of exceptional children so that no child has to use materials that are worn, out of date, or even worse, contain information that is no longer current• It is painfully obvious that state funds are insufficient to meet the needs of North Carolina’s exceptional children by providing them the resources that are required for a sound education
    56. 56. What EC teachers are Saying• Success must never be based on single test scores• No other issue has raised more concern with EC teachers than that of paperwork• HUGE SHORTAGE!!
    57. 57. What about Gifted and Talented Students?• IDEA does not provide for special education for these students• Only 30 states mandate education of students who are gifted and talented• Important to note that sometimes students with disabilities are also gifted and talented
    58. 58. What is Giftedness?• Gifted and talented students are those identified by professionally qualified persons who by virtue of outstanding abilities are capable of high performance• Giftedness is evidence of advanced development across intellectual areas, within a specific academic or arts-related area, or unusual organizational power to bring about desired results• These children may require differentiated educational programs and services beyond those normally provided by the regular school program in order to realize their contribution to self and society
    59. 59. Prevalence• Estimates vary considerably due to disagreement over definition• On average, school districts serve 12% of students under the “gifted” label• Depending on the state, the prevalence may range from 2 to 22% of students being served
    60. 60. Characteristics• Students who are gifted usually display curiosity, a strong need to know and to understand how the world works• A student who is gifted may understand language and mathematics at an earlier age than is typical and become known to parents and teachers by these skills• They may bring high energy levels to school tasks, may display characteristics of perfectionism
    61. 61. Educational Practices• Ability Grouping• Full time or part time separate classes• Specialized schools• Cluster Grouping• Inclusive practices• Acceleration• Enrichment• Differentiation
    62. 62. Individual Benefits ofDifferences Diversity in the Factors Classroom Classroom Strategies for Student Diversity
    63. 63. Socioeconomic StatusThinking/Learning StyleExceptionalities
    64. 64. Students self-awareness is enhanced by diversityStudent diversity contributes to cognitive development
    65. 65.  Student diversity prepares learners for their role as responsible members of the society Student diversity can promote harmony
    66. 66.  Encourage learners to share their personal history and experiences Integrate learning experiences and activities which promote students multicultural and cross-cultural awareness.
    67. 67.  Aside from highlighting diversity, identify patterns of unity that transcend group differences. Communicate high expectations to students from all sub-groups.
    68. 68.  Use varied instructional methods to accommodate student diversity in learning styles. Vary the examples you use to illustrate concepts in order to provide multiple contexts that are relevant to students from diverse backgrounds.
    69. 69.  Adapt to the students’ diverse backgrounds and learning styles by allowing them personal choice and decision-making opportunities concerning what they will learn and how they will learn it. Diversify your methods of assessing and evaluating student learning.
    70. 70.  Purposely, form small-discussion groups of students from diverse backgrounds. You can form groups of students with different learning styles, different cultural backgrounds, etc.
    71. 71. Learning/Thinkingstyles and multiple intelligences
    72. 72. LEARNING/THINKING STYLEs -refer to the preferred way an individual processes information. - they describe a person’s typical mode of thinking, remembering or problem solving. SENSORY PREFERENCESIndividuals tend to gravitate toward one or two types of sensory input and maintain a dominance in one of the following types : -Visual Learners - Auditory Learners - Tactile/ Kinesthetic Learners
    73. 73. Visual learners- tend to learn better when a variety of visual aids are used. Visual- iconic -refers to those who are more interested in visual imagery such as film, graphic displays, pictures. Visual- symbolic - refers to those who feel comfortable with abstract symbolism such as mathematical formula or the written word.
    74. 74. AUDITORY LEARNERS- recieve information best by listening. Listeners - they remember thingssaid to them and make the information their own. Talkers - they are the one who prefer to talk and discuss. ( auditory- verbal processors)
    75. 75. Tactile/ kinesthetic learners- they tend to prefer learning by doing/ experiencing things.
    76. 76. Characteristics of tactile learners: - Is good at sports. - Can’t sit still for long. - Is not great at spelling. - Does not have great handwriting. - Like science lab. - Studies with loud music on. - Like adventure books, movies. - Likes role playing. - Takes breaks when studying. - Builds models. - Is involved in martial arts, dance - Is fidgety during lectures.
    77. 77. Global–analytic continuum analytic- they tend toward the linear, step- by- step processes of learning. (tree seers) Global- they lean towards non-linear thought and tend to see the whole pattern rather than particle elements. (forest seers)
    78. 78. Left- brain/ right- brain continuum left- brained PERSON- isportrayed as the linear. (analytic) right- brained person- is viewed as non- linear. (global)
    79. 79. Successive processor (left brain) - details leading to a conceptual understanding.SIMULTANEOUS PROCESSOR (RIGHT BRAIN) - general concept going on to specifics.
    80. 80. LEFT BRAIN( ANALYTIC) right brain(global)Successive Hemispheric Style Simultaneous Hemispheric Style1. VERBAL 1. VISUAL2. RESPONDS TO WORD MEANING 2. RESPONDS TO TONE OF VOICE3. SEQUENTIAL 3. RANDOM4. PROSESSES INFORMATION 4. PROCESSES INFORMATION LINEARLY IN VARIED ORDER5. RESPONDS TO LOGIC 5. RESPONDS TO EMOTION6. PLANS AHEAD 6. IMPULSIVE7. RECALLS PEOPLE’S NAME 7. RECALLS PEOPLE FACES8. SPEAKS WITH FEW GESTURES 8. GESTURES WHEN SPEAKING9. PUNCTUAL 9. LESS PUNCTUAL10. PREFERS FORMAL STUDY 10. PREFERS SOUND/ MUSIC DESIGN BACKGROUND WHILE STUDYING11. PREFERS BRIGHT LIGHTS WHILE 11. PREFERS FREQUENT MOBILITY STUDYING. WHILE STUDYING
    81. 81. MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES - is an educational theory, first developed by Howard Gardner,that describes an array of different kinds of intelligences exhibited by human beings. Howard Gardner - he believes that different intelligences may beindependent abilities and all of us possess the intelligences but in varying degrees of strength and skill. - the theory was first laid out in Gardner’s 1983 book Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences and has been further refined in subsequent years.
