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Powerpoint on the French-Indian War

Powerpoint on the French-Indian War

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French Indian War French Indian War Presentation Transcript

  • The French and Indian War (1754-1763) “ England and France compete in North America”
  • Content Questions
    • Who were the opponents in this war? What is the difference between the “Seven Years War” and the “French-Indian War”?
    • Why is the “Seven Years War” called the first real “World War”?
    • What were the major causes of the war?
    • How did colonial period war shape the Colonies?
    • What was the relationship between the British and the Colonists?
    • What was the relationship between the British regulars and the Colonial Militia?
    • Identify key events of the French and Indian War.
    • What impact did the French and Indian War have on the move to revolution?
    • Do you think the British government was right to make the colonists pay for the French and Indian War?
  • In the Beginning…New France
    • During the 1600s, French explorers begin claiming land in America for France.
    • France’s larger cities were Quebec, Montreal and New France.
    • By the late 1700s, France had roughly 80,000 settlers living America.
    • France’s colonial economy is based on fur trading.
  • New France & English Colonies
    • By the middle of the 18th century, France and England had competing claims for land in North America.
    • The French held trapping and trade routes in the Ohio Valley.
    • The English colonies were encroaching on French territory are the population grew.
    • They also competed over trade issues with the Native Americans in the disputed region.
  • English/French Rivalry
    • As England’s colonies over the world began to grow, so did its power.
    • England had many enemies, including France & Spain, with whom they had been at war during most of the early 1700’s
    • In 1756, most European countries went to war in what was called the “Seven Years War” in Europe.
  • Seven Years War in Europe
    • The Seven Years War lasted between 1756 and 1763 and involved all of the major European powers of the period.
    • The war pitted Prussia and Britain and a coalition of German states against Austria, France, Russia, Sweden, and Saxony .
    • Because of its global nature, it has been described as the "first World War".
    • It resulted in some 900,000 to 1,400,000 deaths and significant changes in the balance of power and territories of several of the participants.
  • Seven Years War in Europe
    • The war began with Frederick the Great of Prussia's invasion of Saxony.
    • Fighting between Britain, France and their respective allies in North America had broken out in 1754, two years before the general conflict, as part of an Imperial rivalry.
    • The fighting in North America is sometimes considered a separate war, called the French and Indian War .
    Frederick the Great of Prussia
  • French and English Collide
    • The “French and Indian War”, the colonial part of the European “Seven Years War” that ravaged Europe from 1756 to 1763, was the bloodiest American war in the 1700’s. It took more lives than the American Revolution, involved people on three continents, including the Caribbean.
    • Consider this map: what is one of the major causes of the French-Indian War?
    Causes of the French-Indian War
    • From this diagram, list two causes of the French-Indian War.
    Causes of the French-Indian War Population and Economic Push
    • Competition over the Forks of the Ohio River
    • Conflict of interests in trade
    • Competition for the business of Native Americans
    • Traditional conflict between French and British
    • Seven Years War in Europe bleeds into the colonies and becomes the “War for North America”
    Major Causes of the War
    • The “War for North America” is not one single war, but a combination of wars fought in Europe and North America, including:
      • The Seven Years War
      • King William's War
      • Queen Anne’s War
      • King George’s War
      • The French and Indian War
    • Wars mainly fought with Militias, minor support from British regulars
    The War for North America
    • The fur trading industry was very lucrative in Europe and the Americas
    • Fur trading created economic and military alliances between Indians & Europeans.
    • Iroquois had an economic alliance with the English.
    • The Huron & Algonquin had an economic and military alliance with the French.
    What started the French-Indian War in North America?
    • Trouble in America
      • Iroquois ran out of beavers to trade with the English colonists
      • Decided to invade the land of the Algonquin in order to capture more beavers.
      • English fur traders immediately began moving into French territory – Ohio River Valley
    What started the French-Indian War in North America?
    • Tensions between the British and French in America had been getting worse for some time, as each side wanted to gain more land.
    • In the 1740s, both England and France traded for furs with the Native Americans in the Ohio Country.
