Ancient egypt


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  • Edwin Smith Papyrus Plates 6 and 7 of the Edwin Smith Papyrus, the world's oldest surviving surgical document. Written in hieratic script in ancient Egypt around 1600 BC, the text describes anatomical observations and the examination, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of 48 types of medical problems. The document reveals the sophistication and practicality of ancient Egyptian medicine.
  • Edwin Smith Papyrus Plates 6 and 7 of the Edwin Smith Papyrus, the world's oldest surviving surgical document. Written in hieratic script in ancient Egypt around 1600 BC, the text describes anatomical observations and the examination, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of 48 types of medical problems. The document reveals the sophistication and practicality of ancient Egyptian medicine.
  • Ancient egypt

    1. 1. ANCIENT EGYPT<br />
    2. 2. Old Kingdom<br />New Kingdom<br />Late Period<br />Middle Kingdom<br />BCE<br />BCE<br />3200<br />2060<br />1580<br />712<br />5500<br />2156<br />1640<br />332<br />1070<br />2nd Intermediate<br /> Period<br />Pre-Dynastic<br />Greco-Roman <br />Period<br />1st Intermediate Period<br />3rd Intermediate Period<br />Timeline of Ancient Egypt<br />Ancient Egyptian history lasted for about 5500 years. Historians divide Egyptian history into smaller units of time called periods. There are nine periods of Egyptian history, starting in the Stone Age and ending in Roman times.<br />
    3. 3. Geography<br />
    4. 4. Where in the World Are We?<br />
    5. 5. Egypt: Political Geography<br />
    6. 6. Ancient Egypt: Political Map<br />Egypt<br />
    7. 7. Egypt: Geography<br />The Egyptians thought of the land as split between the “red” land and the “black” land:<br />Red<br />Black<br />The 'red land' was the barren desert that protected Egypt on two sides. <br />These deserts separated ancient Egypt from neighboring countries and invading armies. <br />They also provided the ancient Egyptians with a source for precious metals and semi-precious stones.<br />The 'black land' was the fertile land on the banks of the Nile.<br />The ancient Egyptians used this land for growing their crops. <br />This was the only land in ancient Egypt that could be farmed because a layer of rich, black silt was deposited there every year after the Nile flooded. <br />
    8. 8. Egypt: Physical Geography<br />
    9. 9. Egypt: Climate & Regions<br />Egypt has four major physical regions:<br /><ul><li> Nile Valley and Delta
    10. 10. Western Desert (Libyan Desert)
    11. 11. Eastern Desert (Arabian Desert)
    12. 12. Sinai Peninsula </li></ul>Sinai<br /> Peninsula<br />Nile Valley<br /> and Delta<br />Arabian <br />Desert<br />Libyan Desert<br />The Mediterranean Sea lies to the north of Egypt and the Red Sea to the east.<br />
    13. 13. Egypt: Climate & Regions<br />The Nile is the longest river in the world. It is 4,160 miles (6,695 kilometers) long. <br />This is the distance from New York to San Francisco and halfway back again. <br />
    14. 14. Egypt: Climate & Regions<br />Without the Nile there would have been no civilization in Egypt because it is a desert. During the rainy season, the Nile River floods its banks and pours sand, silt, and nutrients into the surrounding desert soil. <br />Over centuries the Nile has brought rich farming soil and water to the desert. <br />
    15. 15. Egypt: Climate & Regions<br />The Western Desert’s “White Desert”<br />
    16. 16. Egypt: Climate & Regions<br />The Western Desert’s “White Desert”<br />
    17. 17. Egypt: Climate & Regions<br />The Western Desert’s “Black Desert”<br />
    18. 18. Egypt’s Trees: Ancient & Modern<br />Tamarisk<br />Willow<br />Willow<br />Eucalyptus<br />Sycamore <br />Date Palm<br />Acacia<br />
    19. 19. Egypt’s Fish & Flowers<br />Egypt's flowering plants include roses, lilies, irises, jasmine and the lotus<br />Lily<br />Iris<br />Lotus<br />Jasmine<br />There are about two hundred species of fish in the Nile. The Red Sea is filled with coral and tropical marine fish.<br />
    20. 20. Egypt: Geographical Features<br />Palm trees = Oasis<br />Blue dot = Quarry<br />Red dot = Mines<br />
    21. 21. Egypt: Geographical Features<br />An oasis is an area of land in the middle of a desert with a natural water source.<br />Some of the oases in ancient Egypt were large enough so that people could settle there and grow fruit and grain. <br />One oasis was actually the site of a vineyard which produced wine for the pharaoh.<br />Bahariya Oasis, Egypt<br />
    22. 22. Egypt: Geographical Features<br />Quarries<br />The ancient Egyptians quarried many different types of stone. Limestone, sandstone and granite were some of the most common stones used in making statues, and building temples and pyramids.<br />Stone Quarry<br />