    82. 82. intelligences - an ability or set of abilities that allows a person tosolve a problem or fashion a product that is valued in one or more cultures. 9 DISTINCT FORMS OF INTELLIGENCE 1.VISUAL/ SPATIAL INTELLIGENCE (pICTURE SMART) - learning visually and organizing ideas spatially. 2.VERBAL/ LINGUISTIC (WORD SMART) - learning through the spoken and written word.3. MATHEMATICAL/ LOGICAL ( NUMBER SMART/ LOGIC SMART) - learning through reasoning and problem solving.
    83. 83. 4. BODILY/ KINESTHETIc ( BODY SMART)- learning through interaction with one’s environment. 5. MUSICAL (MUSIC SMART) - learning through patterns, rhythms and music. 6. INTRAPERSONAl (SELF SMART) - learning through feelings, values and attitudes. 7. INTERPERSONAL (PEOPLE SMART) - learning through interaction with others. 8. NATURALIST (NATURE SMART) - learning through classification,categories and hierarchies. 9. EXISTENTIAL (SPIRIT SMART) - learning by seeing the “big picture”
    84. 84. Students with Exceptionalities What is Special Education?• Specially designed instruction, at no cost to the parents, to meet the unique needs of a child with a disability• Before 1975 and the passage of the first federal special education law, four million children with disabilities did not receive the help they needed in school and another one million were completely excluded from school
    85. 85. Discrimination and the Beginning of Change• Shortly after the 1954 Brown vs. Board of Education decision clarifying that “separate cannot be equal,” some professionals began questioning whether separate classes provided students with disabilities with an appropriate education• After decades of research, what had become clear was that the special education was not just a means of assisting children with disabilities; it had also become a means of discriminating against students who might be perceived by educators as more challenging to reach
    86. 86. Prevalence of Students with Disabilities• Although statistics are difficult to obtain, it has been estimated that between 10 and 13 percent of the school-age population has exceptionalities. Thus, in an average-size classroom of 25 students, it is conceivable that 3 or 4 individuals will exhibit one or more exceptionalities• Students with specific learning disabilities represent approximately half of all those receiving special education, followed by speech or language impairments, mental retardation, and emotional disabilities
    87. 87. Prevalence of Students with Disabilities• In the past decade, the number of students indentified in having disabilities has grown significantly• Some suggest that this increase is in part because of the desire on the part of educators and parents to give help to struggling students• What other factors do you think might contribute to this rise?
    88. 88. Providing an Unwavering Commitment• At no point in history have we, as a nation, taken such bold and noble measures to mandate the educational rights of all children, including those with disabilities and exceptionalities• Under the Individuals with Disabilities Act and the guarantee for a free and appropriate public education, the courts have repeatedly and consistently ruled that schools simply must provide the necessary resources to teach all children, regardless of the physical or mental handicaps they may manifest.
    89. 89. The Law and Exceptional Children• PL 94-142 Education for all handicapped children act (1975)• First law to clearly define the rights of disabled children to free appropriate public education• It requires the school systems to include the parents when meeting about the child or making decisions about his/ her education• It mandated an individualized education program (IEP) which must include short and long term goals• It also requires that the child be placed in the least restrictive environment
    90. 90. Least Restrictive Environment• "Least restrictive environment" means that a student who has a disability should have the opportunity to be educated with non-disabled peers, to the greatest extent possible.• They should have access to the general education curriculum, extracurricular activities, or any other program that non- disabled peers would be able to access• The student should be provided with supplementary aids and services necessary to achieve educational goals if placed in a setting with non-disabled peers
    91. 91. Individualized Education Program (IEP)• If team members decide that a student is eligible for special education, they then prepare an IEP• This document summarizes all of the information gathered concerning the student, sets the expectations of what the student will learn over the next year, and it prescribes the types and amount of special services the student will receive.• Must be received and updated annually
    92. 92. Required Components of an IEP• Must address how the student’s disability affects involvement and progress in the general education• Annual goals and short term objectives• Supplementary aids and services, assistive technology, participation with peers who do not have disabilities, accommodations for testing, dates of effectiveness of IEP
    93. 93. The Law and Exceptional Children• PL 98-199 Education of the Handicapped Act Amendments (1983)• Allows for federal funding to create parent training and information centers so that parents can learn how to protect the rights of their child• Also provided financial incentives for transition services from school to adult living for students with disabilities
    94. 94. The Law and Exceptional Children• PL 101-476 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)(1990)• Renamed earlier laws and their amendments• More importantly, it replaced the word “handicapped” with the word “disabled”, therefore expanding services for these students• It strengthened the law’s commitment to greater inclusion in community schools
    95. 95. Accomplishments andDisappointments of Special Education Law• The passage of federal special education law was revolutionary and it had many positive effects; many students who had been completely left out of the public school system were now guaranteed an education• However, the passage of the law did not address all the issues of educating students with disabilities
    96. 96. Confidentiality• IDEA specifies that information regarding a student’s disability is highly confidential• That information may not be shared with anyone who is not directly working with the student• Once records are not longer needed, a procedure must be in place so that they are destroyed
    97. 97. Who Receives Special Education? • Hearing impairments• Specific learning disabilities • Orthopedic impairments• Speech or language impairments • Other health impairments• Mental retardation • Autism• Emotional disturbance • Traumatic brain injury• Deaf/ blindness (both) • Multiple disabilities• Visual impairments • Developmental delays
    98. 98. Educational Practices• Inclusive Practices…lots of debates!• Inclusion is a belief system shared by every member of a school as a learning community about the responsibility of educating all students so that they can reach their potential.• Inclusion encompasses students who are gifted and talented, those who are at risk for failure because of their life circumstances, those with disabilities, and those who are average learners.• Accommodations…mark in book, separate setting, extended time, read alouds, reduced number of items per page, alternate test
    99. 99. Inclusion• In today’s schools, what is considered inclusive practice varies widely depending on state and local policies related to inclusion, the resources available, teacher and administrator understanding and commitment, and parent and community support• It may look like an EC teacher who is in your room every day for the entire class period or a few times a week for ½ a class period
    100. 100. Implications• Exceptional Children’s teachers in North Carolina are reporting all too often the hardships they face due to the lack of available resources• The state must do all within its means to secure the necessary funding of exceptional children so that no child has to use materials that are worn, out of date, or even worse, contain information that is no longer current• It is painfully obvious that state funds are insufficient to meet the needs of North Carolina’s exceptional children by providing them the resources that are required for a sound education
    101. 101. What EC teachers are Saying• Success must never be based on single test scores• No other issue has raised more concern with EC teachers than that of paperwork• HUGE SHORTAGE!!