    • By the 1750s, English colonists, especially the investors in the Ohio Company, also hoped to convert the wilderness into good farmland.
    What started the French-Indian War in North America?
    • Soon England began planning to set up colonies in this region.
    • The French set up forts along to protect their fur trading interests.
    • Some of these forts conflicted with English claims.
    What started the French-Indian War in North America?
  • Ohio Country
    • Each side tried to keep the other out of the Ohio Country. In the early 1750s, French soldiers captured several English trading posts and built Fort Duquense (now called Pittsburgh) to defend their territory from English incursions.
    What started the French-Indian War in North America?
    • Typical young colonial of the period
      • – Seeks status
    • Father died when he was 11, inherited the Mt. Vernon estate
      • – spent much time with older brother
    • Trained Surveyor (land speculator)
      • – Spent a lot of time in Ohio Valley
    • Ambitious- want to be a BRITISH Gentleman
      • – Marriage to Martha Custis (a step up)
    • Major in the Virginia Militia
      • – Desires British Regular Commission
    Major George Washington Earliest known portrait of Washington
    • In 1753, a young Virginian named Major George Washington was commissioned by the Governor of VA to go to the Ohio region and deliver a message demanding that French troops leave the territory and cease building forts. The demand was rejected by the French.
    What started the French-Indian War in North America?
    • Washington's diary account of the dangers and difficulties of his journey published on his return helped win him his ensuing promotion to lieutenant colonel.
    • Although only 22 years of age and lacking experience, he was ordered to lead a militia force for the protection of workers who were building a fort at the Forks of the Ohio River.
    The Battle at Fort Necessity
    • Washington and about 40 men began an all night march to confront the French and learn their intentions.
    • They traveled through woods so dark the men sometimes spent nearly half and hour just trying to find the trail.
    • About dawn, Washington met with a friendly Seneca chief, Half King, and made plans to contact the French Camp.
    The Battle at Fort Necessity
    • As the French commander had not posted sentries, Washington and his men easily surrounded the unsuspecting French.
    • A shot was fired (origin unknown) and the battle lasted about 15 minutes.
    • When it was over, 10 Frenchmen were dead and 21 captured.
    The Battle at Fort Necessity
    • One escaped and made his way back to Fort Duquesne at the forks of the Ohio.
    • Washington's casualties were one man killed and two or three wounded.
    • Washington now knew he was discovered.
    The Battle at Fort Necessity
    • He sent his prisoners to Williamsburg while he returned to the Great Meadows. There he started construction of a small fort, Fort Necessity, to protect from probable French attack.
    • About five weeks later the attack came. A larger force of French and Indians attacked Washington's force of 400 at Fort Necessity, defeating the English.
    The Battle at Fort Necessity
  • The British were allowed to withdraw with the honors of war, retaining their baggage and weapons, but having to surrender their swivel guns. The Battle at Fort Necessity
    • In 1754, war was inevitable.
    • The colonies sent delegates to Albany to discuss strategy for common defense.
    • They approved a document written by Benjamin Franklin promoting a substructure of government below British authority to govern the colonies.
    Albany Congress Albany City Hall, meeting place for the Albany Congress
    • The council would be comprised of elected representatives from each colony and headed by a President-General appointed by the crown.
    • The colonies were not ready for political union and it is unlikely that the British government would have supported the plan.
    Albany Congress
  • Albany Plan of Union
    • REJECTED by all the colonial legislatures
    • Colonies did not want to give up power to a federal power
    • Shows the beginning of conflict between colonial powers and national power
    • Provided a basic model for early American government
    • Franklin criticizes their failure with the first American political cartoon
    "Join or Die" (1754) published by Franklin is considered the first political cartoon of the colonies.
  • Albany Plan of Union
    • 9. That the assent of the President-General be requisite to all acts of the Grand Council, and that it be his office and duty to cause them to be carried into execution.
    • 10. That the President-General, with the advice of the Grand Council, hold or direct all Indian treaties… and make peace or declare war with Indian nations.
