Grade Level Standard 2A 5-12 Compare Athenian democracy with the military aristocracy of Sparta. [Compare and contrast differing sets of ideas, values, and institutions] 5-12 Explain hierarchical relationships within Greek society and analyze the civic, economic, and social tasks that men and women of different classes performed. [Appreciate historical perspectives] 7-12 Describe the changing political institutions of Athens in the 6th and 5th centuries BCE and analyze the influence of political thought on public life. [Reconstruct patterns of historical succession and duration] 9-12 Assess the importance of Greek ideas about democracy and citizenship for the development of Western political thought and institutions. [Hypothesize the influence of the past] Grade Level Standard 2B 5-12 Identify the major characteristics of Hellenic architecture and sculpture and assess the ways in which architecture, sculpture, and painting expressed or influenced social values and attitudes. [Draw upon visual sources] 7-12 Identify major Greek myths and dramas and assess how they reflected social values and attitudes. [Formulate historical questions] 9-12 Explain the leading ideas of Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Herodotus, and other philosophers and historians. [Appreciate historical perspective] Grade Level Standard 2C 5-12 Analyze the major events of the wars between Persia and the Greek city-states and the reasons why the Persians failed to conquer the Aegean region. [Analyze multiple causation] 7-12 Analyze the rise of Macedonia under Philip II and explain the campaigns and scope and success of Alexander’s imperial conquests. [Reconstruct patterns of historical succession and duration] 5-12 Assess Alexander’s achievements as a military and political leader and analyze why the empire broke up into successor kingdoms. [Analyze cause-and-effect relationships] 7-12 Evaluate major achievements of Hellenistic art, philosophy, science, and political thought. [Appreciate historical perspectives] 9-12 Assess the character of Greek impact on Southwest Asia and Egypt in the 4th and 3rd centuries and the influence of Greek, Egyptian, Persian, and Indian cultural traditions on one another. [Analyze cause-and-effect relationships]
Very little archaeological evidence remains about the people of Neolithic Greece. Archaeologists found one ancient village dating from 5800 BCE. The site is called Nea Nikomedia. People there lived in small houses made of sticks and mud. This is commonly called wattle and daub. The village was surrounded by a wooden fence. The village used clay pots to store food and liquids.
Ancient Greek villages like Sesklo were surrounded by walls made of stone and used stone foundations for their houses.
The Bronze Age Aegean people had an agrarian economy. They planted cereals and legumes such as barley and peas. They also planted olives and grapes. They learned to melt copper with tin to make bronze tools. Using a plow with a hard and sharp bronze spade (instead of a stone) greatly improved agriculture by making it easier to prepare fields for planting. They raised sheep, goats and cattle for meat, leather, and wool.
Specialized craftsmen and merchants had the most wealth and made up the privileged class. Specialized products included pottery, stone carving, bone carving, textile manufacture and metalworking. These trades were passed down in families. Specialized crafts brought high income from export trade with other villages. The early Bronze Age Aegean economy also had specialized seals to mark the quality of a product. These are like product logos used today
Around 2300 BCE the Greek mainland was over-run by successive waves northern tribes. These invasions continued for 300 years. The conquerors brought with them the horse, tumuli (grave mounds), and the potter’s wheel. Most importantly, the conquerors brought with them the Hellenic, or Greek, language. The Greek language unified the villages of the Aegean into a group of people with common traits. This is known as the Helladic period. The Greeks of this time were called “Hellenes.”
The invaders introduced new architecture design. All new buildings were built with rectangular floor plans. Also, new cities were no longer fortified with walls. Trade became more simple during this time. The Helladic people used the barter system for the exchange of goods. Also, seals were no longer used to ensure quality.
The Island of Crete had one of the earliest and most developed cultures in the Aegean. Neolithic people settled in Crete as far back as 6000 BCE. What we know about ancient Crete comes from myths, legends, and archaeological evidence. Crete was an important stopping point for trade between the Egyptians, the Libyans of Africa and the Aegean cities along the Southern European coast. Crete provided a safe harbor for the small wooden ships traveling between Africa and Europe.
Legend tells us that ancient Crete was ruled by King Minos. The island was inhabited by Minoans. One famous Greek legend is that of the Minotaur. He was a monster, half man and half bull, who lived in a labyrinth beneath the castle of King Minos. Each year, seven boys and seven girls from Athens would be given to the Minotaur to eat as human sacrifice. The Minotaur was finally killed by the Greek hero Theseus, with the help of King Minos’ daughter.
Archeologist have not found evidence of a minotaur, but have learned that Minoans had a sport called “bull leaping.” Players had to grab the horns of a bull and flip over the top. This sport was practiced by both men and women. Almost all of the Minoan artifacts show Minoans to have enjoyed beauty and contentment. Their religion was dominated by what appears to be a fertility goddess.
The palace was about 3.5 acres* in size and was filled with many rooms, corridors, tunnels and storerooms. The Minoans were accomplished craftsman and traders. They made clay vases, bronze weapons, lock and key sets. They also sold other products, including timber, grapes, olive oil, metal vases to places as far away as Syria and Sicily. They traded these for gold, silver, grains, including alabaster from Egypt, ostrich eggs from Libya, and metals from Asia Minor.
Minoans created beautiful wall frescos depicting life and times in their society. This is a fresco of the Minoan navy at Thera in the Santorini Islands.
A new group of invaders came to the Aegean from the area near the Caspian sea. These people are known as the Mycenaeans. They built walled cities and practiced trade and agriculture. They captured the Minoan capital at Knossos in 1500 BCE. The Mycenaeans borrowed many ideas from the Minoans for their own culture.
The Mycenaean civilization lasted from 1600 to 1200 BCE. Their capital city was named Mycenae. They built large monumental structures and citadels. One surviving structure at the capital Mycenae is the 1,100-meter long Lion's Gate. Mycenaean kings ruled over numerous smaller villages bound to them by feudal loyalties and trade.
The city-states of Mycenaea are known for their fortified citadels which were built around the middle of the 1350 BCE. The walls of the Mycenaean citadels were built with “Cyclopean masonry style.” This is a primitive style of masonry characterized by use of massive stones of irregular shape and size. The king’s palace was located in the highest peak of the citadel.
The Mycenaeans had a feudal system of government. The Mycenaean had a monarchy (rule by a king). as was the Minoans. The Mycenaean had “palatial” states. The kings were extravagant and used much wealth to display their power. This can be seen in their art and tombs
At the top of the monarchy was the Wanax, or leading king. Beneath him were local chiefs. The leader of the army was called the Lawagetas. The wealth and status of the leaders often came from booty, or spoils of war. The Mycenaean monarchies came to an end after the destruction of the citadels by Dorian invaders around 1100 BCE. Afterward, the Mycenaean people migrated to the Aegean and Ionian islands, on the coasts of Asia Minor, Cyprus and Palestine.
The great Mycenaean cities of Mycenae, Tiryns, Pylos, Thebes, Orchomenos (See map next slide)were noted for their heavy, complex fortifications and the massive, cyclopean masonry. Mycenaean houses were always rectangular. The houses inside the palace were called megaron. Unlike the Minoans, the Mycenaeans were bearded and wore armor in battle. The written language of the Mycenaean, found on clay tablets at Mycenae and Knossos, appears to be a form of archaic Greek. Known as Linear B writing, it dates from 1500 BCE. Unlike the Minoans, the Mycenaeans were bearded and wore armor in battle. The written language of the Mycenaean, found on clay tablets at Mycenae and Knossos, appears to be a form of archaic Greek. Known as Linear B writing, it dates from 1500 BCE.
The Mycenaeans buried their nobles in beehive tombs ( tholoi ), which were large circular burial chambers with a high vaulted roof and straight entry passage lined with stone. Leaders were often buried daggers or some other form of military equipment. The nobility were frequently buried with gold masks, tiaras, armor, and jeweled weapons. Mycenaeans were buried in a sitting position, and some of the nobility were mummified.
The Trojans were able to control the trade between Europe and Asia from this point. The Mycenaeans and the Trojans often battled for supremacy of the Aegean trade routes. What we know about Troy comes from both myth and archaeological evidence.
circa 750-700 BCE - Homer was a legendary early Greek poet credited with the writing of the Iliad ( The story of the Trojan War) and the Odyssey (The Story of Oddyseus’ return home) . History tells us that Homer was blind and probably was an Ionian Greek. No one knows for sure if Homer was a real man or a name given to several ancient authors of these stories. Herodotus the historian claimed that Homer lived around 850 BCE. It may well be that Homer was a name used for all ancient and popular verse when
According to Homer, the Trojan War began with the marriage of the Greek gods Peleus and Thetis. The couple had forgotten to invited Eris, the goddess of discord, to the wedding. Eris came to the wedding anyway with a challenge. She threw a golden apple on the banquet table and said that it belonged to the most beautiful goddess at the party. The goddesses Hera, Athena, and Aphrodite all reached for the apple. Zeus, the King of the Gods, decided that Paris, prince of Troy and most handsome human on earth, would decide which of the Goddesses was most beautiful.
Menelaus gathered more than a thousand ships under the command of King Agamemnon and set sail for Troy. In total, 100,000 men from 28 city states throughout the Greek mainland from the Peloponnesus, the Dodecanese islands, Crete and Ithaca joined Menelaus to attack Troy.
The Trojans, led by Hector (brother of Paris), had allies from city-states throughout Asia Minor, including Thracians, Phrygians, Miletians and Lycians. Hector was later killed by Achilles. Arriving at Troy, Agamemnon sent Odysseus, known for his great ability to speak, and Menelaus to discuss terms with the father of Paris, King Priam of Troy. They demanded Helen be returned. Priam refused, and Odysseus and Menelaus returned to Agamemnon with the news. For nine years the Greeks and Trojans fought without either side gaining a victory. The wall surrounding Troy was too strong for the Greek army to penetrate. There seemed to be no end to the war.
Odysseus was not only a good speaker but also a clever warrior. The story goes that he ordered a large wooden horse to be built. The horse was made hollow so that soldiers could hide inside. Once the horse was built many Greek warriors, along with Odysseus, hid inside. The Greek fleet sailed away to a hidden harbor and waited. The Trojans believed that the Greeks had given up the war and left the horse as a gift for surrender. The Trojans brought the hollow horse inside the city. That night Odysseus and his men climbed out of the horse, signaled the fleet in hiding and opened the gates of Troy.
