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World War I

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  • 1. Introduction toWorld War I ―The Great War‖
  • 2. Causes of WWI
  • 3. Immediate Causes of WWI: Nationalism Similar to patriotism. Countries proud of their heritage and culture Ethnic groups of similar heritage wanted to free their oppressed brethren and unite their people into one country Germany wanted to expand its culture and political influence throughout Europe.
  • 4. Aggressive Nationalism
  • 5. Immediate Causes of WWI: Imperialism Imperialism = economic and political control over other countries France, Great Britain, Germany and Russia were establishing colonies in Africa and Asia These countries were in competition for colonies
  • 6. Immediate Causes of WWI: Imperialism
  • 7. Colonial Claims by 1900
  • 8. Colonial Claims by 1900
  • 9. Immediate Causes of WWI: Militarism Imperialism led to ―militarism:‖ – the development and stockpiling of arms and weapons European nations began an arms race as they competed for colonies around the world. Militarism is not just an arms race. It‘s also a governments state of mind: – Sees war as a valid means of foreign policy. All the nations of Europe were militaristic, but the governments of Germany and Austria- Hungary were especially so.
  • 10. Immediate Causes of WWI: Militarism All the countries of Europe built up their armies and navies. In 1914, their armed forces stood like this: – Germany: 2,200,000 soldiers, 97 warships – Austria-Hungary: 810,000 soldiers, 28 warships. – Italy: 750,000 soldiers, 36 warships – France: 1,125,000 soldiers, 62 warships – Russia: 1,200,000 soldiers, 30 warships – Great Britain: 711,000 soldiers, 185 warships As one country increased its armies, so all the others felt obliged to increase their armed forces to keep the ‗balance of power‘
  • 11. Immediate Causes of WWI: Militarism Germany and Britain clashed over the size of their navies – In 1900 Kaiser Wilhelm began to build up the German navy (Tirpizs Navy Law), announcing that he wanted Germans to sail all over the world and take for Germany ‗a place in the sun‘ – After 1906, he began to build numbers of the new, large Dreadnought battleships, which were more powerful than any other ship By 1906, President Roosevelt had built the US Navy into the 3rd largest naval fleet in the world: – The Great White Fleet
  • 12. Soldiers Mobilized before 1914 Soldiers Mobilized 14 12 10Millions 8 6 4 2 0 France Germany Russia Britain
  • 13. Total Defense Expenditures for the Great Powers in millions of dollars (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy, France, British and Russia) 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1914 $94M $130M $154M $268M $289M $398M 1910-1914 Percent Increase in Defense Expenditures France 10% Britain 13% Russia 39% Germany 73%
  • 14. Mobilization Had been no major war in Europe for 50 years No one believed that such a global war would occur Home by Christmas!
  • 15. Immediate Causes of WWI: Alliances European nations began forming military alliances with one another to maintain a balance of power Complexity of the alliances will cause a ―domino effect‖ that leads to war.
  • 16. Immediate Causes of WWI: Alliances Where and when does it all start? – Late 1800s in Austria, Russia, Serbia, England, Germany, France and Belgium – Treaty of London (1839) Britain agrees to protect the neutrality of Belgium – German-Austrian treaty (1879) or Dual Alliance – Italy joining Germany and Austria in 1882 (Triple Alliance) – Franco-Russian Alliance (1894) – British naval treaty with Japan (1902) – The "Entente Cordiale" between Britain and France (1904) which left the northern coast of France undefended – Triple Entente (1907): Alliance between Britian, France and Russia
  • 17. European Alliances in 1914
  • 18. European Alliances in 1914
  • 19. Alliances Prior to WWI In the Balkan Wars of 1912, Serbia fought the Ottoman Empire and gained territory Austria-Hungry had a diverse ethnic population, with many Serbs Austria-Hungry feared their Serbs would revolt and join Serbia. Thought that a ‗preventive‘ war against Serbia would preserve the dual monarchy
  • 20. Alliances Prior to WWI
  • 21. Alliances Prior to WWI Germany had long planned for a possible European war via the Schlieffen Plan. – Plan assumed Russia would enter the war with massive human reserves. – Germany could not fight a two-front war against Russia and win. – Prepared a pre-emptive strike against France to destroy her first, and thus be able to concentrate on Russia – Assumed invasion through Beligum.
  • 22. Germany’s Schlieffen Plan (1906)
  • 23. Immediate Causes of WWI: Chain of Events Serbia was protected by a treaty Russia Russia was aware of the Austrian ―plan‖ for preventive war against Serbia – Russia began a major military reconstruction and arms build-up Germany, in alliance with Austria-Hungry, was alarmed by Russian build-up and the possibility of war. – Germany also steps up military preparation
  • 24. Immediate Causes of WWI: Chain of Events Austrian-Hungarian Empire controlled several ethic groups. Serbian nationalists wanted to untie Serbs who lived in the Austrian-Hungarian Empire with Serbia. This led to the assassination of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand.