    • 11. That they make such laws as they judge necessary for regulating all Indian trade. …
    • 15. That they raise and pay soldiers and build forts for the defence of any of the Colonies…
    • 16. That for these purposes they have power to make laws, and lay and levy such general duties, imposts, or taxes…
    • “ [the President]…he shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed…”
    • “ [the President]…shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, to make treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur…”
    • “ [Congress will] regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes…”
    • “ [Congress will] raise and support Armies…To provide and maintain a Navy…”
    • “ The Congress shall have Power To lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises…”
    From the Albany Plan of Union (1754) From the Constitution (1787)
  • Governor Robert Dinwiddie sends for the British
    • After the loss at Fort Necessity and the failure of the Albany Congress, Gov. Dinwiddie (VA) asked for assistance from the British government.
    • Four expeditions were projected against the French strongholds:
      • Four French forts/strongholds would be attacked simultaneously.
      • The main attack would be directed against Fort Duquesne.
    Gov. Robert Dinwiddie (VA)
  • Battle Lines - 1754
  • General Edward Braddock
    • Born in Scotland, 1695.
    • Served under William, Prince of Orange, and later King of England, in 1747 as a Lieutenant Colonel, and later served the Prince of Wales
    • 45 years of military service, Major General.
    • Appointed by the Duke of Cumberland to head the British forces in the French-Indian War, and arrived in America in February 1755.
    • In conjunction with simultaneous attacks planned by other British generals in other locations, Braddock would lead the attack against French forces at Fort Duquesne (located in modern day western Pennsylvania).
    Gen. Edward Braddock
    • General Edward Braddock had 2,150 men under his command, an artillery unit, 500 baggage horses, and 150 supply wagons provided by Benjamin Franklin.
      • Washington serves as volunteer, aid to Braddock
      • Mission : To rid the Ohio Valley of the French Invaders.
      • Dilemma : Fight a European-style war in the wilderness of Pennsylvania
      • Army included colonial troops from Virginia, New York, South Carolina, and Maryland.
    Battle at Fort Duquesne
    • Marched from Fort Cumberland to the Great Meadows (Fort Necessity)
    • To accommodate the army, Braddock had to build a road 12 feet wide as they went
      • According to Washington’s diary, Braddock “halted to level every mole hill and to erect bridges over every brook by which means we were four days getting twelve miles...”
    Battle at Fort Duquesne Braddock’s Road
  • Braddock’s Engineering Project
    • Logistics were a nightmare
      • Two 6-pounders, four 12-pounders, four 8-inch howitzers, and three Coehorn mortars were attached to the leading unit.
      • To cross the mountains each howitzer required a 9-horse team and each 12-pounder cannon, a 7-horse team.
      • The convoy consisted of 30 wagons.
      • Rations for 30 days were carried by 400 pack horses, and 100 spare horses accompanied the column.
      • As part of the food supply the expedition brought with it a large herd of cattle
    Battle at Fort Duquesne 18 th century howitzer
    • The French were aware of the British attack plans, and divided their forces between the four forts under attack.
    • Braddock arrives at the Monongahela River, eight miles outside of Fort Duquesne on July 8, 1755.
    • The French and their allied Indians ambushed Braddock’s forces in a surprise attack
      • French and Indians used guerilla tactics, firing from the trees, while Braddock’s forces were trapped on the road.
    Battle at Fort Duquesne
  • Braddock’s Defeat
    • Braddock's troops were completely surprised and routed.
    • Braddock, rallying his men time after time, fell at last, mortally wounded by a shot through the right arm and into his lung.
    • Braddock was carried off the field by Washington and another officer, and died on 13 July 1755, just four days after the battle.
      • Before he died Braddock left Washington his ceremonial sash that he wore with his battle uniform.
      • Washington never went anywhere without this sash for the rest of his life, be it as the Commander of the Colonial Army or with his presidential duties.
    Battle at Fort Duquesne
    • After a year and a half of undeclared war, the French and the English formally declared war in May 1756.
    • For the first three years of the war, the outnumbered French dominated the battlefield, soundly defeating the English in battles at Fort Oswego and Ticonderoga .