The Greek soldiers invaded the Troy as the Trojan soldiers slept. Troy was completely destroyed--every single man and boy were killed (including infant boys), every woman and girl were taken as slaves, and all of Troy’s treasures were taken as booty. The city was razed to the ground. Though Menelaus wanted to kill his unfaithful wife, he was overwhelmed by Helen's beauty and he allowed her to live.
(There is a controversy that British archaeologist Frank Calvert actually located Troy first. )
The seventh layer of the city appears to be the legendary Troy and has been dated to 1180 BCE. Its towers and walls can still be seen in the ruins and there are arrowheads lying in the streets. The massive walls of Troy number seven are 16 feet thick! Researchers believe that Homer used the description of Troy number six to tell the story of the Trojan war.
Built around a sacred spring, Delphi was built at a sacred spring. It was called the omphalos (literally navel) of the world. People came from all over the Aegean to ask the oracle questions about their fate. The oracle was called Pythia (also named Sybil). These priestesses lived at Mount Parnassus from about 1400 BCE to 381 CE. They claimed to be the voice of the Greek god Apollo. Plutarch, a priest at the Temple of Apollo, claimed Pythia's ability to hear Apollo came from vapors. Other accounts suggested the vapors may have come from a chasm in the ground. Scientific evidence today shows that hallucinogenic vapors rise from a nearby spring.
Near 1200 BCE the Mycenaean civilization began to decline. The Mycenaeans city-states were in constant warfare with each other and with other cultures around the Mediterranean. The local kings spent much of their resources in battle or on expeditionary raids. In 1150 BCE the Dorian’s from Southwestern Macedonia invaded the Mycenaean city-states. Around 1100 BCE the Mycenaean civilization collapsed. Many of the major cities were sacked and destroyed.
According to Greek mythology, the Dorian people originated from Dorus, the son of Hellen, the patriarch of the Hellenes, or ancient Greeks. From 1100 to 950 BCE the Dorians invaded and conquered the Mycenaean, Achaean, and Spartan people in Greece from Attica to the Peloponnesians, including Corinth, Sparta, Olympia, Mycenae and Crete (See map next slide). The Dorians typically controlled or enslaved the people who they conquered. They are remembered most by the Doric style of architecture. There is no written record of the Dorians and most of what we know comes from the burned ruins of the cities they conquered and Greek legend. With the defeat of the dominant Mycenaean all of the other people of Greece were conquered by the Dorians and Greece fell into a Dark Age.
The Dorian mode in music is named after the Dorian Greeks. Greek music was based on the Dorian tetrachord. This is the same as playing all the white notes of a piano from E to E: E F G A | B C D E. The Greek Dorian mode is the same as the mediaeval and modern Phrygian mode. The Dorian Mode was used for poems of an elevated and inspired nature. It was used in the song by Simon and Garfunkle called Scarborough Fair.
The Doric column was used to support most buildings in ancient Greece. The design of the column and its capital were probably first built out of wood and then later made out of stone. The Greek Doric column has no base. The column is a massive shaft, often with flutes rising up its length. At the top of the column is a simple capital with a projecting curved molding called the echinus, and a square slab or abacus at the top.
The period generally known as Ancient Greece starts around the first Olympic games in 776, though some scholars extend it back as far as 1000 BCE. Ancient Greece is a term used by historians to refer primarily to the time of the rise of the Greek city-states of Athens and Sparta. It is also known as the Archaic Period. This time marks the end of the Greek Dark Ages. Greek city-states, called polis, had developed self-rule. Our word &quot;politics&quot; comes from the Greek polis. This is also the time of the renewal of Greek language and the development of the Greek alphabet
In Pericles’ Funeral Oration, he wrote: “… We provide many ways to refresh the mind from the burdens of business. We hold contests and offer sacrifices all the year round, and the elegance of our private establishments forms a daily source of pleasure and helps to drive away sorrow. The magnitude of our city draws the produce of the world into our harbor, so that to the Athenian the fruits of other countries are as familiar a luxury as those of his own
According to Greek mythology, the Olympic games began in 776 BCE when Ifitos, the king of Elis, under the direction of the Oracle of Delphi, made a treaty with Lycourgos, the king of Sparta and Cleisthenes, the king of Pissa. The treaty was written on a disc and kept in the Temple of Hera. The treaty provided for a cessation of fighting, or truce, throughout all of the Greek world for as long as the Olympic Games were being held. To the winner of the games went a wreath made from a branch of a wild olive tree that was growing next to the rear porch of the Temple of Zeus, in his sacred forest.
The Olympics were held every four years during July or August. The first Olympic games lasted only one day had one event, the running of one Stadion (about 200 yards). By 5th century BCE the games lasting for five days. There were 10 events: running, the pentathlon, jumping, discus, javelin, wrestling, boxing, the pancration (combination boxing-wrestling), chariot racing, and horse racing. All Greeks who were free citizens and had not committed murder or heresy had the right to take part in the Olympic Games. Women could not participate or even watch the games. However, they could own the race horses.
All of the Greek city-states began as monarchies and were ruled by a hereditary king. However, the marketplace brought with it a new class of Greeks, the merchants and craftsmen. They became wealthy citizens and used their financial power to take control of the city-states. The result was a political system called an oligarchy (rule by a few). Sometimes the oligarchy would become too totalitarian (absolute power) and the citizens of the city state would overthrow the leaders. These citizen revolts were led by &quot;tyrants.&quot; The tyrants were often not the villains that we think of today. In ancient Greece, the word had a different meaning. A tyrant was anyone who overturned the established government of a city-state, usually through the use of popular support. They came to power to solve some problem created by the oligarchy and the people initially supported them. But once in power, many of the tyrants became greedy and tried to make themselves like a king.
By 700 BCE the city states were ruled by two forms of government. There were oligarchies and democracies. Democracy means &quot;rule by the demos (people).&quot; The Greek democracies of the city states were direct democracies. In Ancient Greece every citizen could participate directly in every decision. But not everyone could participate. The Greek citizen had to be a free male who had never committed a murder. Also, slaves, foreigners, and women were not allowed to participate in the democratic government. Today, our democratic form of government is a representative democracy. That is, we elect someone to represent our ideas.
The colonies spread Greek language and culture throughout the Mediterranean. The increase in trade brought great wealth to the city-states. Greek culture spread and blossomed throughout Asia Minor and the Greek Mainland, and especially in Ephesus, Corinth, Argos, and Miletus. However, the greatest of the city-states were the two great rival city-states of Athens and Sparta.
The Ionic order originated in the mid-6th century BCE in the southwestern coastal cities and islands of Asia Minor of Ionian Greeks. The architectural style spread to the Greek mainland by the 5th century BCE. The Temple of Artemis at Ephesus, one of the Seven Wonders of the World, was built in Ionian order.
The history of Sparta begins in legend. It is said that Sparta was founded by Lacedaemon, son of Zeus and Taygete ( A nymph, and one of the Pleiades) married Sparta , the daughter of Eurotas ( The river god of Lakedaimonia in the Peloponnesos, southern Greece) . Legends of Homer tells us that the territory of Lacedemon (Sparta) had once been ruled by King Menelaos of the Trojan War epic. Archaeological evidence shows us that a rich culture, far more culturally advanced than the Spartans, had once lived there.
The Dorians eventually settled the Eurotas valley after conquering all five of the local villages. By the 8th century BCE Sparta was a cultured city. The arts were highly and Sparta was known for it sculptors in wood, potters, metal workers, weavers, leather workers, Spartan musicians, dancers and singers were famous throughout Ancient Greece. Sparta was also famous for the purple dyed clothes. But all of this was to change in the 6th century and the constitution of Lykurgos. Permanent Dorian settlements (villages) have been found as early as 950 BCE.
Lykurgos was born around 700 BCE as the son of the Spartan king Eumenos. Both King Eumenos and Lykorgos older brother Polydektes died, leaving him the throne. The widow of Eumenos, who was pregnant, tried to trick Lykurgos into marrying her, but instead he waited for her child to be born. She gave birth to a son and Lykurgos put the child (Charilaos) on the throne, and then left Sparta to travel around the known world.
At the age of seven, every male Spartan was sent to military and athletic school. The schools taught the Spartan male discipline, survival skills and how to endure pain. At the age of twenty the Spartan male became a soldier. The Spartan male lived in barracks and ate all his meals with his fellow soldiers. The Spartans viewed themselves as the true inheritors of the Greek tradition. They did not surround themselves with luxuries, expensive foods, or opportunities for leisure. All Greeks admired the Spartan discipline and morality. Spartan culture had a strong influence on the later Hellenists and even Romans. Today we speak of a &quot;Spartan&quot; existence as one of denial and discipline.
Spartan women had considerably more freedom than their Greek contemporaries. They were allowed to move about freely and were not expected to stay inside the house as were the women in Athens. Of course, they also did not live with their husbands until he was no longer a full-time soldier.
Spartan society was divided into three classes. At the top was the Spartiate, or native Spartan, who could trace his or her ancestry back to the original inhabitants of the city. The Spartiate served in the army and was a full citizen. The next class was made of foreigners, the perioeci. Spartans were not allowed to conduct trade and commerce. This was left to the Perioeci who were granted personal freedom, though not rights of citizenship. At the bottom of the society were the Helots.
Sparta had the most stable government in the history of ancient Greece. At the top was a dual monarchy made of two kings. Below the monarchy was a council twenty-eight nobles. These were all retired military commanders over 60 years of age. The council and the kings acted as both foreign policy advisors and the supreme court to the assembly. Sparta also had a democratic assembly of all free males over 30. They selected the council and approved council decisions. However, over the assembly was a group of five men known as the Ephorate. These men ran the council, the military, the schools, and infant selection. They could veto any law or procedure. They could even depose a king if they could prove divine approval!