  • 25. Immediate Causes of WWI: The Chain of Events Austrian-Hungarian Empire controlled several ethic groups. Serbian nationalists wanted to untie Serbs who lived in the Austrian- Hungarian Empire with Serbia. This led to the assassination of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand.
  • 26. Immediate Causes of WWI: The Chain of Events Assassination of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand. Garvillo Princip, a Serbian nationalist assassinated the Archduke. He was trying to gain Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his allowances for his family. Archduke was heir to the throne fellow Serbs who lived in the Austrian Hungarian Empire. His under Austrian rule. assassination June 28, 1914 eventually led to WWI.
  • 27. German Invasion of Belgium battle fronts  German invasion in August of 1914, through Belgium to conquer France.  Gave French and British militaries enough time to mobilize their army  Belgium puts up a strong fight.  1st Battle of the Marne River, France and Great Britain stop Germany from capturing Paris.  France, England and Germany involve itself in trench warfare from 1914 to 1918
  • 28. Immediate Causes of WWI: Alliances1. June 28 Assassination at Sarajevo2. July 28 Austria- Hungary declared war on Serbia3. July 30 Russia began mobilization4. August 1 Germany declared war on Russia
  • 29. Immediate Causes of WWI: Alliances5. August 3 Germany declared war on France6. August 3 Great Britain declared war on Germany7. August 6 Russia and Austria- Hungary at war.8. August 12 Great Britain declared war on Austria- Hungary
  • 30. Battle Fronts, 1914-1917
  • 31. Stalemate and Modern Warfare Stalemate Modern Warfare By Sept. 1914, the war had  Neither soldiers nor officers reached a stalemate, a were prepared for the new, situation in which neither side highly efficient killing is able to gain an advantage. machines used in WW I. When a French and British  Machine guns, hand force stopped a German grenades, artillery shells, advance near Paris, both and poison gas killed sides holed up in trenches thousands of soldiers who separated by an empty “no left their trenches to attack man’s land.” Small gains in the enemy. land resulted in huge  As morale fell, the lines numbers of human between soldiers and casualties. civilians began to blur. The Both sides continued to add armies began to burn fields, new allies, hoping to gain an kill livestock, and poison advantage. wells.
  • 32. U.S. in 1914 Panama Canal was completed in August of 1914 just a week before WWI began in Europe. Woodrow Wilson became President in 1912. Americans were shocked by the outbreak of war, but hey! It was in Europe, and that‘s far away. US was officially NEUTRAL
  • 33. Wilson’s Neutrality ―The effect of the war upon the United States will depend upon what American citizens say and do. Every man who really loves America will act and speak in the true spirit of neutrality, which is the spirit of impartiality and fairness and friendliness to all concerned.‖ ―The people of the United States are drawn from many nations, and chiefly from the nations now at war. It is natural and inevitable that there should be the utmost variety of sympathy. Some will wish one nation, others another, to succeed in the momentous struggle.‖ ―I venture, therefore, my fellow countrymen, the United States must be neutral in fact, as well as in name, during these days that are to try mens souls.‖ wilson neutrality1
  • 34. U.S. Policy Before WWI  U.S. believed: – It had the right to trade with the warring nations – Warring nations must respect our neutrality in the freedom of the seas – German submarine warfare and British blockade violated our neutrality
  • 35. Effects of Allied blockade •1914, $70 million in trade with Central Powers•1916, trade reduced to $1.3 million Allied trade•Grew from $825 million to $3.2 billion in same time period •WWI transformed the USfrom a debtor to a creditor nation
  • 36. The U.S. Enters the War
  • 37. Submarine Warfare The Germans could not match Great Britains superior navy. Germans introduced unrestricted submarine warfare with U-Boats Germans warned the world they would sink any ship they believed was carrying contraband to Great Britain.
  • 38. U-Boats Two types •small subs with a crew of 24 •larger subs with a crew of 60 •44 by 1918 By 1918, Germans had sunk 6,500 allied ships.
  • 39. German Notice Re: Lusitana
  • 40. Sinking of the Lusitania May 7, 1915, the Germans sunk the Lusitania which was British passenger liner. Germans believed it was carrying contraband (weapons) to the British. Killed 1,198 civilians including 128 Americans. U.S. and other countries outraged towards Germany because of ―unrestricted submarine warfare‖. US believed the Germans had violated international law of targeting civilians
  • 41. Headlines Across America:
  • 42. Sinking of the Lusitania After the sinking of the Lusitania, public opinion of most Americans was to go to war with Germany. Germany promised they would not sink anymore ships unless warning them first and providing safety for civilians. BUT, President Wilson was able ―keep us out of war.‖
  • 43. X Sussex Sunk: led to Sussex Pledge in March 1916. Germany promised not to sink anymore ships.