    102. 102. What about Gifted and Talented Students?• IDEA does not provide for special education for these students• Only 30 states mandate education of students who are gifted and talented• Important to note that sometimes students with disabilities are also gifted and talented
    103. 103. What is Giftedness?• Gifted and talented students are those identified by professionally qualified persons who by virtue of outstanding abilities are capable of high performance• Giftedness is evidence of advanced development across intellectual areas, within a specific academic or arts-related area, or unusual organizational power to bring about desired results• These children may require differentiated educational programs and services beyond those normally provided by the regular school program in order to realize their contribution to self and society
    104. 104. Prevalence• Estimates vary considerably due to disagreement over definition• On average, school districts serve 12% of students under the “gifted” label• Depending on the state, the prevalence may range from 2 to 22% of students being served
    105. 105. Characteristics• Students who are gifted usually display curiosity, a strong need to know and to understand how the world works• A student who is gifted may understand language and mathematics at an earlier age than is typical and become known to parents and teachers by these skills• They may bring high energy levels to school tasks, may display characteristics of perfectionism
    106. 106. Educational Practices• Ability Grouping• Full time or part time separate classes• Specialized schools• Cluster Grouping• Inclusive practices• Acceleration• Enrichment• Differentiation
    107. 107. MODULE 10
    108. 108. ALBINO, Anne MarieCANICULA, MarielleCORDOBA, Joel MariDELA CRUZ, Mikko andSUAREZ, Rafael Lawrence together with Theories of LearningSr. Angelina Julom, CSFN present
    109. 109. Edward Chace Tolman (1886-1959)• Born in Newton, Massachusetts• Received academic degrees in Electrochemistry and Psychology (M.A. 1912, Ph.D. 1915)• He was released from Northwestern University for “lack of teaching success”, but more likely it was because of his pacifism during wartime
    110. 110. • His theory of learning can be looked on as a blend of Gestalt theory and behaviorism• He saw little value in the introspective approach• He agreed on molar behavior rather than molecular behavior
    111. 111. Molar Behavior• Purposive• Tolman’s major work was entitled Purposive Behavior in Animals and Men• Related to the Gestalt theory• Tolman felt that whole behavior patterns had a meaning that would be lost if studied from an elementistic viewpoint• It is in contrast with the idea of molecular behavior
    112. 112. Purposive Behaviorism• Explains goal-directed behavior• behavior is PURPOSIVE, COGNITIVE & MOLARExample: the searching behavior of a rat in a maze will persist until food is found• Goal or Purpose of Rat: To find the food• The purposive behavior is the fact that the rat still keeps up with the maze
    113. 113. Major Theoretical Concepts• According to Tolman, taking his lead from the Gestalt theorists, learning is essentially a process of discovering what leads to what in the environment.• Emphasizer – an organism’s drive state determines which aspect of the environment will be emphasized in its perceptual field.
    114. 114. • Principle of Least Effort – when an organism chooses the one that will require the shortest route/shortcuts or anything that will only require minimum amount of energy.
    115. 115. • Cognitive map – a picture of something that an organism usually is encountering when it do something.Example: when a person walks on the same street everyday, he will know that when he looks/turns to his left, he will see this and when he looks/turns to the right, he will see that.
    116. 116. Vicarious Trial and Error• Vicarious Trial and Error - characteristic of rats wherein they consistently stop or pause at choice points.• Tests in this type of trial and error are tested cognitively rather than behaviorally. Learning vs. Performance• Latent Learning – learning that is not translated into performance
    117. 117. Tolman and Honzik (1930) ran an experiment involving 3 groups of rats learning to solve a maze.The first group was regularly reinforced. The second one had to wait until the 11th day. The third one was Tolman’s interest.After the experiment, he concluded that the performance of those who were reinforced after the 11th day, compared to the one which was reinforced continually, was much better if not equally better.
    118. 118. • 3 things that Tolman observed:(1) There is a slight improvement in the performance of the group that was never really reinforced.(2) The reinforced group showed steady improvement throughout the duration.(3) When the reinforcement was introduced, performance vastly improved.
    119. 119. • The results from the experiment proved Tolman’s statement that reinforcements are performance variable not a learning variable.• Latent Extinction – occurs simply because the organism was presented in a situation where a reinforcer is no longer present. Such extinction does not depend on the performance of non-reinforced response.
    120. 120. Response Learning vs. Place Learning• Response Learning – learning of specific responses that are effective in solving a problem and thereby providing reinforcement.• Place learning – learning where an object is located. For Tolman, once the location of an object is known, it can be reached by any number of alternate routes.
    121. 121. Reinforcement Expectancy• Tolman predicted that if reinforcers were changed, behavior would be disrupted because in Reinforcement Expectancy, a particular reinforcer becomes a part of what is expected.• Cognitive dissonance – negative drive state and the person experiencing it seeks ways to reduce it, just as the person experiencing hunger seeks to reduce hunger drive.
    122. 122. Individual Difference Variables• As per suggested by Tolman,• H = heredity• A = age• T = previous training• E = special endocrine, drug, or vitamin conditions
    123. 123. Intervening Variables• Created by the theorist to aid in explaining the relationship between the independent and dependent variables• In-between behavior and environmental and individual difference variables• Examples: Demand, Appetite, Differentiation, Motor Skill, Hypotheses, Biases
    124. 124. Behaviorist PerspectivePavlov,Thorndike,Watson,Skinner Behaviorism:
    125. 125. Behaviorism• focuses on the study of observable andmeasurable behavior.•It emphasizes that behavior is mostly learnedthrough conditioning and reinforcement ( rewardsand punishment )•It does not give much attention to the mind , andthe possibility of thought processes occurring in themind.•Contributions in the development of thebehaviorist theory largely came fromPavlov, Watson, Thorndike and Skinner.
    126. 126. •a Russian psychologist is well known for his work in classical conditioning or stimulus substitution. •Most renowned experiment involved meat, a dog and a bell.Ivan Pavlov Measuring the dog’s salivation in order to study digestion.
    127. 127. Classical Conditioning
    128. 128. •Stimulus generalization- once the dog haslearned to salivate at the sound of the bell, itwill salivate at other similar sound.•Extinction- if you stop pairing the bell withthe food, salivation will eventually cease inresponse to the bell.•Spontaneous recovery- extinguishedresponses can be recovered after an elapsedtime, but will soon extinguish again if the dogis not presented with food.
