Middle colonies


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Middle colonies

  1. 1. The Middle Colonies
  2. 2. 1 3 2 4 Middle Colonies 1. New York 2. New Jersey 3. Pennsylvania 4. Delaware
  3. 3. The Middle Colonies Main Ideas • Middle colonies are settled on rich river lands, making them a farming and mining powerhouse. • The English created New York and New Jersey from former Dutch territory. • William Penn established the colony of Pennsylvania. • The economy of the middle colonies was supported by trade and staple crops.
  4. 4. Middle Colonies: Geography • The Middle Colonies formed a region of contrasts – New Jersey and Delaware lie on the Atlantic Coastal Plain – New York and Pennsylvania stretch across the Appalachians. – Each had different land and different lifestyles. • There was a fall line created as the rivers dropped from the hills to the coastal plain. This caused rapids and waterfalls.
  5. 5. Middle Colonies: Geography • The middle colonies had beaver-filled streams, thick forests and rich farm land. • Colonist used the rivers to transport these goods. – They were large enough for ships which promoted port cities for trade. • The fall line was used to power mills and saws. – Example: New York City
  6. 6. Middle Colonies: Geography • Climate was cold in winter, mild in summer. Great soil conditions for farming. • Small and large farms developed for both subsistence and commercial farming. – (subsistence=grow the food that you need for your family) – (commercial=agricultural products to sell for profit) – Grain products like wheat, oats, corn were grown and traded to other colonies. – Because of location and factors such as rivers and harbors, trade was conducted with both New England and Southern Colonies. • Religious diversity developed and they encouraged diversity. – Quakers settled with Anglicans and other protestant groups and Jews.
  7. 7. Middle Colonies: Geography
  8. 8. Urban Population Growth (1650-1775)
  9. 9. Differences in Middle Colony Governance • Middle Colonies = mostly proprietary – A charter for a land grant given to an individual. The individual was given power to rule the territory of the land grant. – Example: William Penn was the Proprietor of Pennsylvania. • New England & Southern Colonies – A Royal Colony was establish by a charter, land grant form the king. Granted a person or company the authority to establish settlements. – Example: James Oglethorpe received a Royal Charter to establish Georgia in 1732 – A charter is a written grant for use of land. Given by the king or the Parliament to a business company. – Example: The London Company (Virginia Company) chartered Jamestown in 1607.
  10. 10. From Dutch to English NEW YORK & NEW JERSEY
  11. 11. The Coming of the Dutch • In 1607 and 1608, English explorer Henry Hudson was hired by the Muscovy Company and the East India Company of England to search for a northwest passage in North America to the Pacific. • Thought that because the sun shone for three months in the northern latitudes in the summer, the ice would melt and a ship could make it across the top of the world Henry Hudson
  12. 12. The Coming of the Dutch • In 1609, Hudson sailed for the Dutch East Company, looking for a passage through the Arctic to Asia, but instead explored the area that is today Hudson Bay. • His voyage was used to establish Dutch claims to the region. • Established fur trade via a 1614 trading post • New Amsterdam on Manhattan Island became the capital of New Netherland in 1625. Replica of Hudson’s ship, the Half Moon
  13. 13. Henry Hudson’s Journey for the Dutch
  14. 14. Coming of the Dutch Beginning of New Netherland • 1621 – Dutch West India Company sets up a trading company in New Netherland • 1624 – Sent 30 families to settle • New Amsterdam – center of new colony – Located on Manhattan Island – 1626 – Peter Minuit, governor of colony, buys land for about $24 • Grows slowly – No real reason to move there – Their country was prosperous and tolerant of religions
  15. 15. New Amsterdam & New Sweden • Recruiting settlers – – – – Welcomes all people in New England Gave large tracts of land to anyone who brought 50 settlers Riverfront property Patroons ran land as they chose; own laws • New Sweden established – – – – Fur Trade – brought settlers from Sweden 1638 – New Sweden formed near Wilmington, Delaware Dutch view New Sweden as a rival 1655 – Peter Stuyvesant, governor of New Netherland, seized New Sweden
  16. 16. New Amsterdam in 1664
  17. 17. Meanwhile, back in England… • New English King Takes Over in England – Civil War in England • • – – Parliament Puritans vs. Charles I supporters King beheaded for treason Puritans run country for 11 years 1660 – King Charles II takes over The trial of Charles I on January 4, 1649.