Alcman was the most important lyric poet of Sparta. He was born a Lydian of Sardis and later brought to Laconia as a slave. His poetry was so impressive that he was emancipated. We know that he wrote his poetry around 631 BCE. His poetry was very popular. His bridal hymns would be sung by choruses of virgins. His poetry was filled with verses about love and wine. He was one of the nine lyric poets of classical Greece.
Athens was inhabited by Ionians since Neolithic times, around 4000 BCE. Athens began as an Ionian fort on top of the Acropolis. By 1400 BCE Athens had become a powerful Mycenaean city. During the Greek Dark Ages Athens diminished in size and then rose to become a great power.
By the end of the Greek Dark Ages the king of Athens was replaced by a council of nobles called the Areopagus. The council was made up of wealthy men who own large tracts of land on which they raised olives for oil and grapes for wine. The council met on a hill near Athens called Areopagus, which is how they got their name. By the 8th century BCE, the Areopagus usurped the power of the king and created a council of nine archons (rulers) to lead Athens. However, all decisions made by the Archons needed approval of the Areopagus. At the end of their term in office, archons were invited to become members of the Areopagus.
Athens was a cosmopolitan and complex society. While the Areopagus represented the wealthy class who owned vineyards and olive groves, there was also a poor class of wheat farmers and a middle class of merchants, craftsmen, and foreigners, and slaves.
Unlike Sparta, Athens developed an open and democratic society. Athens was founded on fertile, agricultural land and adjacent to a safe harbor on the Mediterranean. The rulers of Athens did not make war on their neighbors to dominate their lands. Instead, Athenians sought out a life of individual pursuits and fulfillment. As all Greek city-states, Athens was initially ruled by a king. The king administered the four original phylai (tribes) of Athens. The original four tribes in Athens were the: Geleontes Hopletes Argadeis Aegicoreis
Solon’s first act was to cancel almost all public debts and free as many Athenian’s from debt slavery. He also outlawed slavery as a form of collateral for future debts. A farmer could not take out a loan using himself or his family as a way to pay back the debt if he had no money. Solon also encouraged the development of the wine and olive oil industry throughout Athens’ farming community.
The ancient Athenian court system had two legal codes, the Draconian and the Solonian Codes of Law. The first written laws appeared in Athens around 621 B.C. These laws were named after Dracon, a thesmothes (a lawgiver). In Draconian law, the punishment for all offenses was death. No matter how small the crime, Dracon believed a person who broke the law should die. Today we call cruel and harsh laws as Draconian.
Solon reformed the legal system by allowing the wealthy class to participate as archons. Prior to Solon this was only a right of the aristocracy. The archons were local magistrates (leaders) who were responsible for administering justice. However, the decisions of the Archons could be appealed to the courts. The decision of the court was made by jurors. Solon then opened jury selection to include the Thetes, or common citizens. In time, Archons directed all legal cases directly to the courts.
Jury duty was optional in Athens. All Athenian male citizen were required at age 59 serve as arbitrators. An arbitrator tried to settle a case without it having to be taken to a court.
Solon was followed by a tyrant named Peisistratus. He came into power through a popular revolt and maintained power through a mercenary army. Peisistratus is credited with many cultural reforms in Athens. He encouraged the arts and poetry. Also, to protect his own authority, he strengthened the power of the assembly and the courts of the poor. By doing this he weakened the power of the Areopagus and Athens wealthy nobles.
Pisistratus constructed new public buildings, such as a 'fountain house' to improve the city's water supply, and new temples on the Acropolis. He introduced major new festivals, including the Panathenaic (All of Athens) Festival dedicated to Athena. He also started the “City Dionysia”, the first known drama competitions. But perhaps his greatest achievement was the transformation of the economy by introducing farm loans and encouraging farmers to grow olives. Olives can be sold for many uses including cooking oil, lubricant, soap and even fuel. Athens became a major exporter of olive products. This also created more demand for pottery to transport the olives. Athens soon became a major exporter of pottery too. Pisistratus died in 527 BCE.
The Panathenaea, all-Athenian festival, was Athens' most important festival. With the exception of slaves, all inhabitants of Athens could participate in the festival. Women, metics (resident aliens) and freed slaves could participate in many activities. The festival was a celebration of Athena's birthday, beginning approximately in the middle of July. The festival consisted of contests, processions, and sacrifices, namely:
Aegean Civilizations: Neolithic to Hellenistic Age
PRODUCED BY Multimedia Learning, LLC http://www.multimedialearning.org WRITTEN BY BRETT WYATT DANA BAGDASARIAN HERSCHEL SARNOFF COPYRIGHT 2006 CONTACT INFORMATION: [email_address] [email_address] VERSION 1.0
Table of Contents Neolithic and Bronze Greece Slide 5 The Minoans Slide 18 The Mycenaeans Slide 28 The Dorians Slide 54 The Archaic Period Slide 62 Sparta Slide 81 Athens Slide 96 Corinth Slide 116 Archaic Poets and Philosophers Slide 123 The Persian Wars Slide 132 The Golden Age of Pericles Slide 159 Greek Sculpture Slide 186 Classical writers and philosophers Slide 195 The Corinthian War Slide 213 The Late Classical Period Slide 222 Hellenistic Age Slide 234
Standard 2B The student understands the major cultural achievements of Greek civilization. STANDARD 2 The emergence of Aegean civilization and how interrelations developed among peoples of the eastern Mediterranean and Southwest Asia, 600-200 BCE. National Standards for History: Era 3: Classical Traditions, Major Religions, and Giant Empires, 1000 BCE-300 CE Standard 2C The student understands the development of the Persian (Achaemenid) empire and the consequences of its conflicts with the Greeks. Standard 2A The student understands the achievements and limitations of the democratic institutions that developed in Athens and other Aegean city-states.
Scientists use the abbreviation BCE to mean “Before Common Era.” It is the same thing as BC (“Before Christ.”). After the year 0, scientists use the term CE for Common Era. It is the same as AD (Anno Domini). To figure out how long ago a date in BCE was from today, simply add the current year to the BCE year. For example, from the year 2000 CE, the year 8000 BCE was 10,000 years ago. Before Common Era (BCE) Years 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 1000 2000 Before Common Era (BCE) Common Era (CE)
NEOLITHIC PERIOD, 6500-2900 BCE Around 5800 BCE, people lived in small houses made of sticks and mud at Nea Nikomedia. This type of house is called wattle and daub. The village was surrounded by a wooden fence. The villagers used clay pots to store food and liquids. Neolithic means “new stone age.” This was a time when humans domesticated plants and animals and lived in permanent villages. Map: Nea Nikomedia Neolithic Greek vase
Another Neolithic village was called Sesklo. People lived there around 5000 BCE. These people decorated their pottery with red and white patterns. Their village was surrounded by a stone wall. Neolithic Village: Sesklo Sesklo pottery Remains of Sesklo, circa 5000 BCE
Sesklo villages were led by a “head man”, usually the most powerful man of the tribe who settled disputes and led the village men into battle. Clay figurines from Sesklo Sesklo was destroyed around 4000 BCE by invaders from the north. They attacked using bow and arrows. The villagers of Sesklo did not know how to use bow and arrows. Sesklo Ruins
Dhimini was another Neolithic village in Greece. Note the stone walls surrounding the village. Artist impression of Dhimini c. 3700 BCE.
Early Bronze Age Aegean villages were organized by family relation and numbered from 300 to 1000 people.
Villages show central planning.
They were about 1 to 3 hectares* in size and were built on hills. Villages were all close (less than 40 miles) to the Mediterranean Sea.
Houses were built close together but the streets were winding.
Homes had stone foundations and sun-baked brick walls.
Houses could be rectangular, round, or trapezoidal.
Houses had stone hearths for cooking, stone benches for sleeping, and stone slabs for tables.
*A hectare is 10,000 square meters, which is 2.47 acres, or about two football fields.
During the Bronze Age, Aegean people planted barley, peas, olives and grapes. They melted copper with tin to make bronze. They raised sheep, goats and cattle for leather, wool, and meat. Olives Grape vines Peas The Bronze Age
During the Bronze Age villagers became specialized in making pottery, carving stone and bone, making fabric and working with bronze. Craftsmen used special seals to mark the quality of a product. These are like product logos used today. Bronze Age crafts Bronze Age seal
Around 2300 BCE, the Greek mainland was invaded by different tribes. Bronze Age invaders Tumuli graves Pottery wheel They brought new ideas, like using horses, pottery wheels, and burial mounds. The invaders all spoke an early Greek language. The Greeks of this time were called “Hellenes.”
The invaders built rectangular houses and did not make walls around their cities. They used barter to trade for food and crafts. Barter – The direct exchange of one good or service for another without the use of money. rectangular floor plan
Crete is about 100 miles from the Greek mainland Greece Crete
Minoan Civilization The island of Crete had one of the most developed cultures in the Aegean. It was first settled around 6000 BCE. Crete was an important stopping point for the small trading ships in the Mediterranean. Minoan Male Minoan Female
In Greek mythology, Minos was a mythical king of Crete, son of Zeus and Europa.
After his death, Minos became a judge of the dead in Hades. The Minoan civilization has been named after him.
Minos and his brothers were raised by King Asterion of Crete. When Asterion died, Minos claimed his throne and banished his brothers.
It is not clear if “Minos” is a name, or if it was a title, the Cretan word for "king." Scholars have noted the interesting similarity between Minos and the names of other ancient founder-kings, such as Menes of Egypt, Mannus of Germany, Manu of India, and so on.
The Minotaur, a monster, half man and half bull, lived in a labyrinth beneath the castle of King Minos (in Knossos?).
Each year, seven boys and seven girls from Athens were given to the Minotaur to eat as human sacrifice.
The Minotaur was finally killed by the Greek hero Theseus, with the help of King Minos’ daughter.
The Minotaur Labyrinth: A maze.
Though the minotaur is only a story, the Minoans had a sport called “bull leaping.” Players had to grab the horns of a bull and flip over the top. This sport was practiced by both men and women. Bull leaping
Ironically, Mino's son was killed in a bullfight. Outraged, Minos went to Athens to revenge his son, and on the way he camped at Megara.
The king of Megara is, like Sampson of the Old Testiment, said to have received his strength through is long hair. Megara's daughter, Scylla, fell in love with Minos and cut her father's purple hair so Minos could conquer the city.