  • 44. Ships Sunk by U-Boats:Sept. 1916 to April 1917 (6 months)
  • 45. Ships Sunk by U-Boats,May 1917 to Jan. 1918 (6 months)
  • 46. Zimmerman Telegram Berlin, January 19, 1917 ―On the first of February we intend to begin unrestricted submarine warfare. In spite of this, it is our intention to endeavor to keep neutral the United States of America.‖ ―If this attempt is not successful, we propose an alliance on the following basis with Mexico: That we shall make war together and together make peace. We shall give general financial support, and it is understood that Mexico is to reconquer the lost territory in New Mexico, Texas, and Arizona. The details are left to you for settlement.... ― zimmerman notes
  • 47. Zimmerman Telegram ―You are instructed to inform the President of Mexico of the above in the greatest confidence as soon as it is certain that there will be an outbreak of war with the United States and suggest that the President of Mexico, on his own initiative, should communicate with Japan suggesting adherence at once to this plan;‖ ―At the same time, offer to mediate between Germany and Japan. Please call to the attention of the President of Mexico that the employment of ruthless submarine warfare now promises to compel England to make peace in a few months.‖ – Zimmerman (Secretary of State) zimmerman notes
  • 48. Zimmerman Code
  • 49. zimmerman code
  • 50. Zimmerman Cartoon
  • 51. Wilson’s War Speech  When German submarines sank three American merchant ships in March 1917, Wilson asked Congress for a declaration of war.
  • 52. Wilson’s War SpeechApril 8, 1917, the US declares war on Germany. The new German policy has swept every restriction aside. Vessels of every kind….have been ruthlessly sent to the bottom without warning and without thought of help or mercy for those on board….The present German submarine war…..is a war against all nations….Our motive will not be revenge or the victorious assertion of the physical might of the nation, but on the vindication of right, of human right…. We are…..the sincere friends of the German people…..We shall, happily, still have an opportunity to prove that friendship in our daily attitude and actions towards the millions of men and women of
  • 53. Wilson’s War Speech German birth and native sympathy who live amongst us and share our life…... There are……many months of fiery trial and sacrifice ahead of us. It is a fearful thing to lead this great peaceful people into war, into the most terrible and disastrous of all wars, civilization itself seeming to be in the balance. But the right is more precious than peace, and we shall fight for the things which we have always carried nearest our hearts……democracy, for the right of those who submit to authority to have a voice in their own Governments, for the rights and liberties of small nations, for a universal dominion of right…..as shall bring peace and safety to all nations and make the world safe for democracy.
  • 54. Wilson’s War Speech ―To such a task we can dedicate our lives and our fortunes, everything that we are and everything that we have, with the pride of those who know that the day has come when America is privileged to spend her blood and her might for the principles that gave her birth and happiness and the peace which she has treasured.‖
  • 55. Principles Fought For The right is more precious than peace War to end all war The world must be safe for democracy. Defend human rights Defend our trade Neutrality Freedom of the seas Violation of international law
  • 56. The War of the IndustrialRevolution: NewTechnology
  • 57. Krupp’s “Big Bertha” Gun
  • 58. French Renault Tank
  • 59. British Tank at Ypres
  • 60. U-Boats
  • 61. The Airplane“Squadron Over the Brenta”Max Edler von Poosch, 1917
  • 62. Curtis-Martin U. S. Aircraft Plant
  • 63. The Zeppelin
  • 64. Flame Throwers GrenadeLaunchers
  • 65. Poison GasMachine Gun
  • 66. The Western Front: A War of Attrition
  • 67. A Multi-Front War
  • 68. The Western Front
  • 69. Trench Warfare
  • 70. Trench Warfare
  • 71. Trench Warfare
  • 72. Trench Warfare
  • 73. Trench Warfare
  • 74. Trench Warfare
  • 75. Trench Warfare
  • 76. No Man’s Land
  • 77. No Man’s Land
  • 78. No Man’s Land
  • 79. Battle of Verdun: Feb. to Dec. 1916 German offensive, and the longest battle of WWI Germany believed Russia was on the verge of internal revolution, and would withdraw from the war. – Therefore they wanted to focus on the Western Front, and defeating the French & British The fortress at Verdun had great symbolic value to the French.