    23. 23. Egypt: Geographical Features<br />Mines<br />The mines of the eastern desert produced important natural resources like gold and semi-precious stones. <br />The ancient Egyptians used these materials to make jewellery and special objects for the pharaoh and his family, members of the nobility, and temples<br />
    24. 24. Egypt: Natural Resources<br />
    25. 25. Egypt: Archaeological Sites<br />
    26. 26. Mummification<br />
    27. 27. Before Mummies: Desert Pits<br />The earliest ancient Egyptians buried their dead in small pits in the desert. The heat and dryness of the sand dehydrated the bodies quickly, creating lifelike and natural 'mummies'. <br />
    28. 28. From Coffins To Mummies:<br />Later, coffins were used to protect bodies from wild animals in the desert.<br />Bodies placed in coffins decayed when they were not exposed to the hot, dry sand of the desert. <br />Over the years, the Egyptians perfected mummification, a method of preserving bodies so they would remain lifelike. <br />The process included embalming the bodies and wrapping them in strips of linen. <br />
    29. 29. Mummification: Embalming<br />One of the embalmer's men makes a cut in the left side of the body and removes many of the internal organs. It is important to remove these because they are the first part of the body to decompose. <br />
    30. 30. Mummification: Embalming<br />The liver, lungs, stomach and intestines are washed and packed in natron which will dry them out. The heart is not taken out of the body because it is the centre of intelligence and feeling and the man will need it in the afterlife. <br />
    31. 31. Mummification: Embalming<br />A long hook is used to smash the brain and pull it out through the nose. <br />
    32. 32. Mummification: Embalming<br />The body is covered and stuffed with natron which will dry it out. All of the fluids, and rags from the embalming process will be saved and buried along with the body. <br />After forty days the body is washed again with water from the Nile. Then it is covered with oils to help the skin stay elastic.<br />
    33. 33. Mummification: Embalming<br />The dehydrated internal organs are wrapped in linen and returned to the body. The body is stuffed with dry materials such as sawdust, leaves and linen so that it looks life like.<br />Finally the body is covered again with good-smelling oils. It is now ready to be wrapped in linen. <br />
    34. 34. Mummification: Embalming<br />Lungs<br />Liver<br />Stomach<br />Intestines<br />The internal organs were removed and placed in hollow canopic jars. Over many years the embalming practices changed and embalmers began returning internal organs to bodies after the organs had been dried in natron. <br />However, solid wood or stone canopic jars were still buried with the mummy to symbolically protect the internal organs. <br />
    35. 35. Mummification: Wrapping<br />First the head and neck are wrapped with strips of fine linen. Then the fingers and the toes are individually wrapped.<br />The arms and legs are wrapped separately. Between the layers of wrapping, the embalmers place amulets to protect the body in its journey through the underworld.<br />
    36. 36. Mummification: Wrapping<br />This is the 'Plummet' amulet which will keep the person balanced in the next life.<br />This is the 'Isis knot' amulet which will protect the body.<br />
    37. 37. Mummification: Wrapping<br />A priest reads spells out loud from the Book of the Dead while the mummy is being wrapped. These spells will help ward off evil spirits and help the deceased make the journey to the afterlife.<br />
    38. 38. Mummification: Wrapping<br />The arms and legs are tied together. A papyrus scroll with spells from the Book of the Dead is placed between the wrapped hands.<br />More linen strips are wrapped around the body. At every layer, the bandages are painted with liquid resin that helps to glue the bandages together.<br />
    39. 39. Mummification: Wrapping<br />A cloth is wrapped around the body and a picture of the god Osiris is painted on its surface.<br />Finally, a large cloth is wrapped around the entire mummy. <br />A board of painted wood is placed on top of the mummy before the mummy is lowered into its coffin. The first coffin is then put inside a second coffin. <br />
    40. 40. Mummification: Ritual & Burial<br />The funeral is held for the deceased and his family mourns his death.<br />
    41. 41. Mummification: Ritual & Burial<br />A ritual called the 'Opening of the Mouth' is performed, allowing the deceased to eat and drink again.<br />
    42. 42. Mummification: Ritual & Burial<br />Finally, the body and its coffins are placed inside a large stone sarcophagus in the tomb. Furniture, clothing, valuable objects, food and drink are arranged in the tomb for the deceased. <br />Now his body is ready for its journey through the underworld. There his heart will be judged by his good deeds on earth. If his heart is found to be pure he will be sent to live for all eternity in the beautiful 'Field of Reeds'. <br />
    43. 43. Gods & Goddesses<br />
    44. 44.