    129. 129. •Discrimination- the dog could learn todiscriminate between similar bells anddiscern which bell would result in thepresentation of food and which would not.•Higher-order conditioning- once the doghas been conditioned to associate the bellwith the food, another unconditionedstimulus, such as a light may be flashed atthe same time that the bell is rung.Eventually the dog will salivate at the flash ofthe light without the sound of the bell.
    130. 130. •He explained that learning is the result of associations forming between stimuli and responses. Such association or habits become strengthened or weakened by nature and frequency of the S-R pairings. •The main principle ofEdward connectionism was that learningThorndike could be adequately explained without considering any unobservable internal states.
    131. 131. Theory of connectionism - stated that learning has taken place when astrong connection or bond between stimulus andresponse is formed.Three primary law1. Law of effect- S-R is strengthened when the consequence is positive and weakened when the consequence is negative.2. Law of exercise- when S-R bond is practice the stronger it will become.3. Law of readiness- the more readiness the learner has to respond to the stimulus, the stronger will be the bond between them.
    132. 132. Principles derived from theory ofconnectionism:1.Learning requires both practice and rewards (law of effect/exercise).2.A series of S-R connection can be chained together if they belong to the same action sequence (law of readiness).3.Transfer of learning occurs because previously encountered situations.4.Intelligence is a function of the number of connections learned.
    133. 133. • work with Pavlovs ideas •Considered that humans are born with a few reflexes and the emotional reactions of love and rage. •Experiment on Albert and aJohn white ratWatson •His work did clearly show the role of conditioning in the development of emotional responses to certain stimuli.
    134. 134. • operant conditioning •Reinforcement +R-any stimulus given or added to increase the response. -R- any stimulus thatBurrhus results in the increasedFrederick frequency of a responseSkinner when it is withdrawn or removed.
    135. 135. Albert Bandura: Social / Observational Learning• Basic Premise• We learn behavior through observation• Vicarious reinforcement: Learn through observing consequences of behaviors of others• Modelling• Observe behavior of others and repeat the behavior• Bobo doll studies (1963)• Disinhibition: Weakening of inhibition through exposure to a model
    136. 136. Factors Influencing Modeling: Impact Tendency to Imitate• Characteristics of the models: similarity, age, sex, status, prestige, simple vs. complex behavior• Characteristics of observers: Low self- confidence, low self-esteem, reinforcement for imitation• Reward consequences of behavior: Directly witnessing associated rewards
    137. 137. The Observational Learning Process: 4 Steps• Attentional processes• Retention processes• Production processes• Incentive and motivational processes
    138. 138. Step 1: Attentional Processes• Developing cognitive processes to pay attention to a model- more developed processes allow for better attention• Must observe the model accurately enough to imitate behavior
    139. 139. Step 2: Retention Processes• To later imitate behavior, must remember aspects of the behavior• Retain information in 2 ways: – Imaginal internal representation: Visual image Ex: Forming a mental picture – Verbal system: Verbal description of behavior Ex: Silently rehearsing steps in behavior
    140. 140. Step 3: Production Processes• Taking imaginal and verbal representations and translating into overt behavior- practice behaviors• Receive feedback on accuracy of behavior- how well have you imitated the modeled behavior?• Important in mastering difficult skills – Ex: Driving a car
    141. 141. Step 4: Incentive and Motivational Processes• With incentives, observation more quickly becomes action, pay more attention, retain more information• Incentive to learn influenced by anticipated reinforcements
    142. 142. Aspects of the Self: Self-reinforcement and Self-efficacy• Self-reinforcement: Rewards or punishments given to oneself for reaching, exceeding or falling short of personal expectations – Ex: Pride, shame, guilt• Self-efficacy: Belief in ability to cope with life – Meeting standards: Enhances self-efficacy – Failure to meet standards: Reduces self-efficacy
    143. 143. Self-Efficacy• High self-efficacy – Believe can deal effectively with life events – Confident in abilities – Expect to overcome obstacles effectively• Low self-efficacy – Feel unable to exercise control over life – Low confidence, believe all efforts are futile
    144. 144. Sources of Information in Determining Self-efficacy• Performance attainment – Most influential – Role of feedback – More we achieve, more we believe we can achieve – Leads to feelings of competency and control
    145. 145. Sources of Information in Determining Self-efficacy• Vicarious experience – Seeing others perform successfully – If they can, I can too• Verbal persuasion – Verbal reminders of abilities• Physiological and emotional arousal – Related to perceived ability to cope – Calm, composed feelings: Higher self-efficacy – Nervous, agitated feelings: Lower self-efficacy
    146. 146. Developmental Stages of Modeling and Self-efficacy• Childhood – Infancy: Direct modeling immediately following observation, develop self-efficacy with control over environment – By age 2: Developed attentional, retention and production processes to model behavior some time after observation, not immediately
    147. 147. Developmental Stages of Modeling and Self-efficacy• Adolescence – Involves coping with new demands – Success depends on level of self-efficacy established during childhood
    148. 148. Developmental Stages of Modeling and Self-efficacy• Adulthood: 2 Periods – Young adulthood: • Adjustments: Career, marriage, parenthood • High self-efficacy to adjust successfully – Middle adulthood: • Adjustment: Reevaluate career, family life • Need to find opportunities to continue to enhance self- efficacy
    149. 149. Developmental Stages of Modeling and Self-efficacy• Old age: – Decline in mental/physical function, retirement – Requires reappraisal of abilities – Belief in ability to perform a task is key throughout the lifespan
    150. 150. Application of Social Learning Theory: Behavior Modification• Fears and phobias – Guided participation: Observe and imitate – Covert modeling: Imaginal• Anxiety – Fear of medical treatment – Test anxiety
    151. 151. Assessment of Bandura’s Theory: Self- efficacy• Age and gender differences• Physical appearance• Academic performance• Career choice and job performance• Physical health• Mental health• Coping with stress
    152. 152. Assessment of Bandura’s Theory:Television and Aggressive Behaviors• Relationship between watching violence and imitating violence Assessment of Bandura’s Theory• Strengths: – Focus on observable behavior- research support – Practical application to real-world problems – Large-scale changes
    153. 153. "In psychology ... we have wholeswhich, instead of being the sum of parts existing independently, give their parts specific functions orproperties that can only be defined in relation to the whole in question." Wolfgang Köhler: Human Perception. (La perception humaine, 1930)
    154. 154.  The term “gestalt” means “form” or“configuration”. Proponents are Max Wertheimer, WolfgangKohler and Kurt Kofka  They studied perception and concluded that perceivers (or learners) were not passive, but rather active.
