The Road to Revolution


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PPT on the causes of the American Revolution, adapted from a presentation created by Susan Pojer at Horace Greely High School

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The Road to Revolution

  1. 1. Thanks to Susan Pojer at Horace Greely HS for the basis of this Powerpoint presentation!
  2. 2.  Economic theory that bases a nations wealth on the amount of gold and bullion in its treasury  Raw materials were exported from colonies in order for the mother country to make a profit  Each nation tried to have more goods coming in than going out. This was called a “favorable balance of trade.” Mercantile System
  3. 3. Mercantile System: Triangular Trade
  4. 4. • Power derived from a nation’s wealth • Colonies were necessary for economic growth • Nations had to control the commerce of their colonies • First Navigation Act, 1651 – Balance of trade – Rules governing which goods could enter English ports and on which ships – Rules governing nationality of captain and crew of ships – Generated opposition in the colonies Mercantilism as a Moral Revolution
  5. 5. • Navigation Act of 1660 – All colonial trade had to be carried out on English ships – New rules on nationality of captain and crew of ships – Listed goods that could be shipped from the colonies ONLY to England or another English colony – Navigation Acts were tremendously successful at displacing the Dutch and establishing English hegemony over the Atlantic trade • Staple Act of 1663 – Regulated goods going to colonies Mercantilism
  6. 6. • Plantation Duty Act of 1673 – The Plantation Duty Act limited American trade – Attempted to force planters to trade exclusively with England and her colonies and to redirect revenue to Great Britain. – Three provisions: 1. Put a penny tax on each pound of tobacco. 2. Required a five-shilling tax for every hundred weight of sugar. 3. Collectors were appointed in the colonies. This meant that, for the first time in history, the British government placed a revenue- collecting administration in British North America.  Widely hated across the British Empire. Merchants on both sides of the Atlantic felt it targeted them unfairly. Mercantilism
  7. 7. • James II replaced by William and Mary • Upheavals in many American colonies. End result: – No more colonial self-government. Imposed representative govt. in all colonies answering to crown. – Religious toleration imposed on the Puritans – England regulated and enforced Atlantic trade, but could not effectively enforce inland trade. Crisis in England: The Glorious Revolution
  8. 8. • Abandoned rigid inheritance and familial patterns of England • Adhered to patriarchal family and society structure – Primogeniture • Households interdependent within society, tried to be self- sufficient • Householders exerted independence in larger political society • Independence influenced military affairs as few felt compelled to serve unless it was in their own interests Changing Face of Americans
  9. 9. • African slave trade reached its peak between 1730 and 1775 – Transformed political life, as great planters assumed leadership positions – Rice Planters of Carolina became richest members of colonial society Expansion & Regionalism in Colonies
  10. 10. • Life for slaves in Upper South – Utilized gang system to supervise slaves – A small percentage of slaves learned skills – Encouraged family life among slaves • Life for slaves in Lower South – Utilized task system of slave supervision – Relied on white artisans for manufactured products – Slaves in deep South slower to assimilate into the British world Expansion & Regionalism in Colonies
  11. 11. • Most pluralistic region of North America from the start • Ireland and Germany main sources of immigrants after 1720 • New immigrants populated backcountry and created distinct society there – Violent, heavy drinking – Hated Indians The Mid-Atlantic Colonies
  12. 12. • Economy weakened after colonial wars ended in 1713 • Molasses act of 1733 – Imposed tax on West Indies molasses – Increased bribery and smuggling • Region made its mark on Atlantic commerce through shipbuilding • Massachusetts invented fiat money in 1690 – Problems with depreciation New England: Faltering Economy & Paper Money
  13. 13. Tar and Feathering
  14. 14. The Boston MassacreThe Boston Massacre ((March 5,1770March 5,1770 ))
  15. 15. The Gaspee IncidentThe Gaspee Incident (1772)(1772) Providence, RI coastProvidence, RI coast
  16. 16. CommitteesCommittees of Correspondenceof Correspondence PurposePurpose  warn neighboring colonieswarn neighboring colonies about incidents with Br.about incidents with Br.  broaden the resistancebroaden the resistance movement.movement.
  17. 17. Tea ActTea Act (1773)(1773) 8 British East India Co.:British East India Co.:  Monopoly on Br. teaMonopoly on Br. tea imports.imports.  Many members ofMany members of Parl. held shares.Parl. held shares.  Permitted the Co. toPermitted the Co. to sell tea directly tosell tea directly to cols. without col.cols. without col. middlemenmiddlemen (cheaper tea!)(cheaper tea!) 8 North expected theNorth expected the cols. to eagerly choosecols. to eagerly choose the cheaper tea.the cheaper tea.
  18. 18. Boston Tea PartyBoston Tea Party (1773)(1773)
  19. 19. The Coercive orThe Coercive or IntolerableIntolerable ActsActs (1774)(1774) Lord NorthLord North 1.1. Port BillPort Bill 2.2. Government ActGovernment Act 4.4. Administration ofAdministration of Justice ActJustice Act 3.3. New QuarteringNew Quartering ActAct
  20. 20. The Quebec ActThe Quebec Act (1774)(1774)
  21. 21. First ContinentalFirst Continental CongressCongress (1774)(1774)55 delegates from 12 colonies55 delegates from 12 colonies AgendaAgenda  How toHow to respond to therespond to the Coercive Acts &Coercive Acts & the Quebec Act?the Quebec Act? 1 vote per colony1 vote per colony represented.represented.
  22. 22. The British AreThe British Are ComingComing . . .. . . Paul ReverePaul Revere && William DawesWilliam Dawes make theirmake their midnight ride to warn themidnight ride to warn the MinutemenMinutemen ofof approaching British soldiers.approaching British soldiers.
  23. 23. The Shot HeardThe Shot Heard ’’Round the WorldRound the World!! LexingtonLexington && ConcordConcord – April 18,1775– April 18,1775
  24. 24. The SecondThe Second Continental CongressContinental Congress (1775)(1775) Olive Branch PetitionOlive Branch Petition
  25. 25. Thomas PaineThomas Paine:: Common SenseCommon Sense
  26. 26. Declaration ofDeclaration of IndependenceIndependence (1776)(1776)
  27. 27. Declaration ofDeclaration of IndependenceIndependence
  28. 28. Independence HallIndependence Hall
  29. 29. NewNew NationalNational SymbolsSymbols