    45. 45. Intro to Hieroglyphics<br />
    46. 46. Egyptian Writing Systems<br />Hieroglyphics may have developed simultaneously with cuneiform in Sumeria. <br />Hieroglyphics was NOT the only Egyptian form of writing. They had two others: hieratic (priestly) and demotic (popular).<br />Where hieroglyphics was considered a sacred script and used to describe religious matters, hieratic and demotic were used for everyday matters.<br />
    47. 47. Egyptian<br />Scripts<br />Three Kinds of Scripts<br />Popular = <br />Demotic<br />Priestly = <br />Hieractic<br />Sacred =<br />Hieroglyphics<br />
    48. 48. Egyptian Writing Systems<br />Hieratic script was the common script used in ancient Egypt from about 2600 B.C. to 700 B.C. <br />The word 'hieratic' comes from the Greek word (hieratika) for the script. Hieratic was used by scribes to record everyday information, keep records and write letters.<br />
    49. 49. Plates 6 and 7 of the Edwin Smith Papyrus, <br />the world's oldest surviving surgical document. 1600 B.C.<br />Source:<br />
    50. 50. Egyptian Writing Systems<br />Demotic script became the common script in ancient Egypt from about 700 B.C.<br />It was called 'sekh shat' ('writing for documents') by the ancient Egyptians. The word 'demotic' comes from the Greek word (demotika) for the script. Demotic was used for government records, literature and letters.<br />
    51. 51. Ostracon with demotic inscription, Ptolemaic dynasty, c. 304–30 BC.<br />Source: David Liam Moran. <br />Licensed under Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike 3.0 (Generic) <br />
    52. 52. Egyptian Writing Systems<br />Demotic script became the common script in ancient Egypt from about 700 B.C.<br />It was called 'sekh shat' ('writing for documents') by the ancient Egyptians. The word 'demotic' comes from the Greek word (demotika) for the script. Demotic was used for government records, literature and letters.<br />
    53. 53. Making Papyrus Paper<br />The ancient Egyptians kept most of their records on papyrus, a weed that grows in the marshes of the Nile Delta. <br />Papyrus usually grow 2–3 meters (5–9 ft) tall, and the pith is used to make paper.<br />Source:<br />
    54. 54. Making Papyrus Paper<br />Papyrus sheets are made <br />by a four stage process:<br />A fresh papyrus plant is cut into long strips<br />The strips are laid out on a flat surface in a criss-cross pattern <br />The sheet is pressed and left to dry <br />Sheets are joined together with glue to make long scrolls <br />Source:<br />
    55. 55. Criss-cross pattern of completed papyrus. <br />In modern Egypt, unsuspecting tourists are often fooled into purchasing a cheap substitute: banana leaf paper, which is made the <br />same way and looks very similar.<br />Image Source:<br />
    56. 56. Papyrus Paper<br />After the sheets were dried, they were used for keeping records. The sheets were then rolled up and tied with papyrus string. <br />
    57. 57. The Scribe<br />Not everyone learned to read and write in ancient Egypt. Only one group of people called scribes was allowed to have this knowledge.<br />Scribes were people in ancient Egypt (usually men) who learned to read and write.<br />Most scribes were men, but there is evidence of some female doctors. These women would have been trained as scribes so that they could read medical texts. <br />
    58. 58. The Scribe<br />To become a scribe, you had to attend a special school for scribes to learn how to read and write hieroglyphic and hieratic scripts.<br />Students spent a lot of time practicing the signs by copying them onto sheets of papyrus, old pieces of pottery or flakes of limestone.<br />
    59. 59. The Scribe<br />Could anyone become a scribe?<br />No. Most often it was the children of scribes who became scribes. Although some craftsmen were able to get their sons into the school for scribes, it was very rare. <br />It could take four to five years for a person to go through scribe school. <br />
    60. 60. The Scribe<br />Scribes usually wrote on papyrus with reed brushes dipped in ink. <br />The ancient Egyptians made ink by grinding brightly colored minerals into powder, then mixing the powder with liquid so that it was easier to apply. <br />
    61. 61. Temples<br />The Army<br />In the Fields<br />Scribe School<br />Government<br />Tombs<br />Where Was Writing Used?<br />What can scribes <br />do for a living?<br />
    62. 62. Scribe School:Student Scribe’s Practice Board<br />
