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The Road to Revolution

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PPT on the causes of the American Revolution, adapted from a presentation created by Susan Pojer at Horace Greely High School

PPT on the causes of the American Revolution, adapted from a presentation created by Susan Pojer at Horace Greely High School

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  • 1. The Road to Revolution: (1770-1776) Thanks to Susan Pojer at Horace Greely HS for the basis of this Powerpoint presentation!
  • 2. Was the American Revolution Inevitable??
  • 3.
    • Economic theory that bases a nations wealth on the amount of gold and bullion in its treasury
    • Raw materials were exported from colonies in order for the mother country to make a profit
    • Each nation tried to have more goods coming in than going out. This was called a “favorable balance of trade.”
    Mercantile System
  • 4. Mercantile System : Triangular Trade
  • 5.
    • Power derived from a nation’s wealth
    • Colonies were necessary for economic growth
    • Nations had to control the commerce of their colonies
    • First Navigation Act, 1651
      • Balance of trade
      • Rules governing which goods could enter English ports and on which ships
      • Rules governing nationality of captain and crew of ships
      • Generated opposition in the colonies
    Mercantilism as a Moral Revolution
  • 6.
    • Navigation Act of 1660
      • All colonial trade had to be carried out on English ships
      • New rules on nationality of captain and crew of ships
      • Listed goods that could be shipped from the colonies ONLY to England or another English colony
      • Navigation Acts were tremendously successful at displacing the Dutch and establishing English hegemony over the Atlantic trade
    • Staple Act of 1663
      • Regulated goods going to colonies
  • 7.
    • Plantation Duty Act of 1673
      • The Plantation Duty Act limited American trade
      • Attempted to force planters to trade exclusively with England and her colonies and to redirect revenue to Great Britain.
      • Three provisions:
        • Put a penny tax on each pound of tobacco. 
        • Required a five-shilling tax for every hundred weight of sugar. 
        • Collectors were appointed in the colonies.  This meant that, for the first time in history, the British government placed a revenue-collecting administration in British North America.
      • Widely hated across the British Empire. Merchants on both sides of the Atlantic felt it targeted them unfairly.
  • 8.
    • James II replaced by William and Mary
    • Upheavals in many American colonies. End result:
      • No more colonial self-government. Imposed representative govt. in all colonies answering to crown.
      • Religious toleration imposed on the Puritans
      • England regulated and enforced Atlantic trade, but could not effectively enforce inland trade.
    Crisis in England : The Glorious Revolution
  • 9.
    • Abandoned rigid inheritance and familial patterns of England
    • Adhered to patriarchal family and society structure
      • Primogeniture
    • Households interdependent within society, tried to be self-sufficient
    • Householders exerted independence in larger political society
    • Independence influenced military affairs as few felt compelled to serve unless it was in their own interests
    Changing Face of Americans
  • 10.
    • African slave trade reached its peak between 1730 and 1775
      • Transformed political life, as great planters assumed leadership positions
      • Rice Planters of Carolina became richest members of colonial society
    Expansion & Regionalism in Colonies
  • 11.
    • Life for slaves in Upper South
      • Utilized gang system to supervise slaves
      • A small percentage of slaves learned skills
      • Encouraged family life among slaves
    • Life for slaves in Lower South
      • Utilized task system of slave supervision
      • Relied on white artisans for manufactured products
      • Slaves in deep South slower to assimilate into the British world
    Expansion & Regionalism in Colonies
  • 12.
    • Most pluralistic region of North America from the start
    • Ireland and Germany main sources of immigrants after 1720
    • New immigrants populated backcountry and created distinct society there
      • Violent, heavy drinking
      • Hated Indians
    The Mid - Atlantic Colonies
  • 13.
    • Economy weakened after colonial wars ended in 1713
    • Molasses act of 1733
      • Imposed tax on West Indies molasses
      • Increased bribery and smuggling
    • Region made its mark on Atlantic commerce through shipbuilding
    • Massachusetts invented fiat money in 1690
      • Problems with depreciation
    New England : Faltering Economy & Paper Money
  • 14. Tar and Feathering
  • 15. The Boston Massacre ( March 5,1770 )
  • 16. The Gaspee Incident (1772) Providence, RI coast
  • 17. Committees of Correspondence Purpose  warn neighboring colonies about incidents with Br.  broaden the resistance movement.
  • 18. Tea Act (1773)
    • British East India Co.:
      • Monopoly on Br. tea imports.
      • Many members of Parl. held shares.
      • Permitted the Co. to sell tea directly to cols. without col. middlemen (cheaper tea!)
    • North expected the cols. to eagerly choose the cheaper tea.
  • 19. Boston Tea Party (1773)
  • 20. The Coercive or Intolerable Acts (1774) Lord North 1. Port Bill 2. Government Act 4. Administration of Justice Act 3. New Quartering Act
  • 21. The Quebec Act (1774)
  • 22. First Continental Congress (1774) 55 delegates from 12 colonies Agenda  How to respond to the Coercive Acts & the Quebec Act? 1 vote per colony represented.
  • 23. The British Are Coming . . . Paul Revere & William Dawes make their midnight ride to warn the Minutemen of approaching British soldiers.
  • 24. The Shot Heard ’ Round the World ! Lexington & Concord – April 18,1775
  • 25. The Second Continental Congress (1775) Olive Branch Petition
  • 26. Was the American Revolution Inevitable??
  • 27. Thomas Paine : Common Sense
  • 28. Declaration of Independence (1776)
  • 29. Declaration of Independence
  • 30. Independence Hall
  • 31. New National Symbols