    Perhaps the most notorious battle of the war was the French victory at Fort William Henry , which ended in a massacre of British soldiers by Indians allied with the French. British & French Official Declaration of War – 1756
  • Lord Loudoun Angers Colonists (1756-1758)
    • New British Commander (John Campbell, 4 th Earl of Loudoun), was sent to replace Braddock in 1756.
    • Also became Governor-General of Virginia
      • Colonists despised him and refused to cooperate.
    • Loudoun forced colonists to feed and quarter soldiers without compensation, and the soldiers did not provide protection from the French.
    • Tried to taxed colonists to pay for war efforts
    • Ordered colonial militias to serve under British Commanders
  • Lord Loudoun Angers Colonists (1756-1758)
    • Colonists refused to cooperate with Loudoun:
      • Some colonial assemblies refused to vote adequate supplies.
    • Loudoun urged Parliament to tax the colonists directly and imposed to stop trading on colonial shipping.
    • Loudoun built up military forces but actually accomplished NOTHING.
    • William Pitt recalled him to Britain in 1758 for his failures
  • British Defeat at Fort Oswego (1756)
    • Fort Oswego was built by the British in 1727 to establish a military presence on the Great Lakes.
    • During the French and Indian War, the Fort was under the leadership of British Commander Colonel Mercer.
    • In August 1756, French commander, General Montcalm, arrived with 3,000 men to attack the fort.
  • General Louis-Joseph Montcalm
    • French General and commander of French forces in North America
    • Born 1712 in France as Louis-Joseph de Montcalm-Gozon, the French Marquis de Saint-Veran
    • Joined French army in 1727 at age 15, fought in multiple continental wars.
    • Promoted to General and sent to New France in 1756
    • His victories will include battles at Ft. Carillon, Ft. Oswego, and Ft. William Henry. He will die at the Battle of Quebec.
  • British Defeat at Fort Oswego (1756)
    • Montcalm’s assault killed Colonel Mercer, and British forces were forced to surrender.
      • Montcalm gave British supplies to his Indian allies, and destroyed the fort.
      • He returned to Quebec in triumph with 1,700 prisoners.
      • The French victory caused the Oneida and the Seneca tribes to switch to the French side
  • British Defeat at Fort Oswego (1756)
    • Montcalm’s army included significant Indian allies
    • After the battle, Montcalm’s Indian allies were reported to have killed wounded soldiers, taken scalps as trophies of war, and made slaves of British captives.
    • They focused on scalping only the British wounded, so that those who lived would strike fear into other civilians and soldiers.
  • Massacre at Fort William Henry (1757)
    • Built in 1755 on the shores of Lake George, New York by English colonial volunteers
    • Intended to be a strategic defense for the colony of New York, and a staging ground to attack French fortifications, a
    • Guards the valuable port between Lake George and the Hudson River
  • Massacre at Fort William Henry (1757)
    • The fort was under the command of Colonel George Monro, who was Scottish, and appears to have had an unremarkable military career.
    • In late July 1757, the French General Montcalm arrived at the fort with a force of
      • 3,081 regular troops,
      • 2,946 Canadian militia,
      • 188 artillery men and
      • 1,806 Indians
  • Massacre at Fort William Henry (1757)
    • Montcalm’s forces entrenched on the heights to the northwest of the fortress and began digging steadily south, moving their batteries with them.
      • Montcalm’s heavy guns pounded the log and earthen walls of the fort.
      • Another French force took up positions to the south and southwest of the main body of British, who were encamped outside the walls of the fort.
  • The Artillery Bastion at Fort William Henry
  • Massacre at Fort William Henry (1757)
    • Steadily each day, the French guns came closer to the fort. Each day the damage was greater.
    • Over 800 troops worked day and night on the trenches
    • By daybreak on August 7, the French were close enough to bring their powerful mortars to bear- lobbing explosive rounds directly into the fort.
  • Massacre at Fort William Henry (1757)
    • Monro had requested reinforcements from General Daniel Webb, who declined to send troops in time to save the fort
    • Monro held out much longer than anticipated, but the brutal artillery attack on the fort left it crippled.
