Intro to Literature

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Intro to Literature

  1. 1. Why Do I Have to Study Literature?
  2. 2. Literature: • is a composition that tells a story, dramatizes a situation; • expresses emotions, analyzes and advocates ideas • helps us grow personally and intellectually • Is a resource for knowledge and understanding of the human condition • shapes our goals and values by clarifying our own • is a primary characteristic of being human
  3. 3. Great literature influenced the development of the English language 1. The English language is deep-rooted in literature 2. The writings of great writers contributed to the development of the English language (Shakespeare) 3. Literature shows the history of the English language (Beowulf -> Chaucer -> Shakespeare - > Modern)
  4. 4. Literature shows the development of the English Language The Great Vowel Shift Modern Chaucer Shakespeare five /fi:f/ /faiv/ meed /meidə/ /mi:d/ clean /klε: n/ /klein/ (now /kli:n/) name /na:mə/ /neim/ goat /gɔ:tə/ /go:t/ root /ro:tə / /ru:t/ down /du:n/ /daun/
  5. 5. The Great Vowel Shift • The systematic change of some vowel sounds in the period from Chaucer’s time to Shakespeare’s time • The elevation of the tongue position and the narrowing of the opening of the mouth in pronouncing these vowels. • Where the tongue’s position was the highest and the mouth opening was the closest, the vowel sounds became diphthongs as in case of /i:/ and /u:/.
  6. 6. 1. Middle Ages (5th century-1485) 2. The Renaissance (late 15th c. -early 17th c.) 3. The 17th Century 4. The Enlightenment (late 17th c. –middle 18th c.) 5. Romanticism (1798-1832) 6. Realism (1830s-1918) 7. Modernism (1918-1945) 8. The Contemporary Period (1945-Present)
  7. 7. Prose fiction  Myths, parables, romances, novels, short stories Poetry • Open form and closed form  Relies on imagery, figurative language, sound Drama • Made up of dialogue and set direction  Designed to be performed Nonfiction prose • News reports, feature articles, essays, editorials, textbooks, historical and biographical works
  8. 8. DramaFiction PoetryNonfiction Tragedy ComedyRealistic Fiction Historical Fiction Fantasy Science Fiction Biography Autobiography Persuasive Writing Informational Writing Fable Myth Tall Tale Legend Fairy Tale Folklore Epic Ballad Sonnet Villanelle Lyric
  9. 9.  Historical Fiction: set in the past and based on real people and/or events  Science Fiction: has aliens, robots, futuristic technology and/or space ships  Realistic Fiction: has no elements of fantasy; could be true but isn’t  Fantasy: has monsters, magic, or characters with superpowers  Folklore: usually has an “unknown” author or will be “retold” or “adapted” by the author.
  10. 10.  Fable: short story with personified animals and a moral • Personified: given the traits of people • Moral: lesson or message of a fable  Myth: has gods/goddesses and usually accounts for the creation of something  Tall Tale: Set in the Wild West or the American frontier, • main character’s skills/size/strength is greatly exaggerated; • exaggeration is humorous
  11. 11.  Legend: based on a real person or place • Facts are stretched beyond nonfiction • Exaggerated in a serious way  Fairytale: has magic and/or talking animals. • Often starts with “Once upon a time…” • Like fantasy but much older • Often has a human main character • Fables also have talking animals, but fables are VERY short
  12. 12. Essence of fiction = narration (the telling) Elements of fiction • Verisimilitude = realism  Must be compelling enough that the reader can “suspend disbelief” • Donnee = premise  • Something given by which you can judge the realism = ground rules Sources of elements • Character, plot, structure, theme, symbolism, style, point of view, tone, irony
  13. 13.  I. Plot  A. Dramatic structure  B. Exposition  C. Complication  1. Rising action  2. Conflict  3. Moments of crisis  D. Climax  E. Resolution/Denoument
  14. 14.  Plot = reflection of motivation and causation • No plot = The king died and then the queen died. • Plot = The king died, and then the queen died of grief.  Conflict = controlling impulse in a connected pattern of causes and effects • Opposition of two or more people (e.g., hatred, envy, anger, argument, avoidance, gossip, lies, fighting, etc.)  Dilemma = Conflict within or for one person • Conflict is a major element of plot because it arouses curiosity, causes doubt, creates tension, produces interest • No tension = no interest
  15. 15.  A. Protagonist: main person in the story  B. Antagonist: opposition to the protagonist; person who causes conflict & creates obstacles  C. Character Description Foil: character who is opposite in nature to the protagonist and highlights his characteristics Rounded: life-like, dynamic, realistic and predictable Flat: static, no-growth Stock = representative of a group or class  D. Motivation  E. Development