    63. 63. In the Fields<br />
    64. 64. In the Tombs<br />
    65. 65. In the Army<br />
    66. 66. Government<br />The government of ancient Egypt kept records about the country. <br />This helped them work out important facts about how the country was running. <br />For example, by looking at records from past years they could see how much grain or how many animals were collected in taxes.<br />
    67. 67. Temples<br />Source:<br />
    68. 68. Hieroglyphics: Overview<br />The ancient Egyptians believed that writing was invented by the god Thoth and called their hieroglyphic script "mdwtntr" (God's Words). <br />The word “hieroglyph” comes from the Greek hieros (sacred) plus glypho (inscriptions) and was first used by Clement of Alexandria. <br />The earliest known examples of writing in Egypt have been dated to 3,400 BC. The latest dated inscription in hieroglyphs was made on the gate post of a temple at Philae in 396 AD. <br />
    69. 69. Hieroglyphics: 3200 B.C. – 400 B.C.<br />The hieroglyphic script was the most sacred of the ancient Egyptian scripts. <br />It was used only to record important information about religion or the Pharaoh, and was used mainly for formal inscriptions on the walls of temples and tombs. <br />
    70. 70. Edfu Temple, Egypt<br />Source:<br />
    71. 71. Source: Sterling Dintersmith (<br />
    72. 72. KawnUmbu Temple, Egypt<br />Source:<br />
    73. 73. Hieroglyphics: 3200 B.C. – 400 B.C.<br />By the 4th century, few Egyptians were capable of reading hieroglyphs. <br />After the Roman Emperor Theodsius I ordered the closure of all pagan temples throughout the Roman empire in the late 4th century AD, knowledge of the hieroglyphic script was lost until the early 19th century, when Napoleon invaded Egypt and discovered the Rosetta Stone.<br />
    74. 74. Hieroglyphics<br />English = 26 letters, which represents sounds.<br />Ancient Egyptian has 2,000+ hieroglyphic characters. Each hieroglyph represents a common object in ancient Egypt. Hieroglyphs could represent the sound of the object or they could represent an idea associated with the object. <br />Remember the “rebus”? A rebus is a modern type of hieroglyph. A rebus is a picture puzzle that can be "sounded out" by reading the sounds symbolized by the pictures. <br />
    75. 75. Hieroglyphic Alphabet<br />The basic hieroglyph characters are referred to as the ALPHABET. They 'spell out' names or anything which can't be represented by other characters. The alphabet characters are read as the sound of the object they represented. <br />Although vowels were used in the spoken language, they were not usually written unless it might be confusing if left out.<br />
    76. 76. HieroglyphicBilaterals<br />Biliterals are hieroglyphs which were substituted in place of pairs of alphabet characters. <br />g m gm<br />+=<br />The sound of the biliteral hieroglyph is the same as the sound of the alphabet characters it replaces.<br />Biliterals 'streamline' writings by eliminating large numbers of simpler characters.<br />
    77. 77. Hieroglyphic Determinatives<br />Determinatives don't represent sounds. <br />The meanings they imply help eliminate confusion by putting the writings in proper context. These special characters clarify a statement by carrying a distinct meaning. The appearance of a determinative put the writing in context based on its meaning. <br />Remember the rebus? <br />
    78. 78. Hieroglyphic Determinatives<br />It has several possible meanings:<br />We could eliminate confusion by adding a determinative. <br />Eye Heart U<br />I Heart Ewe<br />I Love You<br />
    79. 79. Hieroglyphic Determinatives<br />This symbol is usually seen around Valentine's Day. It is associated with Cupid, the Roman god of love. By shooting someone with his arrow, <br />Cupid caused them to fall in love.<br />Use of this symbol implies that the statement relates to matters of love and emotion, and effectively makes "I Love You" the only choice.<br />
    80. 80. Hieroglyphic Determinatives<br />Means the phrase written in hieroglyphics refers to a scribe, or to something being written<br />Scribe tools<br />Means the phrase written in hieroglyphics has something to do with time, daytime, or the sun itself.<br />The Sun<br />