    • Monro surrendered to Montcalm, and negotiated safe passage for British troops to Ft. Edward.
    • This angered Montcalm’s Indian allies, who later massacred the retreating British troops. Most escaped, between 200-300 were killed.
    • The Battle at Fort Henry and the subsequent massacre is portrayed in James Fenimore Cooper’s Last of the Mohicans.
  • William Pitt to the Rescue (1758)
    • b. 1708 d. 1778
    • Entered House of Commons at age 27
    • Opposed the foreign policies of Prime Minister Sir Robert Walpole
    • Created tension between him and King George II
    • Pitt was highly admired when serving as army paymaster
    • Refused to enrich himself at public expense.
  • William Pitt to the Rescue (1758)
    • Under Pitt’s direction, British made peace with Indian allies and gained other allies
    • Pitt adapted war strategies to fit the landscape of the American frontier.
    • In Europe, Pitt took over direction of British forces in the European theatre
  • William Pitt to the Rescue (1758)
    • 1755 - Warfare resumed in North America and Pitt lost his government position because of opposed towards the prime minister and the government’s war plan.
    • Poor appearance of the British forces soon brought him back to power.
    • 1756 - George II reluctantly, named him Secretary of State.
  • William Pitt - Contributions
    • Largely controlled Seven Years War in Europe & North America single-handedly
      • He saw North America as the pivotal part in the creation of a great empire.
      • Subsidized the Prussians to handle bulk of the conflict on the continent so he could concentration America.
      • Identified France as the prime opponent thus getting popular backing for the war effort.
      • Gained American support for the conflict by paying subsidies to the colonial governments that provided soldiers and supplies.
    • Showed little patience with unproductive military leaders.
      • Lord Loudoun was relieved of his command after his failure at Louisburg. Sent in Jeffrey Amherst and James Wolfe, among others, filled the void with success.
    • b. 1717 in Sevenoaks, England
    • Joined military at age 14, fought in the Austrian War of Succession, as well as the Seven Years War in Europe
    • Came to North America in 1758 as Commander-in-Chief of British forces at the request of British Sect. of State William Pitt.
    • Won major battles at Louisbourg, Quebec and Montreal, and thus secured New France for Britain.
    General Jeffery Amherst
    • Will serve as Crown Governor General of Virginia before and after the war (1759-1768)
    • Became Military Governor of Canada (1760-1763) after winning the battle for Montreal
    General Jeffery Amherst
    • During Pontiac’s War (1763-1766), Amherst will become infamous for giving smallpox-infested blankets to Native Americans to defeat them.
    • Because of his personal ties to colonials, he will reject a military command during the Revolutionary War.
    • Born 1727 in Kent, England
    • Entered the military under his father’s regiment at age 13
    • Decorated soldier who fought in Scottish and European theaters.
    • Distinguished himself against the French in the Seven Years War in Europe
    • Promoted to Brigadier-General and sent by William Pitt to North America to conquer Quebec.
    General James Wolfe
    • Brilliant British general who won the two most different battles of the war, Louisbourg and Quebec.
    • He was second in command to Jeffery Amherst but got most of the duties in these two battles.
    • Right before the Battle of Quebec, he was shot while inspecting his troops.
    • He stayed the course and led them to victory. He later died from his wounds.
    General James Wolfe
  • British Siege of Louisbourg (1758)
    • The fortified city at Louisbourg was at the entrance to the St. Lawrence River
      • To capture Quebec, the British needed to sail down the St. Lawrence River
      • To sail down the river unimpeded, they needed to capture Louisbourg again (the British had captured it in 1745, but had to give it back at the end of the Austrian War of Succession)
  • British Siege of Louisbourg (1758)
    • Pitt assigned the duty of capturing the fortress to Major General Jeffrey Amherst.
    • Amherst's brigadiers were Charles Lawrence, James Wolfe and Edward Whitmore, and command of naval operations was assigned to Admiral Edward Boscawen.
    • Fleet consisted of 40 British ships of the line, 150 transport ships, and 14,000 British regulars divided into three groups.