After his triumph, Minos punished Scylla for her treachery against her father by tying her to a boat and dragging her until she drowned.
Minos continued his warfare against parts of Greece. On arriving in Attica, he asked Zeus to punish the city, and the god struck it with plague and hunger.
In Athens, an oracle told the Athenians to meet any of Minos' demands if they wanted to escape the revenge.
Minos then asked Athens to send seven boys and seven girls to Crete ever nine years to be sacrificed to the Minotaur.
Minoan ruins were discovered in 1894 by British archaeologist Sir Arthur Evans. He found clay tablets with writing, copper and bronze tools, and the ruins of a great palace at the capital city of Knossos. Knossos Minoan archaeology Knossos
Minoan written language is referred to as Linear A
Although several objects have been found that contain Linear A, it has never been deciphered
The palace of Knossos was about 3.5 acres* and filled with many rooms, corridors, tunnels and storerooms. *An acre is about ¾ of a football field. The Minoans had highly developed art. The walls of the palace at Knossos are covered in frescos, paintings made in plaster. The frescos contain beautiful and lively scenes. Minoan Fresco Aerial view of Knossos
This fresco shows the Minoan navy at Thera in the Santorini Islands, 16 th century BCE. Minoan frescos showed the life and times of their society. Thera
Minoan trade items The Minoans were craftsman and traders. Gold Seal Minoan Storage Vases They made and sold clay vases, bronze weapons, timber, grapes, olive oil, and metal vases to places as far away as Syria and Sicily.
Mycenaeans entered Greece around 2000 BCE A new group of invaders from the north or east settled in mainland Greece. These people are known as the Mycenaeans. They built walled cities and were organized into small, war-oriented kingdoms. They practiced trade and agriculture. Greece
The Mycenaean civilization lasted from about 1600 to 1200 BCE. Their capital city was named Mycenae. They built large fortresses and citadels. The Lion's Gate is an example of their fortresses. The Mycenaeans built citadels Citadel – A military stronghold used for defense. The Lion’s Gate Air photo of Mycenae.
The walls of the Mycenaean citadels were built with “Cyclopean masonry style.” They used massive stones of irregular shape and size. Cyclopean Masonry Style The king’s palace was located in the highest peak of the citadel. Inside a citadel, note the massive stones
Archeological evidence indicates that the Mycenaeans had a feudal system of government and were ruled by a monarch or king. Mycenaean political system The tombs of kings show that they were extravagant and used wealth to display their power. Plan of Mycenae citadel Mycenaean King
At the top of the hierarchy was the Wanax, or leading king. Beneath him were local chiefs. The leader of the army was called the Lawagetas. The wealth and status of the leaders often came from booty, or spoils of war. Mycenaean hierarchy of power southern wall of the citadel at Mycenae King Local chiefs Army leader
Mycenaean houses were always rectangular. The houses inside the palace were called megaron. Unlike the Minoans, the Mycenaeans were bearded and wore armor in battle. Mycenaean Culture Megaron floor plans Ruins of a Megaron
The main Mycenaean cities were Mycenae, Tiryns, Pylos, Thebes, Orchomenos
The Minoans taught the Mycenaeans written language
Mycenaean language is called Linear B
Archaeologists began attempts to decipher the language in the 1940s, but Michael Ventris is credited with figuring out the code in 1952
Most of the tablets contain bureaucratic documents that provide insight into early Greek culture
All of the Mycenaeans believed in the same gods. Today they are referred to as the Olympian Greek gods. Common Culture Mycenaean writing Zeus, King of the Greek Gods
Mycenaean art was strongly influenced by the Minoans. Mycenaeans painted frescoes with scenes of warfare, armies, and violence. Mycenaean Art Mycenaean Battle Mycenaean Soldiers
The Mycenaeans buried their nobles in beehive (circular) tombs called tholoi . Leaders were often buried with daggers, gold masks, armor, and jeweled weapons. They were buried in a sitting position, and some of the nobility were mummified. Mycenaean Burial Funeral mask Tomb entrance Royal tomb
Another major Bronze Age civilization in the Aegean was Troy. It was located at the Hellespont, today called Dardanelles, a narrow strait of water from the Mediterranean to the Black Sea. According to Greek historians, the Mycenaeans and the Trojans often battled for supremacy of the Aegean Sea. Troy Crete Asia Minor Troy Hellespont Mycenea
Menelaus gathered more than a thousand ships under the command Agamemnon and set sail for Troy.
In total, 100,000 men from 28 city states throughout the Greek mainland joined Menelaus to attack Troy.
Achilles, the greatest warrior of the Trojan War, would defy Agamemnon and challenge his authority.
Achilles was known as the warrior of destiny.
Achilles was killed by Paris, the weakest warrior, with an arrow to the heel, his weakest point.
Achilles Death The Trojan War: The Myth Achilles in Armor
Arriving at Troy, Agamemnon sent Odysseus, known for his great speaking abilities, and Menelaus to ask King Priam, Paris’ father, to return Helen. Priam refused. For nine years the Greeks and Trojans fought without either side gaining a victory. The wall surrounding Troy held back the Greek army. The Trojans, led by Hector (brother of Paris), had allies from city-states throughout Asia Minor. Hector was later killed by Achilles. The Trojan War: The Myth Hector’s body returned to Troy.
The Greek soldiers invaded Troy as the Trojan soldiers slept.
All males, including infants, were killed; all females taken as slaves, and all of Troy’s treasures taken as booty.
The city was completely demolished.
The Trojan War: The Myth
For thousands of years Troy was a legend. However, using clues from the Iliad, an amateur archaeologist named Heinrich Schliemann discovered the location of Troy at Hisarlik, Turkey in 1871. Troy: the archaeologist’s story Ruins of ancient Troy Heinrich Schliemann
In total, there were nine cities built at the location of Troy, each on top of the other.
The sixth city is the most grand and resembles the Troy in Homer’s Iliad, but it was destroyed by an earthquake, not by war, in 1250 BCE.
The seventh layer of the city appears to be the legendary Troy and has been dated to 1180 BCE.
Its towers and walls can still be seen in the ruins and there are arrowheads lying in the streets.
The Nine Cities of Troy Troy, archeological ruins of two small walls.
Dating back to 1400 BCE, the Oracle of Delphi was the most important shrine in all of Greece. All Greek leaders would consult the priestess oracle on all major decisions of state. The Oracle of Apollo at Delphi
The Mycenaean city-states became weak from constant warfare. In 1150 BCE, the Dorians from southwestern Macedonia, invaded the Mycenaean city-states. Around 1100 BCE Mycenaean civilization collapsed. The Dorians from Southwestern Macedonia Macedonia in green Location of Dorians
The Dorian mode is the same as playing all of the white notes of a piano from E to E: E F G A | B C D E. The Dorian Mode was used for reciting poems. The most noteworthy contributions of the Dorians to Greek civilization were in music, poetry and architecture. Dorian Mode of Music
The period generally known as Ancient Greece began around the first Olympic games in 776 BCE.
It marks the end of the Greek Dark Ages.
This is the time of the great Greek city-states of Athens and Sparta.
It is also known as the Archaic Period.
750-500 BCE Emergence of city-states Greek city-states, called polis, developed self-rule. The English word "politics" comes from the Greek polis. City-states represent the single, greatest political achievement of Greece
The area around Athens has been inhabited since Neolithic times
By 1400 BC the settlement had become an important center of the Mycenaean civilization.
Unlike other Mycenaean centers, Athens was not sacked and abandoned at the time of the Doric invasion of about 1200 BC, and the Athenians always maintained that they were "pure" Ionians with no Doric element.
However, Athens lost most of its power and probably dwindled to a small hill fortress once again.
Freemen were all male citizens: divided into numerous classes: at the top were aristocrats who had large estates and made up the cavalry or captained triremes; middle ranks were small farmers ; lowest class was the thetes (urban craftsmen and trireme rowers).
Metics - those who came from outside the city; they were not allowed to own land, but could run industries and businesses.
Slaves were lowest class, but less harshly treated than in most other Greek cities. Slaves had no rights, and an owner could kill a slave. Slaves varied in status: some were given important roles in Athens, like policemen.
Women were rarely seen outside the home and had no rights in the Athenian democracy.
Schools taught reading, writing and mathematics, music, poetry, sport and gymnastics.
Based upon their birth and the wealth of their parents, the length of education was from the age of 5 to 14, for the wealthier 5 - 18 and sometimes into a student's mid-twenties in an academy where they would also study philosophy, ethics, and rhetoric (the skill of persuasive public speaking).
Finally, the citizen boys entered a military training camp for two years, until the age of twenty.
Foreign metics and slaves were not expected to attain anything but a basic education in Greece, but were not excluded from it either.
Athenian women and girls were kept at home with no participation in sports or politics.
Wives were considered property of their husbands. They were were responsible for spinning, weaving and other domestic arts.
Some women held high posts in the ritual events and
religious life of Athens
Prostitutes and courtesans were not confined to the
house. Some became influential
The Greek alphabet began with the Minoan Linear A script. By 900 BCE, Linear B used by the Mycenaeans, became the first true alphabet. The Greek alphabet had a symbol for each vowel and consonant. It is the oldest alphabetic script in use today. Greek: The first complete alphabet Linear A script Phoenician alphabet Though the Phoenician alphabet is usually considered the first alphabet, it does not have symbols for vowel sounds.
Athens Acropolis Parthenon Old Temple of Athena Theatre Complex
Hera: wife and sister of Zeus and goddess of marriage.
Poseidon: god of the sea.
Ares: god of war.
Hermes: the messenger of the gods, was also the god of orators, literature and poets.
Hephaestus: god of blacksmiths, craftsmen and artisans.
Aphrodite: goddess of love.
Athena: goddess of wisdom, strategy, and war.
Apollo: god of the sun.
Artemis: goddess of the moon and hunting.
Hestia: goddess of the hearth and the family.
Demeter: goddess of agriculture.
Dionysus: god of wine, civilization and peace.
Hades: god of the underworld.
Persephone: goddess of the underworld.