  • 80. Battle of Verdun: Feb. to Dec. 1916
  • 81. Battle of Verdun: Feb. to Dec. 1916 Fought over a 10 month period Resulted in 306,000 French & German deaths, and half a million wounded – That‘s about 1,000 men every day!! Technical victory for the French, but a stalemate in reality.
  • 82. Battle of the Somme: July 1916 to Feb. 1917 British & French offensive, and one of the bloodiest battles in all of human history – Led by the British – Designed to create a rupture in French lines – First day of battle = 60,000 dead British soldiers – British battalions were comprised of people from the same local area. This meant that such deaths had a huge social impact on specific areas of Britain.
  • 83. Battle of the SommeShells from the first day of the Battle of the Somme
  • 84. Battle of the Somme:July 1916 to Feb. 1917
  • 85. Battle of the Somme: July 1916 to Feb. 1917 Battle of attrition, German withdrew back to fortified lines in Feb. 1917 At the end of the battle, the British had gained only 6 miles of territory. Total deaths at the end of the battle: – British Empire: 419,654, with 95,000 missing – French: 204,253, with 50,756 missing – Germany: 465,000, with 164,000 missing. – TOTAL: more than 1 million men dead!
  • 86. Battle of the Somme
  • 87. Battle of the Somme
  • 88. Battle of the Somme
  • 89. Battle of the Somme
  • 90. Battle of the Somme
  • 91. The Terrible Cost of War
  • 92. The Terrible Cost of War
  • 93. The Eastern Front: Russia & the Middle East
  • 94. The First Global War Ottomans entered war in 1915 on side of the Central Powers – Wanted to acquire Russian territory – Turkey slaughtered millions of Armenians to get their land – Britain wanted to protect trade routes to India – Arabs promised their own country if they would join with Britain against the Ottomans
  • 95. The First Global War The sprawling Ottoman Empire battled British and Russian-led forces in Egypt, Iraq, and the Caucasus. In East Asia, Japan declared war on Germany and seized German possessions in China. The British and French conscripted colonial subjects: – India: 1 million soldiers to Allies. (60,000 died) – Africa: more than 1 million soldiers, 3 million transported goods. (150,000 died) – Australia, New Zealand, and Canada: Over 1 million.
  • 96. The First Global War
  • 97. The Eastern Front
  • 98. Russia Bears the Brunt Russia had men, but few weapons and supplies – By December, 1914, the Russian Army had 6,553,000 men. However, they only had 4,652,000 rifles. – Untrained troops were ordered into battle without adequate arms or ammunition. – In 1915 Russia suffered over 2 million casualties and lost Kurland, Lithuania and much of Belorussia. – Agricultural production slumped and civilians had to endure serious food shortages.
  • 99. Russia Bears the Brunt Led an offensive against the Austro- Hungarian Army in June 1916. – Initially Brusilov achieved considerable success and in the first two weeks his forces advanced 80km and captured 200,000 prisoners. – The German Army sent reinforcements to help their allies and gradually the Russians were pushed back. – When the offensive was called to a halt in the autumn of 1916, the Russian Army had lost almost a million men.
  • 100. Starving Russian Women & Children
  • 101. Battle of Gallipoli: April 1915 to Jan. 1916 Took place at the peninsula of Gallipoli in the Ottoman Empire A joint British and French operation to capture the Ottoman capital of Constantinople and secure a sea route to Russia. The attempt failed, with heavy casualties on both sides.
