Battles of the American Revolution


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Major Battles of the American Revolution

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  • A colonial captain, disguised as a peddler seeking a shave, slipped inside the fort and reported back
  • A colonial captain, disguised as a peddler seeking a shave, slipped inside the fort and reported back
  • A colonial captain, disguised as a peddler seeking a shave, slipped inside the fort and reported back
  • Battles of the American Revolution

    1. 1.
    2. 2. The Midnight Ride of Paul Revere<br />b. 1734 in Boston<br />Son of a French Hugenot father who came to America at age 13, ApollosRivoire, and a Bostonian mother<br />Apollos was apprenticed as a silversmith<br />Anglecized his name to “Paul Revere,” after which his son was named<br />
    3. 3. The Midnight Ride of Paul Revere<br />Apollos’s son, also Paul Revere, took up his father’s silversmithing trade and business<br />Revere fought briefly in the Seven Years War as a Lt.<br />Also a prominent Freemason<br />As Revere’s work as a silversmith gained fame, he also started making radical political connections<br />Joined the Sons of Liberty<br />
    4. 4. The Midnight Ride of Paul Revere<br />Married twice, 11 total kids<br />His political engravings suggest he may have been present at both the Boston Massacre and the Boston Tea Party (unconfirmed)<br />After the Tea Party, Revere started working as a messenger for the Boston “Committee of Public Safety”<br />Took messages between Boston, New York and Philadelphia<br />
    5. 5. Revere’s House in Boston<br />
    6. 6. The Midnight Ride of Paul Revere<br />The British army (the King's "regulars") had been stationed in Boston since the ports were closed in the wake of the Boston Tea Party<br />The army had been under constant surveillance by Revere and other patriots as word began to spread that they were planning a move. <br />On the night of April 18, 1775, the army began its move across the Charles River toward Lexington<br />The Sons of Liberty immediately went into action. <br />Revere and William Dawes were sent by Dr. Joseph Warren to ride from Boston to Lexington to warn John Hancock and Samuel Adams of the movements of the British Army<br />
    7. 7. The Midnight Ride of Paul Revere<br />To ensure success, Revere and Dawes were sent by two different routes.<br />British patrols were posted along the roads, which is why more than one messenger was used for the mission<br />About 9 p.m., Dawes was sent the long way around, via the Boston Neck and the land route to Lexington. <br />He was known to British guards, and several helped him that night. Also a good actor, pretended to be a drunk<br />At about 11 pm, Revere was sent across the Charles River to Charlestown, on the opposite shore, where he could begin a ride to Lexington<br />He would warn Charlestown on his way to Lexington<br />
    8. 8. The Midnight Ride of Paul Revere<br />Revere had previous instructed the sexton of the Old North Church in Boston to send a signal by lantern across the river to Charlestown regarding movements of the British troops.<br />One lantern in the steeple would signal the army's choice of the land route… (“one if by land”)<br />Two lanterns would signal the route by water across the Charles River… (“two if by sea”)<br />This was done to get the message through to Charlestown in the event that both Revere and Dawes were captured. <br />Patriots in Charlestown received the message, and waited for Revere after he crossed the river<br />
    9. 9. The Route of Revere, Dawes & Prescott<br />
    10. 10. The Midnight Ride of Paul Revere<br />Many towns sent out riders of their own<br />By midnight, there may have been as many as 40 riders<br />Contrary to myth, Revere did not shout “the British are coming!” as he rode.<br />His mission depended on secrecy, and British patrols were all along his route<br />Also, everyone was British…so what would that cry really have meant at the time?<br />Revere’s actual warning: “the Regulars are coming out”<br />Revere arrived in Lexington about midnight, Dawes about half an hour later. The warning was delivered safely.<br />
    11. 11. The Story of the Third Horseman<br />Dawes and Revere decided to ride on to Concord, where the militia weapons were stored<br />They were joined by young Dr. Samuel Prescott<br />All three riders were detained by the British at a roadblock in Lincoln.<br />In a feat of incredible horsemanship, Prescott jumped his horse over a fence and escaped<br />Dawes also escaped, but headed back toward Lexington<br />Revere was detained at gun point and marched back toward Lexington<br />
    12. 12. The Story of the Third Horseman<br />Near dawn, the soldiers heard shots at Lexington, stole Revere’s horse, and rode on<br />Revere made his way to Hancock and Adams and helped them escape the British soldiers.<br />