The Greek Gods of Olympus
The Muses The Muses are Greek goddesses who help humans with arts and sciences. They were thought to inspire people to greatness. The Muses were the daughters of Zeus and Mnemosyne ("memory").
The First Olympic games, 776 BCE According to Greek mythology, the Olympic games began in 776 BCE, as a treaty between three city-states. They agreed not to make war during the time of the games. The winner of the games was given a wreath made out of an olive branch from Zeus’ sacred forest. Olive Branch Olympic Running Chariot Racing
The Olympics were held every four years during July or August. The first Olympics lasted only one day with one contest, the running of one Stadion (about 200 yards). There were 10 events: running, the pentathlon, jumping, discus, javelin, wrestling, boxing, the pancration (combination boxing-wrestling), chariot racing, and horse racing. All Greeks who were free citizens and had not committed murder or heresy had the right to take part in the Olympic Games. Women could not participate or even watch the games. However, they could own the race horses. By 5 BCE, the games lasted five days. Boxing
All of the Greek city-states began as monarchies and were ruled by a hereditary king.
Over time, the merchants and craftsmen became powerful and took control of the city-states.
The government changed to become an oligarchy (rule by a few).
City-state government Sometimes the citizens revolted against the oligarchy. They would be led by a "tyrant." In ancient Greece, the word had a different meaning than today. A tyrant was anyone who overturned the established government of a city-state.
A colony is a territory controlled by another country.
Ancient Greeks colonized areas throughout the Aegean Sea and into the Ionian and Adriatic Seas, all the way to Italy and Sicily.
The colonies were used for trading with the mother city.
735-700 BCE – The First Greek Colonies in Sicily
Ancient Greeks began to colonize Sicily around 800 BCE.
They inter-married with the local people.
The name Sicily comes from one of the original inhabitants, the Sicels.
Syracuse became the most powerful of the Greek cities on Sicily.
The Ionians were the first to colonize Sicily in 735 BCE at Naxos. Syracuse was founded by the Corinthians. Megara was founded by the people of Megara, Greece. Gela was founded by immigrants from Rhodes and Crete. Sicily Gela Syracuse . Megara . Naxos
The colonies spread Greek language and culture throughout the Mediterranean. Many city-states became powerful from controlling their colonies, especially Ephesus, Corinth, Argos, and Miletus. However, the two greatest city-states were the rivals Athens and Sparta. Argos
The Ionic order is one of the three styles of Greek architecture, along with the Doric and Corinthian. The columns of Ionic order usually stand on a base separating the shaft of the column from the platform. The capital of the Ionic column have paired, spiraling volutes that look like scrolls. Ionic Order Architecture Volutes Base Platform Shaft
It is said that Sparta was founded by Lacedaemon, son of Zeus married Sparta , the daughter of Eurotas ( A river god).
Legends of Homer tells us that Sparta was originally named Lacedemon.
The Dorians, later called the Spartans, conquered the Eurotas Valley around 1100 BCE. They were sculptors in wood, potters, metal workers, weavers, leather workers, musicians, dancers and singers. They were famous throughout Ancient Greece. This changed in the 6 th century with the constitution of Lykurgos. Eurotas River Sparta had Dorian origins
The story is told Lykurgos bred two small puppies.
One he kept indoors and gave the puppy plenty of food and play.
The other puppy he trained outdoors for hunting.
He showed the Spartans the two puppies. One puppy could do nothing but play while the trained puppy could hunt for food.
How Lykurgos changed the Spartans Lykurgos gave the Spartans a new constitution that made Sparta a military state. Loyalty was the most important quality of a Spartan. Training for the state began at birth. Weak children, both male and female, were left on nearby hills to die.
Alcman was the most important lyric poet of Sparta.
He began his life as a slave.
His poetry was so impressive that he was emancipated.
His poetry was filled with verses about love and wine.
“ There is such a thing as the vengeance of the gods: that man is blessed who devoutly weaves to the end the web of his day unweeping. And so I sing of the brightness of Agido: I see her like the sun, which Agido summons to shine on us as our witness” - Alcman Alcman, greatest Lyric Poet of Sparta
Simodides wrote poems about Spartan life: Simonides - One of the nine Lyric Poets
“ These men left an altar of glory on their land, shining in all weather, when they were enveloped by the black mists of death.
but although they died they are not dead,
for their courage raises them in glory
from the rooms of Hell.
Their tomb is an altar on which stands our bowls of remembrance and the wine of our praise. Neither mold nor worms, nor time which destroys all things, will blacken their deaths. The shrine of these brave men has found its guardian in the glory of Greece. Leonidas, the Spartan King, lives in the great ornament he left behind of unending fame and virtue.”
By 500 BCE Sparta had conquered almost all of the surrounding territory and dominated the Peloponnesus region of southwest Greece. Sparta conquered Peloponnesus Satellite photo of the Peloponnesus Sparta
At the top was the wealthy Areopagus who owned vineyards and olive groves.
The middle class was made of merchants, craftsmen, and foreigners.
The poor class was made of wheat farmers.
Athens also had slaves.
Wheat farmers lived on poor soils and earned little money.
Slaves came from the families of the wheat farmers who would sell their children into slavery to pay their debts.
Wealthy Athenian Athenian society was complex
Unlike Sparta, Athens developed an open and democratic society. Athens was founded on fertile, agricultural land adjacent to a safe harbor on the Mediterranean. The rulers of Athens did not make war on their neighbors to dominate their lands. Instead, Athenians sought out a life of individual pursuits and fulfillment. Athens from Space - NASA
Solon got rid of all the Draconian laws except those involving murder.
There were two types Solonian Law, private and public.
Private cases involved disagreements between individuals, usually over property.
Public cases involved crimes against the state, such as treason, bribery, and theft of public funds.
Solon abolished Draconian laws Solon
Examples of Athenian laws 1) Men were forbidden to talk evil of the dead. 2) If a man couldn’t find water within a certain distance from his house he was permitted to use his neighbor’s well. 3) For agricultural products, only oil could be exported.
Peisistratus came into power through a popular revolt.
He made many cultural reforms in Athens.
He encouraged the arts and poetry.
Also, to protect his own authority, he strengthened the power of the assembly and the courts of the poor.
Peisistratus (center) Solon was followed by a tyrant named Peisistratus.
Peisistratus introduced major new festivals, including the Panathenaic (All of Athens) Festival. He started the “City Dionysia”, the first known drama competitions. He also changed the economy by giving farmers loans to grow olives. Olives can be sold for many uses including cooking oil, lubricant, cleanser and even fuel. Athens became a major exporter of olive products. This led to a demand for more pots to transport the olives and so they became pottery exporters also. Athena olives Harvesting Olives
Panathenaic procession The all-Athenian festival was the most important. The festival took place in the middle of July and was a celebration of Athena's birthday. During the festival there were:
Athenian pottery became popular throughout the Aegean. The most famous of the Athenian potters was Exekias, circa 550-525 BCE. He was a potter, a vase painter and a master of the black-figure style. His best known surviving work is a vase showing the Greek heroes of the Trojan War, Ajax and Achilles, playing dice. Dionysus and dolphins Ajax and Achilles Athenian Pottery
The Spartans made Isagorus the ruler of Athens around 510 BCE.
His first action was to remove citizenship from all Athenians who could not trace their family back to the original four tribes.
He was challenged by Cleisthenes, but Isagorus expelled him and 700 families from Athens.
Cleisthenes returned three years later in 507 BCE with the 700 families and began a riot.
In the end, Sparta called a truce and left Athens.
Isagorus and his followers were executed.
Cleisthenes was asked by the people of Athens to organize a democratic government called the demos.
Today we call this democracy.
Athens starts the Demos
Cleisthenes made many political changes in Athens. His most important act was to give citizenship to all free men living in Athens. He named ten new tribes to share power more fairly. The ten tribes were given their names by the Oracle of Delphi after ten mythical heroes. Cleisthenes: citizenship to all free men in Athens I Erechtheis II Aigeis II Pandionis IV Leontis V Akamantis VI Oineis VII Kekropis VIII Hippothontis IX Aiantis X Antiochis Acropolis
The city of Corinth is located on an isthmus between southern and northern Greece. It is between the eastern and western halves of Greece. There were two main ports, one in the Corinthian Gulf called Lechaion and in the Saronic Gulf called Kenchreai. Both ports had a navy to protect Corinth and its colonies. Corinth had two ports Isthmus: A narrow strip of land, surrounded on two sides by water, connecting two larger land areas.
He also began building a canal to connect the two gulfs, but instead built a ramp.
The Corinthians had many colonies throughout the Mediterranean world.
Today these colonies are known as: Syracuse, Lefkas, Corfu, Durres and Fier in Albania, and the Greek colony of Naucratis in Egypt.
The Corinthians were led by many tyrants Corinthian coin of Aphrodite
Corinth was known for its black figure pottery, glass jars, perfumed wine, and furs. The Corinthians exported pottery throughout the Aegean. The pottery was designed in “black figure technique” with figures drawn as silhouettes. Animal figures were typical on Corinthian pottery. Corinthian Pottery
The Corinthian order of classical architecture was more complex than the Ionic and Doric styles.
Like the Ionic order, the capital had a scrolling volute, but it was highly decorated.
The Corinthian Order
There was a famous saying in the Aegean: "Ou pantos plein es Korinthon", which translates as "Not everyone is able to go to Corinth." Corinth was a place of great wealth and high prices. Corinthian silver coin Corinth was very wealthy The Corinth Canal, started by Periander, was completed in 1893.
Sappho was an ancient Greek lyric poetess from the city of Eressos on the island of Lesbos.
She was born sometime in the beginning of the 7th century BCE.
Sappho was one of the nine lyrical poets of Ancient Greece.
In spring Cydonian apple-trees, Watered by fountains ever flowing Through crofts unmown of maiden goddesses, And young vines, 'neath the shade Of shooting tendrils, tranquilly are growing. Meanwhile for me Love never laid In slumber, like a north-wind glowing With Thracian lightnings, still doth dart Blood-parching madness on my heart, From Kupris hurtling, stormful, wild, Lording the man as erst the child. Poetry of Sappho:
Pindar was born in Thebes in 522 BCE. He is considered the greatest of the nine lyric poets of ancient Greece. Pindar composed choral songs and odes.