    Admiral Edward Boscawen
  • British Siege of Louisbourg (1758)
  • British Siege of Louisbourg (1758)
    • French had approx. 7,000 regulars and marines, but their ships were outnumbered by the British 5 to 1.
    • June 8 - British discover and unguarded landing point
    • June 12 – Wolfe and 1,200 men capture Lighthouse Point and Wolfe moved in the British canon
    • By mid-July, 48 British guns were constantly shelling the town day and night
    HMS Victory, only surviving photo of a British ship of the line
  • British Siege of Louisbourg (1758)
    • On July 25 th , the British destroyed or captured the remaining French ships guarding the city’s harbour
    • The French surrendered and Amherst and his Brigadiers took the town and port
    • The fall of Louisbourg was a major turning point in the war, as it led directly to the fall of Quebec in 1759.
    Order of naval battle
    • At the beginning of 1758, Washington continues to defend the Virginian frontier.
    • With only a single regiment Washington extends the frontier about 500 km.
    • In Pennsylvania the Assembly could not come to an agreement on effective defensive measures
    • Pitt comes up to with a plan to capture Fort Duquesne (the source of all the threats to the frontier)
    • Pitt puts Brigadier John Forbes in charge of the plan.
    British Capture Fort Duquesne (1758)
    • Born September 5,1707 in Dunfermine, Fife, Scotland
    • Started out studying medicine but decided to become a soldier.
    • Forbes served with the British staff in Flanders and Germany during the War of the Austrian Succession to finally become Cumberland’s quartermaster-general.
    • He build Forbes’ Road from Pennsylvania to Ft. Duquesne, an alternative to Braddock’s road
    General John Forbes
  • British Capture Fort Duquesne (1758)
    • At the beginning of November, Forbes now deathly ill, was carried to Loyalhannon where the whole army gathered.
    • November 18, Colonel Armstrong marched ahead with 2,500 soldiers to Fort Duquesne, with no wagons and artillery.
    • November 24, the detachment encamped among the hills hear heavy booming in the distance.
    • The French blew up the Fort Duquesne and retreated up stream on the Alleghany river to Fort Venango.
  • The Battle of Quebec (1759)
    • After the fall of Louisbourg, the British have clear access down the St. Lawrence River, and plan to capture Quebec, one of the two largest cities in New France.
    • Leading the British is General James Wolfe,
    • while the French are led by the Marquis du Montcalm.
    • The battle would be fought between both armies and navies on the plains.
  • The Battle of Quebec (1759)
    • In May 1759, Wolfe and the British navy and army lay siege to Quebec, penning in Montcalm and his soldiers
    • The siege drags on for months, and many fall sick in the British camp, including Wolfe himself
    • Morale is low on both sides as the siege continues unbroken into September.
  • The Battle of Quebec (1759)
    • The French had been expecting attacks from Lake Ontario in the West and Lake Champlain in the South and the descent on the St Lawrence took them by surprise.
    • On 31st July 1759 Wolfe attempted an attack on Montcalm’s riverside fortifications. The disorganized assault was repulsed with heavy loss. The grenadiers and 60th losing around 500 casualties.
    French Grenadier
  • The Battle of Quebec (1759)
    • Over the following weeks British ships managed to pass the batteries into the area of the river above the city. This move prevented supplies from reaching the French garrison and population. 
    • Having received an intelligence report from a scout, Wolfe decided to attempt a landing on the steep northern bank of the St Lawrence to the West of the city.
    British 78th (Highland) Regiment of Foot
  • Wolfe’s Troops Climb the River Bank
  • The Battle of Quebec (1759)
    • Wolfe’s flotilla rowed from the West down the river to the Anse du Foulon, the point Wolfe had chosen for the landing on the north bank.
    • A French sentry challenged the boats but was answered by a highland officer in French.
    • The force landed and scaled the cliff. By dawn 4,500 British and American troops were assembled on the cliff top.
  • The Battle of Quebec (1759)
    • Montcalm did not become aware of the British incursion until the morning, when he saw the line formed outside Quebec.