  • 102. The Gallipoli Disaster
  • 103. The Gallipoli Disaster Gallipoli casualties Source: Australian Department of Veterans Affairs Dead Wounded Total Total Allies 44,092 96,937 141,029 United Kingdom 21,255 52,230 73,485 France (estimated) 10,000 17,000 27,000 Australia[4] 8,709 19,441 28,150 New Zealand[4] 2,721 4,752 7,473 British India 1,358 3,421 4,779 Newfoundland 49 93 142 Ottoman empire 86,692 164,617 251,309 (estimated)Total (both sides) 130,784 261,554 392,338
  • 104. Turkish Cavalry in Palestine
  • 105. T. E. Lawrence (aka Lawrence of Arabia)and the “Arab Revolt”, 1916-1918
  • 106. TheBolshevikRevolution in Russia -Key Concepts-
  • 107. What is a “Revolution”? A complete change in the way things are done (Agricultural Revolution, Industrial Revolution, Russian Revolution) – Sometimes peaceful – Sometimes violent Russian Revolution = the overthrow of theCzar‘s government and the eventual establishment of Communist Rule
  • 108. Pre-Revolutionary Russia  Only true autocracy left in Europe  No type of representative political institutions  Nicholas II became Czar in 1884  Believed he was the absolute ruler anointed by God  Revolution broke out in 1905 --Russo-Japanese War (1904)
  • 109. Nicolas, Alexandra, Alexis & Rasputin  Nicolas & Alexandra had a son, Alexis, with hemophilia  Brought in Raputin, a ―healer,‖ to help him.  Rasputin came to have extraordinary influence in the Czar‘s government – Scandals surrounding Rasputin served to discredit the monarchy
  • 110. People & Events Leading to the Bolshevik Revolution Karl Marx & Fredrick Engels publish the ―Communist Manifesto‖ (1848) – Advocated political & economic revolution of the working class Vladimir Lenin: Russian scholar & philosopher influenced by Karl Marx. – Writes multiple economic works on socialism, communism and capitalism in Russia. – Exiled several times for political activism – Participated in the 1905 Russian Revolution – Was absent from Russia during the Feb. 1917 revolution
  • 111. Events Leading to the Bolshevik Revolution Czar Nikolas II – Not a strong leader – Did not keep promises made to increase personal freedoms (speech, religion, movement, language, etc). – Heavily influenced by Rasputin – Did not give DUMA (national parliament, much power) ―Bloody Sunday‖ – Unarmed peasants demonstrated before the Czar‘s palace requesting shorter work days, minimum wage, and a constitution for Russia. – Palace Guards fired upon crowd killing hundreds, injuring thousands (without orders) – Bond between Czar and his people broken forever
  • 112. Events Leading to the Bolshevik Revolution 1905 Russian Revolution – a wave of mass political and social unrest that spread through vast areas of the Russian Empire. – directed against the government – included terrorism, worker strikes, peasant unrest, and military mutinies. – Led to the establishment of limited constitutional monarchy, the State Duma (national parliament), a multi- party system, and the Russian Constitution of 1906. Czar Nikolas largely ignored the Duma between 1905 and the start of WWI.
  • 113. World War I: “The Last Straw”  WWI revealed the ineptitude and arrogance of the country‘s aristocratic elite  Govt suffered from corrupt military leadership and contempt for ordinary Russian people  Average peasant has very little invested in the War
  • 114. World War I: “The Last Straw” Russia unprepared for war Not enough supplies (food, weapons, clothing) Army poorly organized Soldiers didn‘t understand why they were fighting Tsar Nicholas II and his ministers provided poor leadership and organization
  • 115. The Collapse of the Imperial Government  Nicholas leaves for the Front—September, 1915  Alexandra and Rasputin throw the government into chaos  Alexandra and other high government officials accused of treason  Rasputin assassinated in December of 1916  Complete mismanagement of the wartime economy
  • 116. The Two Revolutions of 1917  The March Revolution (March 12)  The November Revolution (November 6) – Origins: Food riots and strikes – Duma declared itself a Provisional Government on March12th – Czar abdicated on March 17th
  • 117. Provisional Government Declared all Russian citizens equal Freedom of speech, religion, press, and assembly given to all citizens Unions and strikes legal Planned on continuing war Provisional Government made these promises, but asked people to wait People tired of waiting and listened more and more to the revolutionaries
  • 118. Vacuum of Leadership in Russia Failure of the Provisional Government Workers refusing to work and soldiers refusing to fight Peasants were expropriating the land outright Power was literally lying in the streets of Petrograd By September 1917, there was widespread unrest among peasants
  • 119. Bolsheviks Term comes from a Russian word meaning ―majority‖ Bolsheviks believed that a small group of trained revolutionaries could establish socialism in Russia Led by Lenin Tried to attract followers with slogans like, ―All Power to the Soviets‖ and ―Bread, Peace, and Freedom‖
  • 120. The Bolshevik Revolution Nov. 1917  Armed Bolsheviks overthrow the Provisional Government  Lenin takes control and heads government – All private property of wealthy was abolished and divided among the peasantry – Largest industrial enterprises nationalized