    155. 155. “An individual has inner and outer forces that affect his perceptions and also his learning.”
    156. 156. MODULE 13INFORMATION PROCESSING
    157. 157. Born in New York City, October 1, 1915.He received his A.B. degree from DukeUniversity in 1937 and his Ph.D in 1947 fromHarvard. He was on the faculty in theDepartment of Psychology at HarvardUniversity from 1952-1972. Next, he was atOxford from 1972-1980. Later, he joinedthe New York University of Law.
    158. 158. In 1960, he published The Process ofEducation; a landmark book which led to muchexperimentation and a broad range of educationalprograms in 1960’s. Howard Gardner and other youngresearchers worked under Bruner and were much-influenced by his work. In the early 70’s, he left Harvard toteach in University of Oxford for several years.He returned to Harvard in 1979.
    159. 159. BRUNERS MAIN CONCEPTSThree ways to represent knowledgeSpiral CurriculumPrinciples of instruction by BrunerDiscovering LearningFour major aspects that should address in theory of instructionFour things about objectSeveral Kinds of Categories
    160. 160. Three Ways to Represent Knowledge At the earliest ages, children learn aboutthe world through actions on physical objectsand the outcomes of these actions. This second stage is when learning can be obtained through using models and pictures. In this third stage, the learner has developed the ability to think in abstract terms.
    161. 161. Teachers must revisit thecurriculum by teaching the samecontent in different ways depending onstudents’ developmental levels.
    162. 162. Instruction must be concernedwith the experiences and contexts thatmake the student willing and able tolearn.
    163. 163. Instruction must be structured sothat it can be easily grasped by thestudent.
    164. 164. Instruction should be designed tofacilitate extrapolation and or fill inthe gaps.
    165. 165. Refers to obtaining knowledge foroneself.
    166. 166. He introduced the ideas of“readiness for learning.”
    167. 167. The ways in which a body ofknowledge can be structured so that itcan be most readily grasped by thelearner.
    168. 168. No one sequencing will fit everylearner, but in general, the lesson canbe presented in increasing difficulty.
    169. 169. Rewards and punishment should beselected and paced appropriately.
    170. 170. Required characteristics forinclusion of an object in a category.
    171. 171. The second rule prescribes howthe criterial attributes are combined.
    172. 172. The third rule assigns weight tovarious properties.
    173. 173. The fourth rule sets acceptancelimits on attributes.
    174. 174. Categories include objects basedon their attributes or features.
    175. 175. Equivalence can be determined byaffective criteria, which renderobjects equivalent by emotionalreactions, functional criteria, based onrelated functions.
    176. 176. Categories that serve to recognizesensory input.
    177. 177. The principles of Bruner launchedthe notion that people interpret worldmostly in terms of similarities indifferences. This is a valuablecontribution to how individualsconstruct their own models or view ofthe world.
    178. 178. David Ausubel : Meaningful Verbal Learning & Subsumption Theory David P. Ausubel was born in 1918 Grew up in Brooklyn, NY Attended the University of Pennsylvania, taking the pre-medical course and majoring in Psychology In 1973 he retired from academic life to devote full time to hispsychiatric practice His principal interests in psychiatry have been generalpsychopathology, ego development, drug addiction, and forensicpsychiatry In 1976 he received the Thorndike Award from the AmericanPsychological Association for "Distinguished PsychologicalContributions to Education".
    179. 179. Introduction-Supported the theory that pupils form &organise knowledge by themselves-Emphasized the importance of verballearning / language-related learning whichhe consider to be very effective for pupils ofthe age 11 or 12 & above
    180. 180. -Pupils gradually learn to associate new knowledge with existing concepts in their mental structures-To ensure meaningful teaching, necessary to avoid rote memorising of facts. Pupils need to manipulate ideas actively
    181. 181. Advance Organizer-Presents an overview of the information tobe covered in detail during the expositionthat follows-Can be classified : exposition or comparisontype
    182. 182. Advance Organizer of the Exposition Type-While presenting new material-Use beginning of lesson-Presents several encompassing generalisations where detailed contents will be added later
    183. 183. Advance Organizer of the Comparison Type-Useful when the knowledge to be presented is new to pupils-Compares new material with knowledge already known by emphasising the similarities between 2 types of material & showing the information that is to be learnt-Ausubel’s teaching approach is deductive in nature
    184. 184. SPECIFIC Step 4:The pupils study specific examples Step 3:The teacher presents examples Step 2:The teacher explains important terms Step 1:The teacher presents general statement or abstraction of lesson ADVANCE ORGANIZER GENERALDeductive Teaching Model: Advance Organizer as the basis of thelesson
    185. 185. A concerned with how students Learning is based on the learn large amounts of meaningful representational, superordinate material from verbal/textual and combinatorial processes that presentations in a learning activities occur during the reception of information. Meaningful Reception Learning TheoryMeaningful learning results when A primary process in learning isnew information is acquired by subsumption in which new materiallinking the new information in the is related to relevant ideas in thelearners own cognitive structure existing cognitive structure on a non- verbatim basis (previous knowledge) Ausubel’s Meaningful Learning
    186. 186. The processes of meaningful learningAusubel proposed four processes by whichmeaningful learning can occur : Derivative subsumption Correlative subsumption Superordinate learning Combinatorial learning
    187. 187. Derivative subsumption• Describes the situation in which the new information pupils learn is an instance or example of a concept that pupils have already learned Example (Stage 1) : PREVIOUS KNOWLEDGE : Lets suppose Ali have acquired a basic concept such as "tree” – have green leave, branch, fruits Ali learn about a kind of tree that he have never seen before “persimmon tree” - conforms to his previous understanding of “tree’’ His new knowledge of persimmon trees is attached to the concept of tree, without substantially altering that concept in any way
    188. 188. Correlative subsumptionmore "valuable" learning than that of derivativesubsumption, since it enriches the higher-level concept Example (Stage 2) : •Now, lets suppose Ali encounter a new kind of tree that has red leaves, rather than green • Accommodate this new information Ali have to alter or extend your concept of “tree’’ to include the possibility of red leaves
    189. 189. Superordinate learning Example (Stage 3) : • Ali was well acquainted with maples, oaks, apple trees etc., but pupils still did not know, until they were taught that these were all examples of deciduous treesIn this case, you already knew a lot of examples of the concept, butyou did not know the concept itself until it was taught to pupils.