    81. 81. Hieroglyphic Standards<br />“Standards” are things that help languages stay consistent and help people understand how to read and write it no matter where you are, or who teaches you the language.<br />For example, in English:<br />We always write from left to write<br />We have grammatical structure<br />We have a dictionary to keep spelling consistent<br />
    82. 82. Hieroglyphic Standards<br />Hieroglyphic writing was written in columns or rows.<br />Reading direction is determined by the direction that human and animal figures faced. Reading starts from the direction that figures face and continues in the opposite direction.<br />But they were usually written left to right.<br />Hieroglyphs could be written left to right.<br />
    83. 83. Hieroglyphic Standards<br />Columns were read down as we would read lines down a page. <br />The Egyptians liked symmetry.<br />If hieroglyphs were inscribed in a column, they would often inscribe the same text in the opposite column, except with the writing reversed.<br />
    84. 84. Hieroglyphic Numbers<br />In our modern system of numbering, numbers are counted in units of 10. A zero written to the right of a number indicates the number is increased ten times. <br />EXAMPLE<br />10 = 1 X 10<br />100 = 1 X 10 X 10<br />1,000 = 1 X 10 X 10 X 10<br />
    85. 85. Hieroglyphic Numbers<br />10 characters (0-9) are used in the modern numbering system to represent all possible numbers. <br />The position of a character within a larger number is important to defining its value. Each character to the right implies a zero which increases the value of that number by ten times. <br />EXAMPLE<br /> = 700 + 50 + 1<br />751 = 7 + 5 + 1<br />
    86. 86. Hieroglyphic Numbers<br />The Egyptian numbering system was also based on units of 10, but instead of relying on the position of numbers to define their value, the Egyptians used different images to represent different units of 10.<br />10,000<br />10<br />1<br />100<br />1,000<br />100,000<br />
    87. 87. Hieroglyphic Numbers<br />To write a number, the hieroglyph representing each unit of ten would simply be drawn as many times as was necessary<br />500 = <br />457 = <br />
    88. 88. Hieroglyphic Fractions<br />Modern fractions contain both a numerator and a denominator. The denominator represents the total number of portions, and the numerator represents the number of those portions that we are measuring.<br />
    89. 89. Hieroglyphic Fractions<br />With hieroglyphic fractions the numerator is always assumed to be 1, only the denominator varies. <br />Fractions use the same hieroglyph characters as numbers. <br />Placing the symbol above or alongside number hieroglyphs shows the number is a fraction.<br />EXAMPLES:<br />1/2 is written as:<br />1/3 is written as:<br />3/4 is like saying ½ + ¼: <br />
    90. 90. Eye of Horus<br />In the Egyptian language, the word for this symbol was "Wedjat".<br />
    91. 91. The Story of the Eye of Horus<br />Horus was a solar and sky god of Lower Egypt who had the head of a falcon and the body of a man.<br />He is the son of the god Osiris and the goddess Isis. He is associated with vitality, health and regeneration. <br />His right eye was white, and represented the sun, and his left eye was black, and represented the moon. <br />
    92. 92. The Story of the Eye of Horus<br />According to Egyptian mythology, Horus often battled Set, the god of Upper Egypt. <br />At some point, Set killed Horus’s father, Osiris. To avenge this death, Horus fought Seth and lost his left eye in the fight.  <br />Thoth, the God of magic and the moon, used his powers to reassemble Horus’s eye and returned it to Horus. On presenting his eye to his father, Osiris was reborn. <br />
    93. 93. The Eye of Horus and <br />the Rx Symbol<br />The pharmacological symbol “Rx” has its origins in the Eye of Horus<br />
    94. 94. Eye of Horus Fractions<br />The symbol representing his eye, Eye of Horus, was a powerful symbol used to protect from evil.<br />Pronounced "udjat" by the Egyptians, the Eye of Horus represents a human eye with the cheek markings of a falcon.<br />
    95. 95. Eye of Horus Fractions<br />The Eye of Horus fraction system was based on the Eye of Horus symbol. This system was used to record prescriptions, land and grain.<br />Fractions are created by combining sections of the Eye of Horus symbol. Each section has a different value. <br />The complete Eye of Horus with all parts in place has a value of 1. <br />In reality the complete Eye of Horus represents 63/64, which is rounded off to 1.<br />
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