  18. 18. Trouble in New Amsterdam • New Amsterdam “colonies” = collection of fortified trading posts to engage in fur trade with Indians • Plan never worked well • By 1640 the colony only held 5000 discontented settlers – – – Angry at sloppy and haphazard administration Angry at having most of their profits siphoned off by merchants headquartered in New Amsterdam At the same time, English settlers from New England moved into area and refused to recognize authority of Dutch administrators
  19. 19. English Invade New Amsterdam • English government recognized problems in New Netherlands and exploited situation – 1664 – Charles sends brother, James, Duke of York to seize Dutch colony. – Four English warships anchor at New Amsterdam
  20. 20. English Take New Amsterdam • Governor Stuyvesant tells colonists to fight back. • New Netherland surrenders without a fight • Renamed New York in honor of James Peter Stuyvensant
  21. 21. English Establish New York • New York Colonial Government • James becomes proprietor of New York • Allows Dutch to keep their religion, lands, and customs • Religious freedom to all • Colonists had no say in government New York 1621 1655 1664 Fur Trade Eliminate Competition Control Atlantic Coast Peter Minuit Peter Stuyvesant James, Duke of York
  22. 22. Diversity and Toleration • Because colony included Dutch settlers, English authorities were forced to tolerate ethnic and religious differences right from the start • Policy of toleration made colony somewhat attractive to dissatisfied people from other colonies and from various foreign countries in addition to England Dutch cabin in New York
  23. 23. New Netherland 1685
  24. 24. New Jersey Separates from New York • New Jersey • • • • • New Jersey New York too large to manage for James Gave land to Sir George Carteret and Lord John Berkeley Named land “New Jersey” after Carteret’s birthplace Kept religious freedom Developed separately until they became a royal colony in 1702 1702 New York too large to manage Sir George Carteret Lord John Berkeley
  25. 25. New Jersey Land for Rent • Berkeley and Carteret rented land for money in New Jersey. – They offered colonists rich soil and religious freedom – Soon all kinds of people were coming to farm along New Jersey’s Coastal Plain. • Colonists in New York and New Jersey wanted to govern themselves. • The fought and won to elect and assembly, or law making body.) Lord John Berkeley
  26. 26. Trial of John Peter Zenger • Zenger published a weekly newspaper called “The New York Weekly Journal.” • 1734 - Zenger was arrested because he published a newspaper about the governor being dishonest. • The trial helped to establish freedom of the press in America. – Truth is a defense against libel – As long as it was true, you could find fault with public officials.
  27. 27. William Penn and the Quakers PENNSYLVANIA
  28. 28. Rise of the Quakers in England • In the 1600s, wars in Europe ruined farms and trade, and religious clashes caused social upheaval. • Religious dissenters named Quakers arose in England • Hated by authorities because they refused to pay taxes to Church of England, refused to take oaths, refused military service
  29. 29. Quaker Beliefs • Founded in 1640s by George Fox – Real name was Society of Friends • Most democratic Protestant denomination of the time – No church government at all – Women treated as equals – Did not recognize superior social status – Refused to take oaths and were pacifists – Intense evangelicals • Suffered great deal of persecution – Fines for refusing to attend Church of England – Occasional imprisonment
  30. 30. Rise of Quakers in England • Charles II perceived the egalitarian Quakers as dangerous radicals & desired to export the Quakers to someplace far from England • William Penn, a Quaker, was a close friend of King Charles II, and Charles granted Penn a charter in 1681 for what became Pennsylvania in exchange for forgiveness of crown debt.
  31. 31. William Penn (1644-1718) • Born in London into a merchant family, Penn joined the Quakers, also known as the Religious Society of Friends, in 1666. • The Friends believed in direct guidance from the Holy Spirit, did not recognize the authority of an ordained ministry, believed in simple dress, and opposed war. • Pennsylvania (Penn’s forest). – Penn established the colony in Pennsylvania as a refuge for Quakers and a place where they could create a government based on freedom, self-rule, and respect for others. – He helped planned the layout of the city of Philadelphia for future development.
  32. 32. Pennsylvania, An Instant Success! • 4,000 Quakers moved to the colony in 1681 – 20 years later population was 21,000 – By 1750, population was 120,000 • Reasons for success – Rich farmland offered to settlers on generous terms • Any man who brought his family over received 500 acres of land, and paid a small fee to Penn each year for “taxes” – Complete religious freedom guaranteed to all • Could belong to any denomination
  33. 33. Land Grant to William Penn
  34. 34. Pennsylvania’s Diversity • Some settlers were from other colonies or England – But the majority were non-English inhabitants of the British Isles – Scots, Welsh, Scotch-Irish, and Germans
  35. 35. An early map of “The Improved Part of the Province of Pennsilvania in America.”