  16. 16. Characters are disclosed through: • Actions • Descriptions, both personal and environmental • Dramatic statements and thoughts • Statements by other characters • Statements by the author speaking as storyteller, or observer • Characters need to have verisimilitude, be probable or plausible
  17. 17.  III. Point of view  A. First-person narration  1. The narrator is a participant in the story  2. The narrator must be present at all times  B. Third-person narration  1. employs a non-participant narrator  2. Narrator is capable of moving from place to place in the story and never reveals its source
  18. 18.  C. Omniscience 1. Total omniscience is where the narrator knows everything 2. Editorial point of view goes even further, allowing the godlike author to comment directly on the action 3. Limited omniscience is where the storyteller limits himself to the thoughts of a single character 4. Dramatic (or objective) point of view is where the narrator simply reports dialogue and action with minimal interpretation and does not delve into characters’ minds
  19. 19.  IV. Theme  A story’s “theme” is the overall meaning the reader derives from it. There’s no one “correct” theme, but some are more likely than others.  Common Themes:  Man vs. Nature  Man vs. Society  Man vs. Himself  Predestination vs. Free Will  Good vs. Evil  Suffering & Redemption  Glory of battle/ horror of war  Deals with the devil
  20. 20.  V. Setting  The time and place of a story. Locale Historical fiction Regionalism Magical realism
  21. 21. VI. Style, Tone, and Symbolism • Style = a writer’s characteristics of language  Diction: word choice  Syntax: sentence structure (grammar, punctuation, sentence construction)  Figurative language (metaphors, similes, personification, allusion, etc).
  22. 22. VI. Style, Tone, and Symbolism • Tone = The tone of the story is what we can indirectly determine about the author’s own feelings about its events from his choice of words • Symbolism = When actions take on a larger meaning in the context outside the story
  23. 23. Multiple Perspectives
  24. 24. Literatur e Genre Author History Ideology Literary Worldview Reader
  25. 25.  Fiction • Plot • Character • Setting • Ideas • Point of View • Symbols • Mood • Objects • Allusion • Theme • Style  Poetry • Events • Structure • Character • Setting • Ideas • Point of View • Mood • Objects • Allusion • Style • Meter • Sound
  26. 26.  Family  Birth  Education  Personality  Occupations  Dreams  Accomplishments  Disappointments  Reputation  Lifestyle  Beliefs  Death
  27. 27. Setting of the work • Year • Political events • Religious events • City and Country Setting of the author • Year • Political and Religious events • City, Country
  28. 28. Religious Political Social Cultural Racial Economic Gender
  29. 29. Personal application View of the author Personal reaction Misunderstandings Recommendations Mood Reading Background
  30. 30. Reality Universe Humanity Death Morality Knowledge History
  31. 31. Monomyth: One Story Motifs Archetypal Images Literary Borrowing
  32. 32.  The Quest  The Initiation  The Tragedy  The Comedy  The Temptation  The Rescue  The Cinderella  The Scapegoat  The Journey  The Death/Rebirth
  33. 33.  Supernatural  Human Characters  Relationships  Clothing  Human Body  Foods  Sounds  Movement  Animals  Landscape  Plants  Buildings  Inorganic  Water  Nature  Direction
  34. 34.  God  Angels  Heaven  Satan  Demons  Evil spirits  Evil beasts  Witch  Hell “Good” Archetypes “Bad” Archetypes
  35. 35.  Hero  Virtuous wife, husband  Innocent child  Friend  Servant  Wise man  Good farmer  Just judge  Villain  Harlot  Tyrant  Wanderer  Traitor  Sluggard  Fool  Drunkard  thief
  36. 36.  Wedding clothes  White colored clothes  Armor  Stately garment  Sackcloth  Dark clothes  Lack of clothing  Dirty clothes
  37. 37.  Bread  Milk  Meat  Manna  Oil  Wine  Olives  Grapes  Hunger  Drought  Famine  Starvation  Poison  Drunkenness Food Objects Actions
  38. 38.  Sheep  Lamb  Dove  Gentle birds  Singing birds  Lion  Eagle  Owl (wisdom)  Monsters  Wolf  Tiger  Dragon  Vulture  Owl (death)  Snake  Goat  Wild dogs “Good” Omens/Symbols “Bad” Omens/Symbols
  39. 39.  Garden  Park  Mountaintop  Fertile plain  Rock  Safe pathway  Dark forest  Wilderness  Dark valley  Tomb  Cave  Pit Order/Light Disorder/Darkness
  40. 40.  Green grass  Rose  Vineyard  Lily  Evergreen  Plants of healing  Thorn  Weeds  Dead plants  Willow tree  Pruning of branches Order/Light Disorder/Darkness
  41. 41.  River  Stream  Pool  Spring  Fountain  Showers of rain  Flowing water  Sea  Stagnant pools  Floods Growth/Light Chaos/Darkness
  42. 42.  Breeze  Summer seasons  Calm after storm  Sun  Stars  Sunrise  Day  Rainbow  Storms  Autumn  Winter  Sunset  Darkness  Lightning  Whirlwind Order/Light Disorder/Darkness
  43. 43.  Rising  Height  West  North  Right  Straight  Descent  Lowness  East  South  Left  Crooked Order/Light Disorder/Darkness
  44. 44. Bible Shakespeare Greeks/Romans Fairytales LITERATURE

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