And when a man… having done fair deeds with no poet to sing of them, hath come to the hall of Death, All his high hopes are barren,
And with all his toil he hath won but a scanty measure of delight.
The great mind of God piloteth the course of the guardian spirit of the men he loves
Tis by impuluse divine, oh Apollo, that man's achievement from its beginning to its close waxeth sweet.
Aesop was born a slave sometime in the 6 th century BCE.
His masters, Xanthus and Iadmon, gave him freedom as a reward for his humor and intellect.
He traveled to Lydia where he became a public defendant (lawyer) and story teller.
King Croesus heard of Aesop and invited him to live at his palace. There he met Solon and all Seven Sages of Greece.
His stories were collected in the 14th century by a monk named Maximus Planudes.
Today they are known as “Aesop’s Fables.”
Artists renderings of Aesop Aesop’s Fables
A Rose and an Amaranth blossomed side by side in a garden, and the Amaranth said to her neighbor, "How I envy you, your beauty and your sweet scent! No wonder you are such a universal favorite." But the Rose replied with a shade of sadness in her voice, "Ah, my dear friend, I bloom but for a time: my petals soon wither and fall, and then I die. But your flowers never fade, even if they are cut; for they are everlasting." "Greatness carries its own penalties." The Rose and the Amaranth by Aesop
Anaximander Anaximander, 610-546 BCE, is credited with making the first maps of the sky and the known world. Anaximander’s universe showed the earth surrounded by rings of fire. Anaximander’s world
During the Classical Period, literature, artwork, architecture, philosophy, and politics flourished. Athens was the leader of Greek culture throughout the Mediterranean. There were also many great wars including the Persian Wars and the Peloponnesian Wars. Classical Greek Period, 500-323 BCE The Acropolis
Herodotus of Halicarnassus was the world's first historian.
He wrote 9 books and called the collection "Historie."
This ancient Greek word means "to inquire" or "to ask."
During Roman times it evolved into the word we use today for HISTORY.
Almost everything we know about the ancient Persians was written by Herodotus.
Persian conquest of the Lydians, 546 BCE Around 560 BCE, King Croesus of Lydia conquered the Greek colonies of Asia Minor. The Lydians shared the customs, language and values of the Ionian Greeks and there was general peace. But in 546 BCE, the Persians defeated the Lydians and took over all of their Greek colonies. The Persians set up their own tyrants in each of the Greek city-states. They also collected high taxes and made military service mandatory to all of the inhabitants. Croesus
By 500 BCE, all of Asia Minor was under the rule of a Persian satrap, or governor.
The satrap set up his capital in Sardis, the former capital of Lydia.
The Persians generally left alone cities who paid their taxes and followed the law.
In 499 BCE the tyrant of Miletus, Aristagoras, began a rebellion against Persian Rule.
Athens sent 20 war ships to aid in his revolt.
In 498 BCE the Athenians conquered and burned Sardis.
Called the Ionian Revolt, all of the Greek cities in Asia Minor revolted against the Persians.
The Ionian Revolt Ruins of the temple to Artemis at Sardis
The Athenians quickly lost interest in the war and withdrew their soldiers and ships from Asia Minor. The Persians, under King Darius I (521-486 BCE), regained control of all of the cities by 495 BCE. Darius decided to punish the Ionians for the six year revolt by resettling many of them into Persia.
Persian War, 499-479 BCE In the 5 th century BCE, the Persian Empire, the largest known at the time, attempted to conquer Greece. The battles, called the Persian Wars, lasted 20 years.
After the Battle at Marathon, Themistocles, an Athenian general and politician, persuaded Athens to build a navy. Themistocles Tireme In one year, the Athenians built two hundred navy ships.
Darius I died in 486 BCE before he could carry out his plans for a third invasion of Greece Darius’ Tomb Darius I succeeded by his son Xerxes His son and successor, Xerxes I, attempted to fulfill his plan. In 480 BCE, Xerxes brought together an army of about 150,000 men and a navy of 600 ships to march on Greece. Xerxes
Final battle in the Persian War in Boeotia, near the town of Plataeae.
The satrap of Sardis, Mardonius, sent Persian troops to destroy Athens.
The Spartan army advanced on the remaining army in Plataeae.
Almost every city in Greece sent soldiers to defeat the Persians, bringing the Greek army to almost 100,000 soldiers.
Though Herodotus claims the Persians had 1.7 million soldiers, the number was probably much smaller.
The Battle of Plataea, 479 BCE Boeotia
After the battles at Mycale and Plataea, the Persians were forced to retreat back into Lydia. The Persians no longer ruled over Greece or Ionia. In 465 BCE, Xerxes was murdered by his vizier (advisor) Artabanus. Mycale Vizier – Executive officer in Persia Initially the Persians were winning, but when their general, Mardonius, was killed in battle the Persians retreated and were slaughtered. Herodotus described the battle as “the finest victory in all history known to me”.
The victory at Salamis in 480 BCE was a huge success for Greece. Athens had beaten the greatest empire in existence at that time. In celebration, Pericles sponsored the playwright Aeschylus to write a tragedy named, The Persians, for competition in the annual dramatists competition in 472 BCE. Aeschylus and Thespians
The Persians is the oldest surviving play from Classical Athens. It tells the story of the Battle of Salamis from the Persian perspective. Xerxes is portrayed as the over-confident king. His arrogance offends the gods and he almost loses his entire kingdom. The spirit of his father Darius returns to tell him not to battle the Greeks. The play is actually sympathetic to the loss and suffering of the Persians. Theater of Dionysus
The league was formed on the island of Delos under the guidance of Aristides of Athens.
Almost all of the Ionian Greek cities in Asia Minor joined immediately.
Athens was the head of the league.
By 448 BCE, Persia agreed to a permanent peace with Greece.
The Delian League, 443 BCE Aristides of Athens After the Persian War, the Greek city states formed the Delian League to provide mutual defense from attack.
Pericles was born in Athens in 493 BCE to a noble family. The Age of Pericles, 461-429 BCE When he was older, Pericles became involved in politics and was nicknamed "The Olympian" for his remote and distant manner. He was tutored by the philosophers Anaxagorus and Zenos. Pericles is known for his dedication to Greek democracy.
The period of Classical Greece ruled by Pericles is often refered to as "The Golden Age of Pericles". Pericles built the Acropolis, including the Parthenon, during his time. The Parthenon
Pericles was married before meeting Aspasia but little is known of his first wife. What we do know is that Pericles met the a beautiful and well educated Aspasia and moved into her home. Even Socrates made note of her intellect. Their relationship was considered somewhat scandalous in Athens. Aspasia, Consort of Pericles Aspasia was born in Miletus, an Ionian colony on the western coast of Turkey. She was allowed to be schooled at home and, when she came of age, left Melitus for Athens.
Pericles treated Aspasia as an equal, unheard of in Greek times. He consulted with her on important issues and allowed her to associate with the powerful men of Athens. He also displayed public affection for her. All of these things caused Aspasia to become the target of gossip and vicious rumors. Pericles and Aspasia in the Studio of Phidias
Pericles never married Aspasia. His own law prevented the children of marriages between Athenian aristocrats and foreign nationals from becoming citizens. Because of the law, none of his children with Aspasia could become citizens. Aspasia gave birth to a son by Pericles. Later, when Pericles died the assembly took pity on Aspasia and granted her son full citizenship.
By the year 431 BCE Sparta challenged the authority of Athens.
Pericles went before the popular assembly and urged war against the Spartans.
He said, “If we go to war, as I think we must, be determined that we are not going to climb down. For it is from the greatest dangers that the greatest glories are to be won.”
After his speech the assembly voted to declaring war on Sparta. This was the start of the Peloponnesian war.
During the first year of the war Pericles gave his most famous speech. In this speech Pericles states his feelings about Athenian democracy: "Our form of government does not enter into rivalry with the institutions of others. Our government does not copy our neighbors', but is an example to them. It is true that we are called a democracy, for the administration is in the hands of the many and not of the few. But while there exists equal justice to all and alike in their private disputes, the claim of excellence is also recognized; and when a citizen is in any way distinguished, he is preferred to the public service, not as a matter of privilege, but as the reward of merit. Neither is poverty an obstacle, but a man may benefit his country whatever the obscurity of his condition." Pericles Pericles’ position on democracy
Pericles developed a perfect plan to defeat the Spartan Army.
Athenians would stay behind the city wall.
Athens would attack Sparta by sea, and hit-and-run attacks.
The Spartans, camped just 8 miles outside of Athens, could not use their powerful Hoplites in direct combat.
Hoplite with spear Athens and Sparta at war
Toward the end of the first year of the war the Black Plague broke out in Athens. Grain boats supplying Athens with food brought infected rats into the city walls. Plague in Athens, 430 BCE Yersinia pestis Suffering from the Plague The rats had lice carrying Yersinia pestis , the bacteria responsible for Bubonic plague. The plaque spread quickly throughout the city. Twenty percent of the 100,000 residents of Athens died. Bodies were piled high in the streets. Pericles lost both of his legitimate sons to the plague. Pericles also contracted the plague but lived for one more year until dying at the age of 65.
According to the Greek historian Thucydides: “ The bodies of dying men lay one upon another, and half-dead creatures reeled about in the streets. The catastrophe became so overwhelming that men cared nothing for any rule of religion or law.” Thucydides, a Historian
By 425 BCE, the war took a new turn. Both sides began taking more savage and cruel measures with one another. After conquering a city-state the women and children would be made slaves and often the entire male population of some cities would be murdered. The War Became Barbarous
Sparta encouraged members of the Delian League to leave the alliance, promising independence after Sparta won the war against Athens. Many city-states and colonies left the Delian League, and Athens was forced into an armistice in 423 BCE. After eleven years of war no side had a clear advantage. Athens Athens agreed to an armistice Armistice – An agreement to stop fighting
The Areopagus asked Nicias to negotiate a truce with Sparta.
It was to be a thirty year truce but in fact lasted only seven years.
Many city-states refused to agree with the conditions of the truce.