    190. 190. Combinatorial learning Example (Stage 3) : •Ali learn about modification on the plants part, Ali might relate it to previously acquired knowledge of how papyrus tree used to produce paper• It describes a process by which the new idea is derived from another idea that is comes from his previous knowledge (in a different, but related, "branch")• Students could think of this as learning by analogy
    191. 191. Principles of Ausubels Meaningful Reception Learning Theory within a classroom setting• General ideas of a subject (general statement): – Must be presented first – then progressively differentiated in terms of detail and specificity.• Instructional materials : – should attempt to integrate new material with previously presented information – Using comparisons and cross-referencing of new and old ideas.
    192. 192. Principles of Ausubels Meaningful Reception Learning Theory within a classroom setting• Advance organizers : – Instructors should incorporate advance organizers when teaching a new concept• Examples : – Instructors should use a number of examples and focus on both similarities and differences.
    193. 193. The most importantsingle factor influencing learning is what thelearner already knows..
    194. 194. Gagné’s Conditions of Learning What is learning?• Gagné believed that an external observer could recognize learning by noting behavioral changes that remains persistent over time (Gagné, 1974)• He also stated that maturation is not learning because the individual does not receive stimulation from the outside environment (Gagné, 1974).• Learning has two parts, one that is external to the learner and one that is internal (Gagné, Briggs, & Wager, 1992).
    195. 195. Gagnè’s Conditions of Learning Human learning generalizes to a variety of situations. Nature of Human Learning Human learning is cumulative.
    196. 196. Conditions of Learning• Learning is an important causal factor in development• Human learning is cumulative Learning of certain skills contributes to the learning of more complex skills• Human learning is both complex and diverse• Learning is set of cognitive processes that transforms the stimulation from the environment into capabilities
    197. 197. Gagne’s Principle 1) Different instruction is required for different learning outcomes. (The 5 varieties of Learning) 2) Learning hierarchies define what intellectual skills are to be learned and a sequence of instruction. 3) Events of learning operate on the learner in ways that constitute the conditions of learning. (9 constructional events)
    198. 198. Five Varieties of Learning Verbal Information Cognitive Intellectual Strategies Skills Attitudes Motor Skills
    199. 199. The five varieties of Learning • The capability to declare or state previously learned Verbal material. Information • Discrimination. • Concrete Concepts. Intellectual • Defined Concepts. Skills • Rules • Higher-order rules
    200. 200. The five varieties of Learning • Employing personal ways to Cognitive guide learning, thinking, acting and feeling. Organizing thoughts. Strategies • Developing smoothness of Motor action, precision and timing. Skills
    201. 201. The five varieties of Learning • Capabilities that influence an individual’s choice about the Attitudes kinds of actions to take. • E.g. Human model behavior.
    202. 202. Nine Instructional Events1. Gaining attention (reception)2. Informing learners of the objectives (expectancy)3. Stimulating recall of prior learning (retrieval)4. Presenting the stimulus (selective perception)5. Providing learning guidance (semantic encoding)6. Eliciting performance (responding)7. Providing feedback (reinforcement)8. Assessing performance (retrieval)9. Enhancing retention and transfer (generalization)
    203. 203. Constructivism - is a theory of learning based on theidea that learner’s construct knowledge for themselves.
    204. 204. TWO VIEWS OF CONSTRUCTIVISM INDIVIDUAL CONSTRUCTIVISM (COGNITIVE CONSTRUCTIVISM)- it emphasizes individual, internal construction of knowledge. SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIVISM - it emphasizes that knowledge exists in a social context and is initially shared with others.
    205. 205. CHARACTERISTICS OF CONSTRUCTIVISM 1. Learners construct understanding.2. New learning depends on current understanding. 3. Learning is facilitated by social interaction. 4. Meaningful learning occurs within authentic learning tasks.
    206. 206. ORGANIZING KNOWLEDGEPeople store knowledge in many different ways. CONCEPTS - is a way of grouping orcategorizing objects or events in our mind.
    207. 207. Concepts as feature lists- involves learning specific features that characterize positive instance of the concept. DEFINING FEATURE- characteristics present in all instances. CORRELATIONAL FEATURE- is one that is present in many positive instances but not essential for concept membership.
    208. 208. Concepts as prototypesprototype- is an idea or a visual image of a “typical example”.Concepts as exemplars exemplars- represent a variety of examples.
    209. 209. SCHEMA- is an organized body of knowledge about something. SCRIPT - is a schema that includes a series ofpredictable events about a specific activity .
    210. 210. What is transfer of learning?• “Transfer of learning is about how teachers want their students to apply the knowledge and the skills they learn in class to other situation.”Transfer of learning is about….• When one recognizes a situation as somethingsimilar in a way to what he has learned before, histendency is to use the knowledge and skills he haslearned to this situation
    211. 211. TRANSFER OF LEARNING TYPES OF CONDITIONS AND PRINCIPLES OFLEARNING LEARNING
    212. 212. • Happens when learning in one context or with one set of materials affects performance in another context or with other related materials.• It is applying to another situation what was previously learned.
    213. 213. • The circumstance of learning differs significantly from situations when what is learned is to be applied.• The educational goals are not met until transfer occurs. thats why transfer of learning is a very important aspect of instruction..