    13. 13. Militia “Alarm & Muster” System<br />The ride of the Patriot messengers triggered a flexible system of "alarm and muster”<br />This system was an improved version of an old network of widespread notification and fast deployment of local militia forces in times of emergency. <br />System was used during the early years of Indian wars in the colony, before it fell into disuse in the French and Indian War. <br />Messengers, bells, drums, alarm guns, bonfires and a trumpet were used for rapid communication between towns<br />
    14. 14. Militia “Alarm & Muster” System<br />Through the “alarm and muster” system, rebels in dozens of eastern Massachusetts villages were notified that they should muster their militias<br />The system told them that regulars in numbers greater than 500 were leaving Boston, with possible hostile intentions. <br />This system was so effective that people in towns 25 miles (40 km) from Boston were aware of the army's movements while they were still unloading boats in Cambridge. <br />These early warnings played a crucial role in assembling a sufficient number of colonial militia to inflict heavy damage on the British regulars later in the day. <br />
    15. 15. The Colonial Militia “Minutemen”<br />In most colonial militias, a small proportion of men where selected to be “minutemen”<br />Minutemen were a highly mobile, rapidly deployed force that allowed the colonies to respond immediately to threats of fellow soldiers in the war<br />Theoretically, they were ready to be deployed in one minute or less<br />Minutemen were the first to be mobilized in the battles of Lexington and Concord<br />
    16. 16. Battles at Lexington & Concord<br />At the same time Dawes was riding out of Boston, the British began to muster their troops and were ready to cross the river by 10 pm. <br />The British march to and from Concord was a disorganized experience from start to finish.<br />Colonel Smith was late in arriving, and there was no organized boat-loading operation, resulting in confusion at the staging area. <br />The boats used were naval barges that were packed so tightly that there was no room to sit down. <br />When they disembarked at Phipps Farm in Cambridge, it was into waist-deep water at midnight.<br />
    17. 17. Battles at Lexington & Concord<br />The regulars began their 17 mile march to Concord at 2 a.m. in wet, muddy shoes and soggy uniforms. <br />As they marched through colonial towns, they heard the sounds of colonial “alarm & muster” system.<br />The element of surprise was gone.<br />
    18. 18. Battles at Lexington & Concord<br />At about 4 am, the British regulars sent a messenger back to Boston asking for reinforcements.<br />As the regulars entered Lexington at sunrise, 77 Lexington militiamen emerged from Buckman Tavern and stood in ranks on the village common watching them <br />Between 40 and 100 spectators watched from along the side of the road.<br />
    19. 19. Buckman Tavern: Lexington, MA<br />
    20. 20. Battles at Lexington & Concord<br />The militia was let by Captain John Parker <br />He was later supposed to have made a statement that is now engraved in stone at the site of the battle: "Stand your ground; don't fire unless fired upon, but if they mean to have a war, let it begin here.“<br />The British surrounded the militia, and demanded the rebels disperse<br />Parker ordered his men to disperse, but no one heard him<br />Both Parker and the British commander ordered their men to hold their fire, but a shot was fired from an unknown source<br />After a short fight, the British gained control of Lexington.<br />
    21. 21. Memorial Stone at Lexington<br />
    22. 22. Battles at Lexington & Concord<br />In Concord, the militia heard the shots fired in Lexington and debated what to do<br />They needed reinforcements in order to stand against more than 700 British regulars<br />Reluctantly, they withdrew and surrendered Concord to the British, who searched for weapons and destroyed cannons<br />At the North Bridge in Concord, several hundred militiamen fought and defeated three companies of the King's troops. <br />The outnumbered regulars fell back from the Minutemen after a pitched battle in open territory.<br />
    23. 23. Battles at Lexington & Concord<br />
    24. 24. Battles at Lexington & Concord<br />British Retreat from Concord<br />
    25. 25. Battles at Lexington & Concord<br />More militiamen arrived soon thereafter and inflicted heavy damage on the regulars as they marched back towards Boston. <br />Upon returning to Lexington, Smith's expedition was rescued by reinforcements <br />The combined force of about 1,700 men, marched back to Boston under heavy fire in a tactical withdrawal and eventually reached the safety of Charlestown. <br />The accumulated militias blockaded the narrow land accesses to Charlestown and Boston, starting the Siege of Boston.<br />