In 418 BCE, Sparta defeated the neighboring city of Argos, an ally to Athens. This was a cause for alarm. Athens turned to Alciabiades for leadership. Alcibiades Alcibiades
He was a charismatic aristocrat
He became strategos (general) of the city.
He sent Athenian hoplites to Argos and defeated the Spartans.
The Sicilian city of Segesta, an ally of Athens, came under attack by Corinth, an ally of Sparta. They asked for Athens to protect them. The Athenians planned to strike at Corinth by invading Syracuse, a Corinthian colony. Syracuse was the chief city of Sicily and one of the largest Greek colonies in the world. Temple ruin at Segesta Athens prepared to attack Sicily
Nicias opposed the attack on Syracuse, but Alcibiades supported it. To make a compromise between the two, the Athenian assembly named both Nicias and Alcibiades as commanders of the attack force. They sent along another commander named Lamachus to keep watch over both of them. Sicily
The attack force sent to Syracuse had 134 triremes and 27,000 men. But this story has a twist. Alcibiades Alcibiades defected to Sparta
The night before the force set sail someone vandalized many of the statues in Athens.
Rumors spread that Alcibiades did it.
He was known in the past to do outrageous things while drinking late at night.
After the fleet set sail the Athenian court issued a warrant for his arrest and sent a ship to arrest him.
Faced with an uncertain future Alcibiades jumped ship and defected to Sparta.
Nicias asked the Athenian Assembly to return home. Instead they sent a young commander named Demosthenes and 15,000 more men. The new force failed to take Syracuse. The Athenian ships were trapped by the Corinthians and burned while in harbor. The only way home for the army was to cross through Sicily and find an allied city. The 35,000 remaining soldiers were captured and almost all died in captivity.
Without Alcibiades the Athenians could not conquer Syracuse.
Lamachus was killed quickly in battle and Nicias was an incompetent commander.
Though Athens lost the battle for Syracuse it was not defeated.
Within a year, the city built another fleet and raised more soldiers from its allies.
But at the same time Sparta and Persia made an alliance against the Athenians in 413.
But Athens refused to give up.
In 414 BCE, the Areopagus brought Alcibiades back to Athens and forgave his treason.
Athens continued the war for four more years.
Alcibiades Athens built another fleet
In 407 BCE the Spartans named Lysander the chief general of their forces. Lysander was a true Spartan. He renounced all luxury, pleasure and unnecessary things in life. Lysander spent his first year as general building his forces, avoided conflicts, and cementing good relations with the Persians. Lysander becomes Spartan War Leader
In 404 BCE the victorious Spartan general, Lysander, replaced the assembly of Athens with an oligarchy of thirty men, called 'The Thirty'.
Under their rule 1500 people were executed, and 5000 more Athenians either fled the city or were exiled.
The Thirty also reduced the number of Athenian citizens to only 3,000 men from the 20,000 men as established by the rules of Cleisthenes.
The Tyranny of the Thirty Lysander
Greece settled into about 250 years of general peace, with only small scale battles occurring between rival city-states. Sparta dominated the city-states Pausanias The Spartan king, Pausanias, put an end to the rule by the Thirty and allowed democracy to return to Athens in 403 BCE.
Statues were simple, lifeless depictions of a god or a leader
Surviving examples of this time are the Kouros and Korai (male and female) figures
These statues typically stood rigid and straight-backed, staring straight ahead with no expression on the face except for a slight curving of the lips, which is now called the “archaic smile”
Kouros The Greeks advanced sculpture to its highest form in the ancient world. During the Archaic Period:
Around 480 BCE, sculptors of the early classical period began using a concept known as “weight shift.” Statues were made to look like they were moving through space instead of standing still. An example of this can be seen with the works of Kritios in his figure called the Kritian Boy .
The Classical period is divided into three categories:
Kritian Boy Early Classical Period
During the Early Classical Period the Archaic smile was replaced with a more contemplative expression. Archaic Smile
During this period sculptors tried to represent the human body in its perfect form. They used what is known as the Platonic canon of proportions. High Classical period, 450-430 BCE Platonic Canon of Proportions: A mathematical formula establishing ideal proportions of the various parts of the human body. The unit of measurement is usually the relationship of the head to the torso (1:7 or 1:10). Canon of Proportions by Leonardo da Vinci
Revealing something about their nature, their personality, and their relationship
Polycleitus of Argos carved Doryphoros ('spear bearer') demonstrating use of symmetry and balance
The canon of proportions
This was the time of the building of the Parthenon, which was supervised by the sculptor Phidias. High Classical Period Doryphoros
Began with the Peloponnesian War and ended with the death of Alexander the Great. Apoxyomenos Late Classical Period, 430-323 BCE Lysippos, the personal sculptor for Alexander the Great, mastered three dimensional spaces with his statue Apoxyomenos (a young man scraping mud and sweat from his body before bathing). The figure has outstretched arms.
His most noted plays are: Antigone, Oedipus Tyrannos, and Oedipus at Colonus.
Sophocles (circa 496 – 406 BCE)
The opening lines of Antigone, from The Harvard Classics Enter ANTIGONE and ISMENE ANTIGONE ISMENE, mine own sister, dearest one; Is there, of all the ills of Œdipus, One left that Zeus will fail to bring on us, While still we live? for nothing is there sad Or full of woe, or base, or fraught with shame, But I have seen it in thy woes and mine. And now, what new decree is this they tell, Our ruler has enjoined on all the state? Know’st thou? hast heard? or is it hid from thee, The doom of foes that comes upon thy friends? ISM. No tidings of our friends, Antigone, Painful or pleasant since that hour have come When we, two sisters, lost our brothers twain, In one day dying by each other’s hand. And since in this last night the Argive host Has left the field, I nothing further know, Nor brightening fortune, nor increasing gloom Antigone by Frederic Leighton (British Painter 1830-1896)
Euripides, 480-406 BCE Only 18 complete plays of his 90 survived. Euripides’ plays had strong women characters, smart slaves, and made fun of many heroes of Greek mythology through satire. His work strongly influenecd Roman and French drama. His greatest works are considered to be Alcestis , Medea , Electra , and The Bacchae . Much of what we know about Euripedes comes from the Aristophones who enjoyed making fun of him. Euripedes apepars as a comic character in Aristophanes : The Acharnians , Thesmophoriazusae , and The Frogs.
Pythagoras 582-507 BCE Philosopher and mathematician from Samos. His most famous contribution to geometry is the Pythagorean Theorem which stated the proportions of any right triangle. a 2 + b 2 = c 2 Pythagorean Theorem a b c
Pythagoras also formed a brotherhood devoted to understanding the mystical properties of numbers. His teachings had a profound influence on Greek thinking. His concept of “Unity”, also called “Monad,” is introduced to us by his pupil, Theon of Smyrna: “ Unity is the principle of all things and the most dominant of all that is: all things emanate from it and it emanates from nothing. It is indivisible and it is everything in power. It is immutable and never departs from its own nature through multiplication (1 x 1 =1). Everything that is intelligible and not yet created exists in it; the nature of ideas, God himself, the soul, the beautiful and the good, and every intelligible essence, such as beauty itself, justice itself, equality itself, for we conceive of each of these things as being one and as existing itself.” Pythagoras
Parmenides was a Greek philosopher and poet. He was born in 510 BCE, at Elea (Velia), Italy. He taught that the world we perceive through our senses is really only illusion. Parmenides We only sense motion, plurality and multiplicity. What is real is never changing and constant through time. Truth can not be known through perception but only through logic and reasoning.
Zeno was a philosopher born in what is today Velia, Italy. He was a tutor of Pericles. Zeno was a student of Parmenides. What we know of Zeno comes from the writings of Aristotle. Zeno, 490-425 BCE Dialectic is defined as: any formal system of reasoning that arrives at the truth by the exchange of logical arguments Zeno is considered the inventor of the dialectic method of arguing. This method uses reasons from logic to consider the outcomes of both sides and decide which outcome is acceptable. ZENO
Zeno is remembered for his defense of various paradoxes. A paradox is a contradictory statement. Zeno’s argument: The Arrow "If everything when it occupies an equal space is at rest, and if that which is in locomotion is always occupying such a space at any moment, the flying arrow is therefore motionless." This line of reasoning was eventually explained mathematically through calculus, by Sir Isaac Newton in the early 1670s, using the concepts of instaneous rates, changes, speed and motion.
Physician from the island of Cos who is known as the father of medicine.
He based his medical practice on observations and on the study of the human body.
He believed that illness had a physical and a rational explanation.
He rejected the idea that illness was the result of misfortune or an act of the gods.
“ There are in fact two things, science and opinion; the former begets knowledge, the latter ignorance.” - Hippocrates, Law Hippocrates, 460-370 BCE
“ I will prescribe regimens for the good of my patients according to my ability and my judgment and never do harm to anyone. To please no one will I prescribe a deadly drug nor give advice which may cause his death. But I will preserve the purity of my life and my art.” The Hippocratic Oath, named for Hippocrates, is taken by physicians as a guide for the ethical practice of medicine. Below is an excerpt from the oath:
He believed there existed a perfect form and perfect idea for everything.
Therefore, perfect beauty existed in the universe.
For Plato, the only way to truly understand the universe was through the intellect and mind, as pure idea.
He wrote about his perfect society in a book titled The Republic.
Plato attempted to prove a perfect universe of absolute truths. Absolute truth: always true
Socrates: I will; and first tell me, Do you admit that it is just for subjects to obey their rulers? Thrasymachus: I do. Socrates: But are the rulers of states absolutely infallible, or are they sometimes liable to err? Thrasymachus: To be sure, they are liable to err. Socrates: Then in making their laws they may sometimes make them rightly, and sometimes not? Thrasymachus: True. Socrates: When they make them rightly, they make them agreeably to their interest; when they are mistaken, contrary to their interest; you admit that? Thrasymachus: Yes. Socrates: And the laws which they make must be obeyed by their subjects,--and that is what you call justice? Thrasymachus: Doubtless. Socrates: Then justice, according to your argument, is not only obedience to the interest of the stronger but the reverse? Socrates and Thrasymachus from Plato’s Republic
Aristotle, 384-322 BCE Aristotle was born at Stageira, a colony of Andros on the Macedonian peninsula of Chalcidice. Aristotle was a student of Plato. Later, he became a tutor of Alexander the Great. Aristotle is also considered one of the greatest philosophers of Western thought. Unlike his teacher, Aristotle believed that knowledge came through the senses. We call this empirical knowledge.