    214. 214. • Positive transfer occurs when learning in one context improves performance in some other context.• Negative transfer Refers to transfer between very similar contexts. Also referred to as specific transfer.• Far transfer• Refers to transfer between context that on appearance seem remote and alien to one another. Also called as general transfer
    215. 215. These principles are based on thefactors that affect transfer of learning. Conditions/ factors affecting transfer of Principle of transfer Implication learning The more similar the two Involve students in learningSimilarity between two situations are, the greater situations and tasks thatlearning situations the chances that learning are similar as possible to from one situation will be the situations where they transferred to other would apply the task situationDegree of meaningfulness/ Meaningful learning leads Remember to providerelevance of learning to greater transfer than opportunities for learners rote learning to link new material to what they learned in the pastLength of instructional The longer the time spent To ensure transfer, teach atime in instruction, the greater few topics in depth rather the probability of transfer than many topics tackled in a shallow manner
    216. 216. Conditions/ factors affecting Principle of transfer Implicationtransfer of learningVariety of learning Exposure to many examples Illustrate new concepts andexperiences and opportunities for practice principles with a variety of to encourage transfer examples. Plan activities that allow your learners to practice their newly learned skillsContext for learner’s Transfer of learning is most Relate topic in one subject inexperiences likely to happen when one subject to topics in other learners discover that what subjects or disciplines. Relate they learned is applicable to it also to real life situation various contextsFocus on principles rather Principles transfer easier that Zero in on principles relatedthan task facts. to each topic together with strategies based on those principle s.Emphasis on metacognition Student reflection improves Encourage students to take transfer of learning responsibility for their own learning and to reflect on what they learned.
    217. 217. MODULE 19Facilitating Learning and Bloom’s Taxonomy’s of Objectives
    218. 218. Levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy Knowledge Comprehension Application Analysis Synthesis Evaluation
    219. 219. Knowledge• remembering•Memorizing•Recognizing•Recalling identification and•Recall of information
    220. 220. Comprehension• Interpreting• Translating from one medium to another• Describing in ones own words• Organization and selection of facts and ideas
    221. 221. Application• Problem solving• Applying information to produce some result• Use of facts, rules and principles
    222. 222. Analysis• Subdividing something to show how it is put together• Finding the underlying structure of a communication• Identifying motives• Separation of a whole into component parts
    223. 223. Synthesis• Creating a unique, original product that may be in verbal form or may be a physical object• Combination of ideas to form a new whole
    224. 224. Evaluation• Making value decisions about issues• Resolving controversies or differences of opinion• Development of opinions, judgements or decisions
    225. 225. Effective Questioning Techniques• Pose the question first, before asking a student to respond.• Allow plenty of “think time” by waiting at least 7-10 seconds before expecting students to respond.
    226. 226. • Make sure you give all students the opportunity to respond rather than relying on volunteers.• Hold students accountable by expecting, requiring, and facilitating their participation and contributions.• Establish a safe atmosphere for risk taking by guiding students in the process of learning from their mistakes
    227. 227. Torrance’s Creativity Framework • “father of Creativity” • “professor of emeritus” of educational psychology • The “Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking”
    228. 228. • Many responses within a category For example… …typing styles…typing styles …typing styles …typing styles …typing styles
    229. 229. • Stretching or shifting the mind to generate a variety of categories For example… …typing cases …typing styles …typing sizes
    230. 230. • Adding details for interest or clarity For example… What specific idea will make the idea easier to understand or more
    231. 231. • Unique ideas that are relevant, but not obvious For example… Beginning of “the greatest” tea = ?Design a new ______ that is better than the one youhave
    232. 232. Creative Problem Solving Osborn’s Checklist the origin of Classical Brainstorming is the root of creative problem solving (CPS).
    233. 233. • A basic rule of is build onto ideas already suggested. , the originator of classical brainstorming, first communicated this. A checklist was formulated as a means of transforming an existing idea into a new one. The checklist is designed to have a flexible, trial and error type of approach.
    234. 234. The Checklist:• Adapt? Is there anything else like this? What does this tell you? Is the past comparable?• Modify? Give it a new angle? Alter the colour, sound, odour, meaning, motion, and shape?• Magnify? Can anything be added, time, frequency, height, length, strength? Can it be duplicated, multiplied or exaggerated?• Minify? Can anything be taken away? Made smaller? Lowered? Shortened? Lightened? Omitted? Broken up?
    235. 235. • Substitute? Different ingredients used? Other material? Other processes? Other place? Other approach? Other tone of voice? Someone else?• Rearrange? Swap components? Alter the pattern, sequence or layout? Change the pace or schedule? Transpose cause and effect?• Reverse? Opposites? Backwards? Reverse roles? Change shoes? Turn tables? Turn other cheek? Transpose ‘+/-‘?• Combine? Combine units, purposes, appeals or ideas? A blend, alloy, or an ensemble?
    236. 236. • Avoid criticising ideas / suspend judgement. All ideas are as valid as each other• Listen to other ideas, and try to piggy back on them to other ideas.• Free-wheeling. Dont censor any ideas, keep the meeting flow going.• Avoid any discussion of ideas or questions, as these stop the flow of ideas.• Generate ideas - either in an unstructured way (anyone can say an idea at any time) or structure (going round the table, allowing people to pass if they have no new ideas).• Clarify and conclude the session. Ideas that are identical can be combined, all others should be kept. It is useful to get a consensus of which ideas should be looked at further or what the next action and timescale is.
    237. 237. : Mess finding: Sensitise yourself(scan, search) for issues(concerns, challenges, opportunities, etc.) that needto be tackled.– Divergent techniques include ‘Wouldn’t It Be Nice If…’ (WIBNI) and ‘Wouldn’t It Be Awful If…’ (WIBAI) – to identify desirable outcomes, and obstacles to be overcome.– Convergent techniques include the identification of hotspots ( Highlighting ), expressed as a list of IWWMs (‘In What Ways Might…’), and selection in terms of ownership criteria (e.g. problem-owner’s motivation and ability to influence it) and outlook criteria (e.g. urgency, familiarity, stability).
    238. 238. : Data finding: Gather information about theproblem.– Divergent techniques include Five Ws and H (Who, Why, What, When, Where and How) and listing of wants, sources and data: List all your information ‘wants’ as a series of question; for each, list possible sources of answers; then follow these up and for each source, list what you found.– Convergent techniques again include: identifying hotspots (Highlighting); Mind-mapping to sort and classify the information gathered; and also restating the problem in the light of your richer understanding of it.
    239. 239. : Problem finding: convert a fuzzy statementof the problem into a broad statement more suitablefor idea finding.– Divergent techniques include asking ‘Why?’ etc. – the repeatable questions and Five Ws and H.– Convergent techniques include Highlighting again, reformulation of problem-statements to meet the criteria that they contain only one problem and no criteria, and selection of the most promising statement (but NB that the mental ‘stretching’ that the activity gives to the participants can be as important as the actual statement chosen).