  • 121. Bolshevik Revolution (cont)  Political Police organized: CHEKA  Revolutionary army created with Trotsky in charge -- ―Red Army‖  Bolshevik Party renamed Communist Party in March of 1918
  • 122. The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (1918) Bolsheviks needed peasant support to stay in power Lenin decided to get Russia out of WWI and send peasant soldiers home In March of 1918, Lenin signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany – Conceded territory of Ukraine, Belorussia, the Baltics, and Finland to Germany – Russia lost over one quarter of its farmland and one third of its population, almost all its coal mines, and more than half its industries – Huge loss to Russia‘s economy Left the Germans with a single front war
  • 123. Russian Civil War (1917–1920) Treaty and the Bolshevik Revolution lead to Civil War in Russia. – ―Reds‖ = Communists (Bolsheviks) – ―Whites‖ = counter- revolutionaries loyal to Czar – ―Greens‖ = anarchists who favored socialism without strong central government
  • 124. Allied Invasion of Russia Allies had three goals for military intervention in Russian Civil War: – prevent the German or Bolshevik capture of Allied weapons stockpiles in Russia – mount an attack rescuing the Czechoslovak Legion stranded on the Trans-Siberian Railroad – resurrect the Eastern Front by defeating the Bolshevik army and, in the process, stop the spread of communism and the Bolshevik cause in Russia
  • 125. Allied Invasion of Russia Approximately 200,000 combined Allied troops participated in military activities in Russia – Japan seized land in East Asia – Britain, France and U.S. participated in Northern, Southern and Siberian campaigns – Allies provided assistance to the Russian ―Whites‖ because they wanted Russia to continue in war against Germany European Allied forces withdrew in 1920 (long after the Treaty of Versailles), and Japan stayed until 1925 in some parts of Russia
  • 126. Results of Russian Civil War Much of Russia in ruins Cities, land, factories destroyed after almost eight years of fighting Millions died or fled country Bolsheviks had mammoth task of rebuilding country Allied invasion of Russia led to long term communist distrust of the West
  • 127. “Art” ofWorld War I
  • 128. “A Street in Arras”John Singer Sargent, 1918
  • 129. “Oppy Wood” – John Nash, 1917
  • 130. “Those Who Have Lost Their Names” Albin Eggar-Linz, 1914
  • 131. “Gassed and Wounded” Eric Kennington, 1918
  • 132. “Paths of Glory”C. R. W. Nevinson, 1917
  • 133. German Cartoon:“Fit for active service!”, 1918
  • 134. The AmericanHomefront in WWI The Poster War
  • 135. The War Recruitment Effort
  • 136. The Most Famous Recruitment Poster
  • 137. The “Little Soldier”
  • 138. Huns Kill Women and Children!
  • 139. The Spirit of ’76’
  • 140. 1917 – Selective Service Act 24,000,000 men registered for the draft by the end of 1918. 4,800,000 men served in WW1 (2,000,000 saw active combat). 400,000 African-Americans served in segregated units. 15,000 Native-Americans served as scouts, messengers, and snipers in non-segregated units.
  • 141. Expansion of the FederalGovernment: Socialism!
  • 142. Council of National Defense War Industries Board – Bernard Baruch Food Administration – Herbert Hoover Railroad Administration – William McAdoo National War Labor Board – W. H.Taft & Frank P. Walsh
  • 143. U. S. Food Administration
  • 144. U. S. Food Administration
  • 145. U. S. Food Administration
  • 146. National War Garden Commission
  • 147. U. S. School Garden Army
  • 148. U. S. Shipping Board
  • 149. U. S. Fuel Administration
  • 150. U. S. Fuel Administration
  • 151. Results of This New Organization of the Economy?1. Unemployment virtually disappeared.2. Expansion of ―big government.‖3. Excessive govt. regulations in eco.4. Some gross mismanagement overlapping jurisdictions.5. Close cooperation between public and private sectors.6. Unprecedented opportunities for disadvantaged groups.
  • 152. New Social & Economic Opportunities:Women, Blacks &New Immigrants
  • 153. YWCA – The Blue Triangle
  • 154. Munitions Work
  • 155. Munitions Work
  • 156. Munitions Work
  • 157. The Girls They Left Behind Do Their Bit!
  • 158. Women Used In Recruitment
  • 159. Even Grandma Buys Liberty Bonds
  • 160. The Red Cross –Greatest Mother in the World
  • 161. The Red Cross Nurse
  • 162. National League for Woman’s Service
  • 163. Opportunities for African-Americans in WW1 ―Great Migration: – 1916 to 1919 = 70,000 blacks migrated from the South to other areas of the U.S. War industries work. Enlistment in segregated units.
  • 164. True Sons of Freedom
  • 165. For “Colored” Men in Service
  • 166. African-Americans on a Troop Ship Headed for France
  • 167. The “Flag of Liberty”Represents All of Us!
  • 168. We are ALL Americans!
  • 169. United War Work Campaign
  • 170. American Committee for Relief in the Near East
  • 171. Wartime Propaganda & The Creel Committee
  • 172. The Committee of Public Information (George Creel) Committee on Public Information (aka the Creel Committee) created in April 1917 – An independent agency of the government created to influence U.S. public opinion regarding American participation in World War I. – In existence for just 28 months – Goals: 1. To create enthusiasm for the war effort 2. Enlist public support against foreign attempts to undercut Americas war aims.