    • Montcalm applied to the governor of the city for some of the guns from the ramparts, but the governor agreed to release only three. Nevertheless Montcalm decided to attack the British line.
    Fort Quebec
  • Battle of Quebec
  • The Battle of Quebec (1759)
    • The three French guns and the single British gun fired at the opposing lines.
    • The French regular battalions advanced to the attack and the British regiments, who had been lying down to avoid the fire, rose up.
    • The French fired ineffectually at too great a distance and came on.
  • The Battle of Quebec (1759)
    • The British infantry withheld its fire until the range was 35 yards
    • Two volleys were sufficient to destroy the French line.
    • The British infantry then advanced and drove the French from the field.
    • Both Wolfe and Montcalm were mortally shot on the field. Wolfe died that day, Montcalm the next morning.
    Montcalm Wounded
  • The Death of General Wolfe
  • Battle of Quiberon Bay (France, 1759)
    • During 1759, the French had made plans to invade England and Scotland
    • The British had blockaded much of the French fleet near Brest, France, but the French fleet was ordered to escape
    • During a major storm, the French fleet slipped out of the British blockade and met at Quiberon Bay off the southern coast of France
  • Battle at Quiberon Bay, France
  • Battle of Quiberon Bay (France, 1759)
    • The British Admiral Sir Edward Hawke with 23 ships of the line caught up with the French fleet
    • The French were under the command of Marshal de Conflans, and had 21 ships
    • After hard fighting, Hawke sank, captured, or forced aground most of the French fleet, giving the Royal Navy one of its greatest victories.
    • French ships could no longer easily resupply colonies in New France.
    Admiral Sir Edward Hawke
  • Battle of Quiberon Bay (France, 1759)
    • Consequences of the Battle of Quiberon Bay
      • French fleet was broken, never to recover
      • French ships could no longer easily supply reinforcements to their military in New France.
      • France experienced a credit crunch as financiers recognised that Britain could now strike at will against French trade.
      • The French government was forced to default on its debt.
      • Battle at Quiberon Bay may have won the war for Britain.
  • Ships of the Line in battle at Quiberon Bay
  • Iroquois Rejoin the British (1760)
    • During the lucrative fur trade, the Iroquois were allied with the British
    • When the fighting broke out in 1754 and the British lost key battles, the Iroquois broke their alliance.
    • After the British began winning battles in 1758, the Iroquois reconsidered, and reformed an alliance with the British
    • Although the British saw them as fickle, they welcomed their support
  • French Surrender Montreal (1760)
    • After the fall of Quebec in 1759, Montreal remained the only center of French power in North America
    • Under General Jeffery Amherst, British troops planned a three pronged attack:
      • 11,000 troops sailed down the St. Lawrence from Lake Ontario
      • 3,400 troops arrived by the Richelieu River
      • 3,800 troops came up the St. Lawrence river from Quebec
    • Clearly surrounded, French commanders surrendered Montreal to the British on Sept. 8, 1760.
    • This was the last major battle of the French-Indian War against the French. New France was now in the hands of the British.
  • French Surrender Montreal (1760)
  • The Battle of Havana (Britain/Spain) 1762
    • With the war against France over, England turned its attention to Spain
    • Havana, a port located on modern Cuba, was one of the best harbors in the West Indies
    • The channel leading to the port was protected by two massive stone fortresses flanking each side, know as the Castillo del Morro and the Castillo del San Salvador de la Punta
    Castillo del Morro
  • The Battle of Havana (Britain/Spain) 1762
    • The Spanish commander in charge at the castles was Juan de Prado, with 12 ships of the line and approx. 8,000 soldiers and mariners to protect it
    • The British expedition was led by George Keppel, Earl of Albemarle, and Vice-Admiral George Pocock.
      • The British forces totaled 21 ships of the line, 24 lesser warships, 168 other vessels, 14,000 seamen and marines and 12,826 regulars.
    Castillo del Morro Castillo del San Salvador
  • The Battle of Havana (Britain/Spain) 1762
    • The British force immediately blockaded the entrance to the channel, trapping the Spanish fleet inside.