Aristotle studied everything including anatomy, astronomy, economics, embryology, geography, geology, meteorology, physics, and zoology. He wrote about aesthetics, ethics, government, metaphysics, politics, psychology, rhetoric, theology, education, foreign customs, literature and poetry. Aristole broke away from Plato’s “ideal” universe and looked at the world of causes and facts. Plato and Aristotle
There were many small battles after the fall of Athens between various city states which led to the Corinthian War.
It was fought between Corinth, Argos, Thebes, and Athens, allied with Persia on one side versus Sparta.
These city-states challenged Sparta’s rule over Greece.
When Sparta went to war with Atraxerxes, the King of Persia, the city-states allied with Persia to challenge Sparta.
Corinthian brass coin Corinthian Stater, solider and helmet A stater is an ancient Greek coin.
The Battle of Nemea in 394 BCE was between Sparta and the allied cities of Argos, Athens, Corinth, and Thebes. The Spartans beat the allied city-states and continued to win every land battle after Nemea. Corinthian stater of Corinthian soldier and helmet Corinthian coin with Athena in Corinthian helmet Haliartus and Nemea The Battle of Haliartus in 395 BCE was between Sparta and Thebes. The Thebans defeated the Spartans and Lysander, the Spartan General, was killed in battle. This battle began the Corinthian War.
The alliance was more successful in battles at sea. The Athenian admiral Conon, with the help of the Persian fleet, destroyed the Spartan fleet at Cnidus, giving Athens naval supremacy of the seas. The naval Battle of Cnidus, 394 BCE The port at Cnidus
In 386 BCE, Sparta asked for peace with Persia and for Persia to stop supporting the other Greek city-sates. Artaxerxes II of Persia agreed to peace on his terms. The King’s Peace, 386 BCE Artaxerxes insisted that the Greek city-states of Asia Minor be returned to Persia, Greek city-states not in Persia become independent, and all leagues disbanded. This was called The King's Peace and ended the Corinthian War.
Battle at Naxos, 376 BCE Port of Naxos After peace with Persia, Sparta attacked the Thebans for making a league with the Boeotians. In 376 BCE, the Spartan navy fought the Athenians in the Battle of Naxos. The Athenian fleet defeated the Spartan fleet and kept the Spartans from dominating the Mediterranean. This was the beginning of Athens regaining its former power.
Thebes and Sparta continued to fight until Thebes, along with the Boetians, beat them at Leuctra in 371 BCE. 371 BCE - Battle of Leuctra Boeotia Thebes Athens Sparta
Before the Battle of Leuctra, when two Phalanx (group of soldiers) met on a battlefield, they approached each other with 12 men deep on the right side. The Phalanx would turn to the right attempting to subdue the other's left hand side. The Thebans placed 50 of the most powerful men on the left to engage the most powerful men of the Spartan Phalanx. The most powerful of the Spartans died quickly in battle and the remaining soldiers ran away.
Philip used the skills he learned while a prisoner at Thebes to conquer the northern territories in Greece.
In 357 BCE, he took the Athenian colony of Amphipolis, which gave him control of the gold mines of Mount Pangaion and the wealth he needed to continue his expeditions.
He married the Epirote princess Olympias, daughter of the king of the Molossians, to have a western ally.
Philip subdued the Scythians to the North and the city-states of the Balkans.
However, his first attempt to defeat the Persians in Asia Minor in 339 BCE failed when the city of Byzantium repulsed his army.
The Phalanx was the primary fighting unit of all large armies. Philip designed and trained his troops with the sarissa, a six meter (18 foot) spear with a double pointed pike. The length of the sarissa kept away hoplites who used shorter weapons. This allowed the Macedonian army to dominate Greece under Philip. The sarissa and the Macedonian Phalanx
During the Battle of Chaeronea (338 BCE) in Boeotia, Philip defeated the armies of the Athenians and Thebians, which gave him control over all of Greece. Philip II After taking control of Greece, Philip formed the League of Corinth for the mutual defense against Persia. But before Philip had a chance to attack the Persians he was assasinated, for still unclear reasons, at his daughter's marriage ceremony. He was succeeded by his son, Alexander III, also known as Alexander the Great.
Alexander the Great reigned from 336-323 BCE After Philip’s assassination, the Macedonian army declared his 20 year old son, Alexander III, the king of Macedon. Immediately he was forced to make war against Thebes who tried to break away from Macedon rule. Once he arrived with his army, the city surrendered. With the exception of the Spartans, all of the Greek city-states loyal to Phillip II pledged themselves to Alexander. In 335 BCE, Alexander conquered the Thracians and the Illyrians along the Danube in Northern Macedonia. While at war in the North, the Thebans revolted again, but this time Alexander returned and razed Thebes to the ground, sold all of its citizens into slavery.
Alexander marched on Persia and conquered Egypt
Alexander marched on Persia, crossing the Hellespont with about 42,000 soldiers. He conquered the Persian capital at Sardis.
He went on to conquer the Kingdom of Phrygia and untied the Gordian knot.
Alexander crushed Darius' army at Issus in 333 BCE. Darius himself fled the battle.
He conquered Egypt and was made Pharaoh.
Alexander founded his Egyptian capital at Alexandria in 331 BCE.
Mythical Gordian Knot – whoever untied it would be king of Asia Phrygia
Alexander marched his army toward India. His armies took Taxila, Aornos and the Kingdom of Porus, in Punjab, India. From there his armies turned up the Indus river. Alexander invaded India in 326 BCE Alexander’s army finally neared the Ganges river in India. His army, exhausted from years of fighting, mutinied and refused to march farther into India. Alexander agreed to return back to Babylon. Alexander the Great had conquered an empire larger than anything the world had seen before or since.
Alexander the Great died at Babylon, 323 BCE Alexander the Great died of a mysterious illness in the palace of Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon, June 10 - 11, 323 BCE. He was 32 years old.
After his in 323 BCE, the empire was divided among his most powerful generals. The Empire of Alexander the Great
Antigonid, Ptolemaic, and Seleucid Empires. Hellenism, the culture of Classical Greece, spread from the year 333 BCE throughout the Empire of Alexander the Great until circa 63 BCE when Rome conquered the territory. Greek culture strongly influenced Rome in the areas of politics, science, philosophy, religion, and architecture
Ptolemy I, a close advisor to Alexander the Great, took over the Egyptian part of the empire. His dynasty, the thirty-second, would be the last in Egyptian history. Although Ptolemy was Greek, as Pharaoh he used many of the traditions of Egyptian Kings. He and his successors married their sisters. Cleopatra VII Ptolemaic Dynasty The wives of the Ptolemaic Pharaohs were named Cleopatra "kleos" is the Greek word for "famous" and "patris" is the Greek word for "parents".
The Ptolemaic Pharaohs kept many Greek customs. They spoke Greek and made Greek the official language of Egypt. The Ptolemaic Pharaohs even changed the name of Egypt from Kemet, the ancient name of Egypt. Ptolemy Pharaoh
The Antigonid dynasty, founded by General Antigonus, ruled over Macedonia and the Aegean kingdoms, Asia Minor and Syria. Antigonus attempted to conquer the other two dynasties and form one great empire but lost everything but Macedon at the Battle of Ipsus in 301 BCE. The Antigonid Dynasty Antigonus I
Philip V ascended the Antigonid throne in 221 BCE and reigned until 179 BCE. His empire was filled with many rivalries from other city-states. Philip V of Macedon, 221 BCE Philip V Antigonid Dynasty He was succeeded by his eldest son, Perseus, who ruled as the last king of the Antigonid Dyansty. Macedon came under Roman rule after losing the Battle of Pydna in 168 BC.
Seleucus I Nicator who founded the Seleucid Empire, was one of Alexander the Great’s generals in Babylonia. He expanded his empire west to Syria, north to Thrace, and east to the Indus River valley. The Seleucids brought Hellenism to all of their empire. Seleucus I Nicator The Seleucid Empire The Seleucids could not maintain their empire and by 190 BCE the Romans conquered most of Anatolia, reducing the Seleucid Empire to Syria, Mesopotamia and most of the Persian plateau.
Macedonia became a Roman vassal state in 197 BCE after the Battle of Cynoscephalae, near Thesallay.
The Romans, led by Flamininus, easily surrounded the Macedonian phalanx.
The Macedonian phalanx, once the most powerful army unit of the ancient world, was proven inferior to the Roman legion.
Macedonia became a tribute state to Rome.
Roman coin of Flamininus Thessaly
“ The Roman order on the other hand is flexible: for every Roman, once armed and on the field, is equally well-equipped for every place, time, or appearance of the enemy. He is, moreover, quite ready and needs to make no change, whether he is required to fight in the main body, or in a detachment, or in a single maniple, or even by himself. Therefore, as the individual members of the Roman force are so much more serviceable, their plans are also much more often attended by success than those of others.” From the Roman historian Polybius, The Histories of Polybius Polybius describes the Roman Legion
The Fourth Macedonian War occurred between 149 and 148 BCE. The Macedonians attacked and were defeated by the Romans under Metellus Macedonicus. After this defeat, Rome made Macedonia into an official province of Rome, ending its independence. Macedonia Became a Roman Province, 146 BCE Roman and Macedonian Soldiers
Because the Corinthians had been part of the Macedonian War, t he Roman Consul Mummius ordered that the city be razed to put an end to Greek resistance. The city was burnt to the ground, the men slaughtered, and the women and children sold into slavery. Corinth destroyed by the Romans, 146 BCE Corinthian Vase The art treasures and gold were taken to Rome. The city was deserted for almost 100 years until it was refounded by Julius Caesar in 44 BCE as the capital of Roman Greece.
In 86 BCE Roman General Sulla’s legion sacked Athens. He defeated the Hellenistic armies and placed all of Greece under Roman control. Sulla placed all of Greece under Roman rule, 86 BCE Greece remained under the rule of foreign conquerors until it gained independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1832.
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