  • 173. The Creel Committee Used newsprint, posters, radio, telegraph, cable and movies to broadcast its message. It recruited about 75,000 "Four Minute Men" – volunteers who spoke about the war at social events for an ideal length of four minutes – Speeches covered the draft, rationing, war bond drives, victory gardens and why America was fighting. – Made more than 7.5 million speeches to 314 million people in 5,200 communities.
  • 174. The Creel Committee The CPI staged events designed for specific ethnic groups. Targeted the American worker and filled factories and offices with posters promoting the critical role of American labor in the success of the war effort. Both a News Division and a Films Division were established to help get out the war message. Had over twenty bureaus and divisions, with commissioners offices in nine foreign countries.
  • 175. “Remember Belgium”
  • 176. Germany: The “Mad Brute”
  • 177. Beat Back the “Hun”
  • 178. The “Menace of the Seas”
  • 179. Creel Commission Film
  • 180. The Treaty of Versailles
  • 181. The End of the Great War German forces, weakened by internal political and social strife as well as the Spanish Influenza pandemic, suffered heavy losses during a series of Allied offensives in 1918 – Following the outbreak of the German Revolution, a republic was proclaimed on 9 November. – The Kaiser fled to the Netherlands. On November 11, 1918, an armistice with Germany was signed in a railroad carriage – Symbolism: the eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month – Opposing armies on the Western Front began to withdraw from their positions.
  • 182. World War I Casualties10,000,000 9,000,000 Russia 8,000,000 Germany 7,000,000 Austria-Hungary 6,000,000 France 5,000,000 4,000,000 Great Britain 3,000,000 Italy 2,000,000 Turkey 1,000,000 US 0
  • 183. The Big Four Woodrow Wilson, David Lloyd-GeorgePresident, United States Prime Minister, Great Britain Georges Clemenceau Vittorio Orlando Premiere, France Prime Minister, Italy
  • 184. The Big Four in Versailles, 1919
  • 185. French Goals at Versailles What did France want from the treaty? – Security – Revenge – Reparations Clemenceau wanted to make sure that Germany could not invade France in the future. – Weak German military – Wanted Germany broken down into smaller states France had suffered the most during the war so Clemenceau was under great pressure from the French people to make Germany pay for the damage that had been caused in northern France by the invading German armies.
  • 186. British Goals at Versailles Germany to be ―justly punished‖ Germany to lose its navy and colonies as these were a threat to Britains own navy and empire Germany and Britain to become trading partners – Recognized that European economic recovery depended on renewed trade with Central Powers BUT overall, Lloyd George did not want to punish Germany too harshly as he did not want Germany seeking revenge in the future
  • 187. American Goals at Versailles Wanted the treaty to be based on his ―Fourteen Points‖ Wanted a just settlement that would not leave Germany feeling resentful Establishment of an international organization to settle disputes called The League of Nations Colonial rights to self-determination The American public did not support him. They were fed up with involvement in European affairs. The USA became more isolationist.
  • 188. German Reasons for Optimism at the Treaty of Versailles Abdication of Kaiser ? New democratic govt Expectations the Allies would help the new Weimar government President Wilson‘s desire for fairness – 14 Points Other countries were not blameless What do you think Chancellor Ebert was thinking on the eve of the Paris Peace Conference?
  • 189. Terms of the Treaty of Versailles The “War Guilt” Clause: – Article 231 of the Treaty stated that Germany was to take full responsibility for starting the war. – "The Allied and Associated Governments affirm, and Germany accepts, the responsibility of Germany and her Allies for causing all the loss and damage to which the Allied and Associate Governments and their nationals have been subjected as a consequence of a war imposed upon them by the aggression of Germany and her Allies."
  • 190. Terms of the Treaty of Versailles The terms of the Treaty were negotiated exclusively between the Big Four. – Germany was excluded from participating in the negotiations – Terms of the Treaty were forced on Germany“Through the doors at the end…come four officers of France, GreatBritain, America and Italy. And then, isolated and pitiable, come the twoGermans, Dr. Muller and Dr. Bell. The silence is terrifying…They keeptheir eyes fixed away from those two thousand staring eyes, fixed onthe ceiling. They are deathly pale…There is general tension. They sign.There is general relaxation…We kept our seats while the Germans wereconducted like prisoners from the dock.” (Harold Nicolson, Peacemaking, 1919.)