    26. 26. Map of Boston, 1775<br />
    27. 27. Siege of Boston<br />General Gage wrote of his surprise of the number of rebels surrounding the city: <br />"The rebels are not the despicable rabble too many have supposed them to be....In all their wars against the French they never showed such conduct, attention, and perseverance as they do now.”<br />British Gen. Thomas Gage<br />
    28. 28. Siege of Boston<br />The British restricted movement in and out of the city, fearing infiltration of weapons. <br />Colonials and the British eventually agreed to allow pedestrian traffic in/out of Boston, provided no firearms were carried<br />Residents of Boston turned in almost 2,000 muskets<br />Most Patriots left the city<br />Many Loyalists who lived in the countryside surrounding Boston left their homes and fled into the city. <br />Some men, after arriving in Boston, joined Loyalist regiments attached to the British army.<br />
    29. 29. Siege of Boston<br />The siege was started by the Massachusetts militia and minutemen.<br />Other New England colonies quickly sent militia to reinforce Massachusetts<br />By the time George Washington arrived in June 1775 to take control of the army, more than 14,000 men were on site<br />The 11-month siege lasted from April 1775 to March 1776<br />
    30. 30. Siege of Boston<br />G<br />
    31. 31. Siege of Boston <br />Illustration depicting the British evacuation of Boston<br />
    32. 32. Battle of Ticonderoga<br />Ft. Ticonderoga had once sat on the French-British border during the French-Indian War<br />No longer strategically important to the British military by 1775<br />Was lightly manned with only 46 soldiers<br />Patriots believed the fort had two assets:<br />Had heavy artillery (canons, howitzers, mortars)<br />Sat on Lake Champlain, a strategic route between the 13 colonies and northern British territories<br />
    33. 33. Fort Ticonderoga<br />
    34. 34. Battle of Ticonderoga<br />Two colonies started war efforts to capture the fort: Connecticut and Massachusetts<br />Both efforts were started by Benedict Arnold<br />Arnold traveled the area extensively. <br />On a trip south, he noted the poorly manned fort and the heavy artillery<br />As he traveled south toward home, he reported information on the fort to both the Connecticut and the Massachusetts Committees of Correspondence<br />
    35. 35. Battle of Ticonderoga<br />Scene One: Connecticut<br />The Committee of Correspondence began raising a militia under Ethan Allen to attack the fort<br />Allen recruited about 100 Green Mountain Boys to attack the fort<br />
    36. 36. Battle of Ticonderoga<br />The Green Mountain Boys were a militia first established in the 1760s to protect disputed territory between New York and New Hampshire, known as the New Hampshire Grants.<br />Today the New Hampshire Grants are known as Vermont<br />Green Mountain Rangers, 1776<br />
    37. 37. Battle of Ticonderoga<br />Scene Two: Massachusetts<br />The Massachusetts Committee of Safety commissioned Benedict Arnold as a colonel and authorized a secret mission to capture the fort<br />He was given £100, gunpowder, ammunition, and horses.<br />He was told to raise a militia of 400 men, march on the fort, and send back to Massachusetts anything of military value<br />
    38. 38. Battle of Ticonderoga<br />Benedict Arnold rode north with two captains to raise the militia.<br />As he reached the northern Massachusetts border, he learned of Allen’s forces<br />Arnold raced north to reach Allen before he attacked the fort<br />When he arrived, a leadership crisis ensued<br />Benedict Arnold<br />
    39. 39. Battle of Ticonderoga<br />What do you remember about colonial militias from the French-Indian War?<br />How are leaders chosen?<br />What problems did the British have with militias?<br />When Arnold met with Allen, he was told Allen’s men would refuse to follow him into war, regardless of his official orders<br />Arnold and Allen worked out an agreement, but no record exists. <br />Arnold claims to have been given joint command—a claim many historians have disputed.<br />
    40. 40. Battle of Ticonderoga<br />On May 9, 1776 Arnold and Allen attacked the fort with 83 of their men<br />Only one British sentry was on duty, and he fled when he saw the forces<br />Allen’s Green Mountain Boys plundered the fort against Arnold’s orders and wishes<br />Disputes between Allen’s men and Arnold’s men often involved drawing weapons<br />
    41. 41. Capture of Ft. Ticonderoga<br />
    42. 42. Battle of Ticonderoga<br />Arnold also attacked nearby Fort Saint-Jean, capturing heavy artillery and two ships (a schooner and a sloop), which he renamed “Liberty” and “Enterprise.”<br />Allen’s forces eventually left Ft. Ticonderoga once the alcohol ran out<br />Much of the heavy artillery and weapons were moved south back to Boston<br />
    43. 43. Removal of Artillery and Guns from Ft. Ticonderoga<br />