  36. 36. Scotish-Irish Immigrants • Descendants of Scottish Presbyterians who had settled in northern Ireland in the 1500s – Militarily beat down native Irish and took their land – Created religious and ethnic hatred that still plagues Ireland today • England did not treat them well and, following a series of harvest failures in the 1720s, thousands left for North America – Their favorite destination was Pennsylvania – Over 100,000 came over between 1720-1770
  37. 37. German Immigrants • Most came from small states along the Rhine River – Some were Mennonites and Amish who suffered religious periodic persecution – Others came to escape heavy taxes and poor harvests • By 1776, over 100,000 had come to America – Favorite destination were Philadelphia, New York, and New Jersey Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
  38. 38. A Mixed Blessing • Scotch-Irish were mean and cantankerous, hated the English, had no respect for authority, and were difficult to keep in line • Germans also did not like the English, resisted English authorities, and clung to their own culture and language and refused to assimilate into English culture
  39. 39. The Frontier • Both groups tended to settle on the frontier, in clusters of their own kind, squatting on vacant land – Often responded with violence when authorities challenged their claims • Scotch-Irish were especially hostile towards Indians – Caused headaches for Quaker officials in Pennsylvania
  41. 41. Population in Colonial America POP (in hundreds of thousands) 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 1641 1700 1776 YEAR
  42. 42. Reasons for Growth • Immigration cannot explain all this growth – One historian has estimated that if immigration had been the only reason for population growth, the total population in 1776 would have been 400,000—not 2.5 million • Natural Increase was the most important source for the American population explosion – Natural Increase = More births than deaths
  43. 43. Larger Families • Americans had larger families than their counterparts back home – Colonial women married at a younger age than European women • Increased potential child-bearing years of women – Death rate was lower • Probably due to low density of settlement • Also Americans had better and more reliable diets than Europeans
  44. 44. The Culture of Alcohol • Colonists were heavy drinkers – Average white male colonist over the age of 15 drank the equivalent of one quart of 80-proof whiskey a week – Believed alcohol was nutritious and healthy • Even Puritans drank – Most popular drinks were fermented cider in the north and rum in the south
  45. 45. Drunkeness and Temperance • Most alcohol consumed in small amounts over the entire day – Usually with food • Actual drunkenness was relatively rare – But did become more common in the 1700s – Caused some to view it as serious problem • Some doctors argued it was a poison • Quakers and Methodists objected on religious grounds • Temperance movement had little impact on drinking habits of Americans until the 1850s
  46. 46. Hector St. Jean Crevecouer • “American society is not composed, as in Europe, of great lords who possess everything, and of a herd of people who had nothing. A pleasing uniformity of decent competence appears throughout their habitations. They have no princes for whom they toil, starve, and bleed. They have the most perfect society now existing in the world.”
  47. 47. American Society vs. Europe • Although Crèvecoeur exaggerated, the American colonies were a different society from Europe – Vast majority of colonists were independent farmers, working land that they owned – Not tenant peasants
  48. 48. American Society vs. Europe • Some historians argue that American colonies were becoming more like Europe as time went on • A wealthy elite did develop, but that did not necessarily mean that opportunities were closing down for ordinary people
  49. 49. Planter Elite of the South • Owners of the great plantations were among the richest and most powerful men in the colonies – Elegant estates like Mount Vernon and Monticello rivaled the mansions of the English aristocracy Mount Vernon • As time went on, it became increasing difficult for ordinary men to break into this privileged circle – Planter elite therefore became more narrow and exclusive and took on many characteristics of an aristocracy
  50. 50. Northern Society • Wealthy class also developed in the north – Mainly merchants involved in international trade • But it was less wealthy than southern planter elite Boston merchant • It was also easier to enter – Hardworking craftsman or shopkeeper could do it with a little luck, the right contacts, and a lot of drive and nerve
  51. 51. The Frontier • Although heavily forested, claimed by Indians, and far from protection of colonial governments, it provided the chance to many to become an independent farmer • Major reason why the colonies did not become carbon copies of European society – Provided a “critical safety valve” for the discontented and dissastified – Created American tradition of moving in order to find better opportunities
  52. 52. Women’s Contributions • Women ran farms and businesses, such as clothing stores, drugstores, and bakeries. • Some were nurses and midwives. • Most worked primarily in the home. • Married women managed households and raised children.