History & Basic Structure of the Internet


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History & Basic Structure of the Internet

  1. 1. The History of the Internet
  2. 2. History of the Internet and the World Wide Web <ul><li>I nternet vs. i nternet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An internet (small “i”) refers to any network of computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Internet (large “I”) is a specific name </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Given to the communication network comprised of hundreds of thousands of inter-connected networks </li></ul></ul></ul>… .
  3. 3. History of the Internet and the World Wide Web /cont./ <ul><li>The Internet is not a new development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>After the Russian’s launched Sputnik, the first satellite, the U.S. panicked. </li></ul></ul>… Created Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA)
  4. 4. History of the Internet and the World Wide Web /cont./ <ul><li>The Department of Defense got together with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and created… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ARPAnet (Advanced Research Projects Agency) to develop an alternative communication system that could enable the military to function in the event of a nuclear strike. </li></ul></ul>…
  5. 5. ARPANet …
  6. 6. History of the Internet and the World Wide Web /cont./ <ul><li>1970’s brought about Stanford University’s testing and development of early internet protocols </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vinton Cerf -- Father of the Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1980’s & National Science Foundation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NSF obtained control of network for government and educational use </li></ul></ul>..
  7. 7. History of the Internet and the World Wide Web /cont./ <ul><li>Also in the 1980’s: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tim Berners-Lee of CERN (European Laboratory of Particle Physics) began working on WWW </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Created software for world-wide interconnectivity called Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Written as an “…Internet-based hypermedia initiative for global information sharing.” </li></ul></ul></ul>.
  8. 8. Internet Today
  9. 9. History of the Internet and the World Wide Web /cont./ <ul><li>Internet surfing -- pre-browser era </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Before the Web, information retrieval was accomplished through a number of complicated steps and commands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Time consuming </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Required greater-than-normal understanding of computing in order to operate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Private” until 1993 with the birth of Mosaic </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. How the Internet and the Web work <ul><li>The internet as a Packet-Switched network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bundles of data are broken up, transmitted, and reassembled at the other end </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmitted data are mixed together with all the other data on the internet until it reaches it final destination </li></ul></ul>…
  11. 11. How the Internet and the Web work …
  12. 12. How the Internet and the Web work /cont./ <ul><li>Data flows through the internet via many interconnected computers </li></ul><ul><li>Clients, Servers, and Routers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clients: Originating User’s Computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Server: Powerful, Continuous Internet Access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Router: Computers that link networks together </li></ul></ul>..
  13. 13. How the Internet and the Web work /cont./ <ul><li>TCP/IP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sets definitions for how data transmission takes place. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TCP (Transmission Control Protocols) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Defines how computers communicate with each other </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IP (Internet Protocols) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tells routers how to reassemble data packets </li></ul></ul></ul>.
  14. 14. How the Internet and the Web work /cont./ <ul><li>Several types of Internet Protocols: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>WWW Documents </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WAIS (Wide Area Info System Protocol) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rules for accessing text-only file indices </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FTP (File Transfer Protocol) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data transfer from one computer to another </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telnet (Terminal Emulation Protocol) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used when logging into another system </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Connecting to the Internet <ul><li>Internet Service Providers (ISP’s) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flashnet, EV1, PDQ.net </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A company that provides the connection between remote locations and the internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The two most important ISP Services: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fast, reliable service with no busy signals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reliable email delivery in less than 5 minutes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals pay a monthly subscription rate for permission to dial-in to their server </li></ul></ul>… ..
  16. 16. Connecting to the Internet /cont./ <ul><li>Online Services </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>AOL, CompuServe, Prodigy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ISP’s on steroids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide extra services in addition to the plain “net connection” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>On-line databases </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Govt. and Commercial information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Search engines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many Online Services provide their own browsers </li></ul></ul></ul>… .
  17. 17. <ul><li>Internet Addresses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>InterNIC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Domain Name registration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sets rules </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assigns IP Addresses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organizes participant categories </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Universities, Businesses </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Networks, Organizations </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Military, Government </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Connecting to the Internet /cont./ …
  18. 18. <ul><li>First-Level Domain Extender </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a.k.a. Top-Level Domain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thee letter code added to each address (e.g.: .COM) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Com = commercial </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Edu = education (university) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gov = Government </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mil = Military </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Net = Network support company </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Org = nonprofit, nongov. organization </li></ul></ul></ul>Connecting to the Internet /cont./ ..
  19. 19. <ul><li>Every person given access to the internet is assigned an IP Address </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unique to each user </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Serves as a locator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When a request is sent from a client to a location on the internet, the reply is made by recognizing the IP Address </li></ul></ul></ul>Connecting to the Internet /cont./ .
  20. 20. <ul><li>Internet Addresses (aka Canonical Addresses) are associated with the IP Address </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Registered at the same time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also called DNS (Domain Name System) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(e.g.: smccombs@uh.edu) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Connecting to the Internet /cont./
  21. 21. Navigating the World Wide Web <ul><li>Net Browsers </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mosaic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Netscape </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internet Explorer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Present online information in a readable format to the user. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Done by interpretation of a web programming language called HTML </li></ul></ul></ul>…
  22. 22. Navigating the World Wide Web /cont./ <ul><li>Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>World Wide Web Programming Language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consists of a series of commands that tell browsers how to read and present data to the user. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uses tags to accomplish page formatting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not actually a programming language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lacks compiling ability </li></ul></ul></ul>..
  23. 23. <ul><li>Making Web Pages Dynamic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scripting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Web Programming using JAVA or VBScript </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used in conjunction with HTML </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>HTML = Static </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SCRIPTING = Dynamic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>JavaScript, VBScript </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>programming code written within HTML Document that causes interactivity </li></ul></ul></ul>Navigating the World Wide Web /cont./ .
  24. 24. <ul><li>Moving around the web: Two Methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hot Links and Buttons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Links are hidden HTML commands that, when activated, can take a user to another web site </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>URL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The URL (Uniform Resource Locator) is the HTML’s specific web address </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>URL by Bookmarking or Favorites </li></ul></ul></ul>Navigating the World Wide Web /cont./
  25. 25. Web Browser Selection <ul><li>Personal Preference </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Although some determining factors: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Size of browser </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not really an issue any more </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Compatibility </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>End Chapter 1 Presentation </li></ul>The Internet and the World Wide Web