  • 191. Terms of the Treaty of Versailles Reparations (payment for damages) – As Germany was held responsible for the war, the allies could claim reparations for the damage caused – In 1921 a special commission fixed a sum of £6,600 m. to be paid in annual instalments – The Treaty also took away 10% of Germany‘s industry and 15% of its agricultural land
  • 192. Terms of the Treaty of Versailles Military Restrictions – Air force was disbanded – Army limited to 100,000 soldiers – Navy limited to 15,000 sailors, six battleships and no submarines – Rhineland occupied by the Allies for 15 years – No German troops allowed in this area
  • 193. Terms of the Treaty of Versailles Territorial Losses – Germany lost ALL of her colonies overseas • Alsace-Lorraine returned to France • West Prussia and Posen (Polish Corridor) lost to Poland • Saarland taken over by the League of Nations for 15 years • Eupen and Malmedy were given to Belgium • North-Schleswig was given to Denmark
  • 194. Terms of the Treaty of Versailles Large parts of Germany and Austria became new, independent nations – Germany and Austria forbidden to reunite
  • 195. Reactions to the Treaty of Versailles Lloyd George, Great Britain: – Privately hated the Treaty. – Needing for public support to stay in office, he publicly echoed anti-German views to insure re-election. – Liked the fact that Britain got German colonies, and the small German navy helped British sea-power. – Although many British people wanted to ‗make Germany pay‘, George thought that the Treaty was too harsh, and that it would start another war in 25 years time.
  • 196. Reactions to the Treaty of Versailles Clenenceau, France: – Liked the harsh things that were in the Treaty, especially reparations, because they would weaken Germany while helping France to recover. – Liked the idea of a small German army, and the demilitarised zone in the Rhineland – He was pleased that France received Alsace-Lorraine as this had been taken off France by Germany in 1871. – He wanted the Treaty to be harsher.
  • 197. Reactions to the Treaty of Versailles Woodrow Wilson, United States: – Wilson got self-determination for the peoples of Eastern Europe, and a League of Nations, but he was disappointed with the Treaty because few of his ‗Fourteen Points‘ were acted upon. – The U.S. Senate refused to join the League of Nations, and refused to sign the Treaty of Versailles! – In America, there was a growing desire for the government to adopt a policy of isolation and leave Europe to its own devices. – Wilson believed the treaty did not allow for reconciliation (peace), and that it would eventually promote a desire for revenge (war) in Germany.
  • 198. Reactions to the Treaty of Versailles Germany: – Germans thought the Treaty was a ―diktat‖ : a dictated peace. They had not been invited to the peace conference at Versailles and when the Treaty was presented to them they were threatened with war if they did not sign it. – The Treaty was NOT based on Wilson‘s Fourteen Points as the Germans had been promised it would – Most Germans believed that the War Guilt Clause was unjustified. The French and British had done just as much to start the war. – The loss of territory and population angered most Germans who believed that the losses were too severe. – Many Germans believed the German economy would be crippled by having to pay large reparations.
  • 199. Consequences? Most Germans were horrified by the harshness of the Treaty. There was anger amongst all groups in Germany, no matter what their political beliefs. Some German newspapers called for revenge for the humiliation of Versailles.
  • 200. Consequences? Much of the German anger was also directed against the new, democratic government. – Already there was a myth growing in the country that the German army had been ―stabbed in the back‖ by politicians…the so called ―November Criminals‖. – Now these same politicians had signed the ―Diktat‖, the dictated peace. – The new democracy in Germany was now closely linked with the humiliation of Versailles. Many historians believe the Treaty terms will be a major cause of WWII.
  • 201. TheAftermath of War New Nations, New Problems: 1914-1922
  • 202. The Middle East in 1914
  • 203. Hussein-McMahon Letters: 1915-16 ―Britain is prepared to recognize and uphold the independence of the Arabs in all regions lying within the frontiers proposed by the Sharif of Mecca…‖ Hussein ibn Ali, Sharif of Mecca
  • 204. Sykes-Picot Agreement: 1916
  • 205. Balfour Declaration: 1917Dear Lord Rothschild. I have much pleasure to convey to you, on behalf of HisMajesty’s Government, the following declaration of sympathy withJewish Zionist aspirations {hopes} which has been submitted to, andapproved by, the Cabinet. “His Majesty’s Government view with favor the establishmentin Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, and will usetheir best endeavors to facilitate {assist} the achievement of thisobject, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which mayprejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewishcommunities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed byJews in any other country.” I should be grateful if you would bring this declaration to theknowledge of the Zionist Federation. Yours sincerely, ARTHUR JAMES BALFOUR British Foreign Secretary
  • 206.  The British Mandate in Palestine – July 1922
  • 207. League of Nations Mandates in the Middle East
  • 208. Versailles Settlement in Europe Versailles Settlement in Europe
  • 209. Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, 1918: Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (1918) Delivering the Goods
  • 210. German Territorial Losses: 1919-1921 German Territorial Losses
  • 211. German Pacific Colonies Lost in WWI
  • 212. League of Nations Mandates in Africa
  • 213. NewNew Nations: 1923 Nations: 1923

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