    240. 240. : Idea Finding: generate as many ideas aspossible– Divergence using any of a very wide range of idea- generating techniques. The general rules of Classic Brainstorming (such as deferring judgement) are likely to under-pin all of these.– Convergence can again involve hotspots or mind- mapping, the combining of different ideas, and the short- listing of the most promising handful, perhaps with some thought for the more obvious evaluation criteria, but not over-restrictively.
    241. 241. : Solution finding: Generate and selectobvious evaluation criteria (using anexpansion/contraction cycle) and develop (whichmay include combining) the short-listed ideas fromIdea Finding as much as you can in the light of thesecriteria. Then opt for the best of these improvedideas (e.g. using Comparison tables).
    242. 242. : Acceptance finding: How can the suggestionyou have just selected be made up to standard andput into practice? Shun negativity, and continue toapply deferred judgement – problems are exposed tobe solved, not to dishearten progress. Action plansare better developed in small groups of 2 – 3 ratherthan in a large group (unless you particularly wantcommitment by the whole group). Particularly for‘people’ problems it is often worth developingseveral alternative action plans.
    243. 243. • Branford’s IDEAL model dentify the Problem efine the problem xplore solutions ct on the strategies ook back and evaluate the effects of your activity
    244. 244. “Meaning and Types of Motivation”
    245. 245. Motivation – is an inner drive that causes you to:• do something• persevere at something• energizes you to do something• initiate• direct• become intense• persistence of behavior
    246. 246. “Indicator’s of a High Level of Motivation” She/he takes the initiative to undertake learning tasks, assignments and projects without being pushed by his/her teachers and parents. She/he has goals to accomplish and dreams to realize. She/he is convinced that accomplishing the things she/he asked is to accomplish in class helps her/him realize the goals she/he has set for herself/himself and their dream in life.
    247. 247. Indicator’s of a High Level of Motivation”She/he willing to give up the satisfaction of immediate goals for the sake of more important remote goals. An example is she/he is willing to give up joining her/his barkada to watch a movie in order to prepare thoroughly for final examinations.She/he persists and perseveres in her/his studies even when things turn out to be difficult.She/he does not give up easily.
    248. 248. In contrast, an unmotivated student:• does not enjoy learning• does not study unless pushed• easily gives up• lacks of perseverance
    249. 249. “Types of Motivation”• Intrinsic Motivation – the source of motivation is from within the person herself/himself or the activity itself.• Example: A student reads pocketbooks because it is enjoyable.
    250. 250. • Extrinsic Motivation – the source of motivation is something outside herself/himself or the rewards and incentives.• Example: A student studies because she/he was told by her/his teacher or because she/he is afraid to fail and her/his parents makes her/him stop schooling.
    251. 251. “Type of Motivation which is More Beneficial”It is obviously that intrinsic motivation ismore beneficial because it comes fromwithin the person and it is not after theincentives or rewards. It is shown in theenjoyment of the activity itself and theinner conviction of the learner that suchthings are the right things to do in orderto realize a personal goal or a life dream.
    252. 252. “The Role of Extrinsic Motivation”• Extrinsic Motivation factors include:• Rewards• Incentives• Praises or words of encouragements• Approval of significant others like teachers, parents, peer group
    253. 253. Opposites:• Punishment• Withdrawal• Privileges• Censure• Ostracism
    254. 254. We may begin employing extrinsicmotivation at the start but thisshould fade away as the studentsget intrinsically motivatedthemselves. It plays a significantrole in the development ofmotivated students.
    255. 255. “Theories on FactorsAffecting Motivation”
    256. 256. Factors Affecting Motivation– these are the elements thatcontributes to a particular resultthat affects motivation.
    257. 257. Attribution Theory- explains that we attribute our successes orfailures or other events to several factors. Forinstance, you attribute your popularity to yourpopular parents or to your own sterlingacademic performance. Or you attribute thepoor economic condition you are in to the LandReform of the Phil. Gov’t. (your lands weresubjected to land reform) or to the vices ofyour father. These attributions differ from oneanother in three ways – locus, stability, andcontrollability (Ormsrod, 2004).
    258. 258. Locus (“place”): Internal vs. external.If your student traces his good grade tohis ability and to his work, he attributeshis good grade to internal factors. If yourstudent, however, claims that his goodgrade is due to the effective teaching ofhis teacher or to the adequate libraryfacilities, he attributes his good grades tofactors external to himself.
    259. 259. Stability Stable vs. unstable.If you attribute your poor eyesight to whatyou have inherited from your parents, thenyou are attributing the cause of your sicknessto something stable, something that cannotchange because it is in your genes. If youattribute it to excessive watching of tv, thenyou are claiming that your poor eyesight iscaused by an unstable factor, something thatcan change. (You can prolong or shorten yourperiod of watching tv).
    260. 260. Controllability: Controllable vs. uncontrollable.If your student claims his poor academicperformance is due to his teacher’s in-effectiveteaching strategy, he attributes his poorperformance to a factor beyond his control.If, however, your student admits that his poorclass performance is due to his poor studyhabits and low motivation, he attributes theevent to factors which are very much withinhis control.
    261. 261. Theories on Factors Affecting Motivation
    262. 262. Attribution Theory• Explains that we attribute our successes or failures or other events to several factors.
    263. 263. 3 Ways of Attribution from One Another1) Locus “place”: Internal vs. external2) Stability: Stable vs. unstable3) Controllability: Controllable vs. uncontrollableHow does attribution affect motivation?
    264. 264. Self-efficacy Theory• Is the belief that one has the necessary capabilities to perform a task, fulfill role expectations,or meet a challenging situation successfully.
    265. 265. Self-efficacy enhancing strategies:• Make sure students master the basic skills• Help them make noticeable progress on difficult tasks• Communicate confidence in students’ abilities through both words and actions• Expose them to successful peers
    266. 266. Self-determination and regulationtheories• Students are more likely to be intrinsically motivated when they believe they can determine their learning goals and regulate their learning.
    267. 267. How to enhance students’ sense of self-determination about school activities?
    268. 268. Self Regulation Application Attention Self- Self- Goal setting Planning of Learning control monitoring evaluation strategies
    269. 269. Choice Theory• It is a biological theory that suggests we are born with specific needs that we are genetically instructed to satisfy.
    270. 270. Four Basic Psychological Needs Belonging or Freedom connecting Self Power or Fun competence
    271. 271. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

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