    • Surprised by the size of the British force, the Spanish used delaying tactics, hoping that disease or a hurricane would destroy the British forces
    • The British strung a boom chain across the channel, and sunk three poor ships behind it
    The Morro Lighthouse
  • The Battle of Havana (Britain/Spain) 1762
    • On June 7, British troops landed north of El Morro, and marched inland to lay siege to the castle.
    • Seeing the impossibilities of digging trenches in the rock, British engineers constructed siege works and began mining toward the castle
    • By mid June, the British were landing 500+ hits a day on the castle with their artillery, killing 30+ Spanish defenders each day, and exhausting them with castle repairs.
    El Morro
  • The Battle of Havana (Britain/Spain) 1762
  • The Battle of Havana (Britain/Spain) 1762
    • The British attempted a naval attack at the beginning of July, but were defeated by the guns of the Morro
    • The British were also suffering from yellow fever, and hurricane season was rapidly approaching.
    • By the end of the July, the British mines were ready to explode. Rebuffing Spanish attempts to thwart them, the British exploded the mine, filling the moat with rubble, and sending a force over the rubble to attack the castle.
    El Morro
  • The Battle of Havana (Britain/Spain) 1762
    • The British gained control of El Morro, and asked again for the Spanish to surrender
    • When they refused, the British opened fire on the city of Havana, forcing Prado to surrender
    • The British victory at Havana further confirmed their status as the world’s naval power
    • Havana was returned to the Spanish in the Treaty of Paris, 1763.
  • The Treaty of Paris 1763
    • The Seven Years War and the American French Indian War came to the end when representatives of Great Britain, France, and Spain signed a treaty in Paris, France.
    • Although much of the conquered European territory was returned to its original owners, England gained substantial land in North America, removing the French
    • The Treaty of Paris marked the beginning of England’s global dominance and quest for Empire.
  • The Treaty of Paris 1763
    • Treaty Points
      • New France east of the Mississippi River to Britain
      • New Orleans given to Spain along with New France west of the Mississippi River.
      • The British returned Cuba, which they had captured during the war, to Spain in exchange for Florida.
    • North
    • America
    • 1763
  • Long-Term Effects of the French-Indian War
    • The results of the war effectively ended French influence in North America.
    • England gained massive amounts of land and vastly strengthened its hold on the continent.
    • Hurt relationships between the English and Native Americans;
    • Paying the war debt will worsen relationship between colonies and the British crown
  • In the Aftermath of Peace: Proclamation of 1763
    • At the end of the war, colonists were elated to have won the New France territory for expansion
    • However, King George III immediately dampened that enthusiasm by issuing the Proclamation of 1763 .
      • Proclaimed that land west of the Appalachian Mount was off limits to English settlers
      • Included the Ohio River Valley, over which the colonists had been fighting
  • In the Aftermath of Peace: Proclamation of 1763
    • British Perspective:
      • Sustain peace with the Indians, who felt that the colonists would drive them from their lands as they expanded westward.
      • Westward expansion to minimize costs in maintaining a military force to secure the Frontier. ains temporarily off limits to settlements
    • Colonists perspective:
      • Belief that the crown wanted to pen them in along the Atlantic seaboard where they would be easier to regulate.
    • Result:
      • Colonists upset. Especially those who had bought shares in companies or bought land in the newly captured territories.
      • Does create a fragile peace between the British and the Native Americans.
  • Peace Treaty Leads to War Pontiac’s Rebellion (1763 - 1766)
    • Native Americans quickly grew disenchanted with the British.
    • The British exhibited little cultural sensitivity, traded unfairly, failed to pay for land use, and failed to stop settlements on Indian land.
    • This unrest ended in a rebellion by Pontiac, a Native American leader who united various tribes with the goal of expelling the British.
    • Massacres and atrocities occurred on both sides— most notably, British General Jeffrey Amherst gave the Native Americans blankets infested with smallpox.
  • In the Aftermath of Peace
    • The French-Indian War will, in many ways, set the stage for the coming conflicts between Britain and it’s American colonists
    • The years between 1763 and 1775 will set the stage for the American Revolution
    • STAY TUNED!