    44. 44. Battle of Bunker (Breed) Hill<br />
    45. 45. On Christmas night 1775, George Washington led 2,400 men across the Delaware River to attack and capture the British held city of Trenton, New Jersey<br />The Delaware runs along the border between New Jersey and Pennsylvania<br />He killed 100 German mercenaries (known as Hessians) and captured 900 more<br />Battles at Trenton & Princeton<br />
    46. 46. Battles at Trenton & Princeton<br />An 1851 oil-on-canvas painting by German American artist Emanuel Leutze. It commemorates General George Washington's crossing of the Delaware at Trenton on Christmas night.<br />
    47. 47. Battles at Trenton & Princeton<br />On December 30 1776, Washington led his forces across the Delaware River from Pennsylvania into British-held territory in New Jersey.<br />Lord Charles Cornwallis arrived at Princeton on January 1, 1777 and left 1200 soldiers there while the other 5500 marched towards Trenton.<br />Washington faked out the British by pretending to prepare for defense at the camp and fleeing.<br />He then led his army to Princeton in the middle of the night on January 3. <br />
    48. 48. Battles at Trenton & Princeton<br />Lieutenant Colonel Mawhood left a small force behind in Princeton and proceeded south to join Cornwallis.<br />The Americans under General Mercer and the British under Mawhood met eachother and started to fire. Mercer was fatally wounded.<br />John Cadwalader's 600 men of the Pennsylvania militia arrive, but then start to fall back. <br />Washington runs in with his army to save the day, and when the British start to scatter he exclaims "Its a fine fox hunt, boys!" <br />
    49. 49. Battles at Trenton & Princeton<br />
    50. 50. Battles at Trenton & Princeton<br />As legend has it, when the armies met up at Princeton, John Sullivan fired his cannon at a building at the College of New Jersey and decapitated a portrait of King George II.<br />The British soldiers promptly surrendered.<br />The College of New Jersey later became Princeton University<br />
    51. 51. Battles at Trenton & Princeton<br />Cornwallis heard of the small battles that were happening and headed toward Princeton but had a rough time on the journey; the Americans had burned the bridges behind them!<br />Washington and the Continental Army headed for Morristown, arriving on January 5 and 6 to establish its winter quarters. Cornwallis retired to New Brunswick.<br />
    52. 52. Battles at Trenton & Princeton<br />Cornwallis heard of the small battles that were happening and headed toward Princeton but had a rough time on the journey; the Americans had burned the bridges behind them!<br />Washington and the Continental Army headed for Morristown, arriving on January 5 and 6 to establish its winter quarters. Cornwallis retired to New Brunswick.<br />
    53. 53. Battle of Saratoga<br />Outcomes:<br />86 British died<br />Around 200 British soldiers were captured<br />40 Americans died<br />After many losses early in the war, American morale was greatly improved  <br />
    54. 54. Battle at Yorktown<br />
    55. 55. The Treaty of Paris, 1783<br />Signed September 3, 1783, ratified in May 1784.<br />Formally ended the war between Great Britain and the United States<br />Key Points in 10 Articles:<br />1. Acknowledging the 13 colonies to be free, sovereign and independent States, and that the British Crown and all heirs and successors relinquish claims to the Government, propriety, and territorial rights;<br />2. Establishing the boundaries between the United States and British North America;<br />
    56. 56. The Treaty of Paris, 1783<br />Key Points in 10 Articles:<br />3. Granting fishing rights to United States fishermen in the Grand Banks, off the coast of Newfoundland and in the Gulf of Saint Lawrence;<br />4. Recognizing the lawful contracted debts to be paid to creditors on either side;<br />5. The Congress of the Confederation will "earnestly recommend" to state legislatures to recognize the rightful owners of all confiscated lands "provide for the restitution of all estates, rights, and properties, which have been confiscated belonging to real British subjects [Loyalists]";<br />
    57. 57. The Treaty of Paris, 1783<br />Key Points in 10 Articles:<br />6. United States will prevent future confiscations of the property of Loyalists;<br />7. Prisoners of war on both sides are to be released and all property left by the British army in the United States unmolested (including slaves);<br />8. Great Britain and the United States were each to be given perpetual access to the Mississippi River;<br />9. Territories captured by Americans subsequent to treaty will be returned without compensation;<br />10. Ratification of the treaty was to occur within six months from the signing by the contracting parties.<br />Spain received East & West Florida in a separate agreement<br />