Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Ancient China
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Ancient China

12,362
views

Published on


1 Comment
23 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Your contrast between Confucianism and Daoism is completely incorrect. The former was backward looking, the latter was forward looking. One was reactionary, the other progressive. Here's the full story:
    http://www.slideshare.net/ShibumiMC/asst-press-release-01-2013
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
No Downloads
Views
Total Views
12,362
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
3
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
1
Likes
23
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Ancient China
  • 2.
    • When you read, focus on:
    • How did China’s geography affect its early civilization?
    • What were the achievements of the Shang dynasty?
    • How did China change during the Zhou dynasty?
    • What new philosophies were introduced in China?
    Main Idea China’s river valley civilizations built the foundations of a long-shared Chinese culture. The achievements of the Shang and Zhou dynasties can be felt to this day. China’s First Dynasties
  • 3. Chinese Physical Geography
  • 4. The development of civilization in early China was aided by features like long rivers, fertile soils, temperate climates, and isolated valleys. China’s Geography
    • China’s first civilizations developed in river valleys
    • Two major rivers supplied water for earliest civilizations
      • Chang Jiang, also called Yangzi
      • Huang He, or Yellow River
      • Both flow east from Plateau of Tibet to Yellow Sea
    Rivers, Soils, Climates
    • Annual floods deposited rich soil, loess , on flood plains
    • Valley of Huang He particularly fertile due to loess
      • Fine dusty soil
      • Carried into China by desert winds
    Loess
  • 5.
    • Isolation
    • Combination of rivers for irrigation, fertile soil for planting allowed Chinese to thrive, as did China’s relative isolation
    • Mountains, hills, desert protected China from invasion
    • Himalaya Mountains separate southern China from India, rest of southern Asia; vast Gobi Desert prevented reaching China from west
    • Crops
    • Most of eastern China covered with fertile soils; some regions better suited than others for growing certain crops
    • Southern China—warm, receives plenty of rainfall, excellent region for growing rice
    • Further north—climate cooler, drier; suitable for grains, wheat, millet
  • 6. China’s Physical Geography
  • 7. Focus Question: What elements of geographic luck influenced life in early China? Answer(s): Rivers deposited rich soil for farming; mountains, hills, and desert isolated the area.
  • 8. Early Chinese Civilization
    • Legend says earliest Chinese ruled by Xia dynasty
    • No written, archaeological evidence Xia dynasty existed
    • Most historians date beginning of Chinese civilization to rise of Shang dynasty
    Xia
    • Archaeological discoveries suggest Chinese civilization began in Huang He valley
    • People started growing crops there 9,000 years ago
    Beginnings of Civilization
  • 9. According to ancient Chinese records, the Shang dynasty formed around 1766 BC, although many archaeologists believe it actually began somewhat later than that. It began with the reign of Tang and ended with the fall of Zhou, lasting for approximate 600 years, from 16 century BCE to 11 century BCE. The Shang Dynasty
    • China ruled by strong monarchy
    • At capital city, Anyang, kings surrounded by court
    • Rituals performed to strengthen kingdom, keep safe
    Government and Society
    • King’s governors ruled distant parts of kingdom
    • King also had large army at disposal
    • Prevented rebellions, fought outside opponents
    Order
    • Shang China largely agricultural
    • Most tended crops in fields
    • Farmers called on to fight in army, work on building projects—tombs, palaces, walls
    Agricultural Society
  • 10. Shang Dynasty Map
  • 11.
    • Leisure
    • Ruling elite had free time to pursue leisure activities, hunting for sport
    • Wealthy enjoyed collecting expensive bronze, jade objects
    • Afterlife
    • Tombs held remains of sacrificed prisoners of war
    • Believed in afterlife where ruler would need riches, servants
    • Artifacts
    • Much of what is known comes from studying royal tombs
    • Contained valuable items made of bronze, jade
    • Ancestor Worship
    • Shang offered gifts to deceased ancestors to keep them happy in afterlife
    • Steam from ritual meals nourished ancestors’ spirits
    Shang Elite
  • 12.
    • As part of worship, Shang asked ancestors for advice
    • Sought advice through use of oracle bones
      • Inscribed bits of animal bone, turtle shell
      • Living person asked question of ancestor
      • Hot piece of metal applied to oracle bone resulting in cracks on bone’s surface
      • Specially trained priests interpreted meaning of cracks to learn answer
    Oracle Bones
  • 13.
    • Writing
    • Development of Chinese writing closely tied to use of oracle bones
    • Earliest examples of Chinese writing, questions written on bones themselves
    • Early Shang texts used picture symbols to represent objects, ideas
    • End of Dynasty
    • Shang ruled for more than 600 years, until about 1100 BC
    • Ruling China’s growing population proved too much for Shang
    • Armies from nearby tribe, Zhou, invaded, established new ruling dynasty
    • Bronze
    • Shang religion led to great advances in working with bronze
    • Highly decorative bronze vessels, objects created for religious rituals
    • Also built huge structures like tombs; created calendar, first money systems
    Shang Achievements and Decline
  • 14. Shang Dynasty Art
  • 15. Shang Dynasty Architecture Timber House Ruins of Shang Dynasty City Temple to Heavens
  • 16. Summarize How did religion influence other aspects of Shang culture? Answer: ritual meals for ancestors; oracle bones connected to early writing; bronze work for rituals; built stable tombs
  • 17. In that case, they said, it was the will of the gods that that dynasty be overthrown and a new one take power. Beginning around 1100 BC, the Zhou rules China for several centuries. The Zhou dynasty is divided into two periods. During the Western Zhou, kings ruled from Xian in a peaceful period. Later conflict arose, kings moved east to Luoyang, beginning the Eastern Zhou period. The Zhou Dynasty
    • When Zhou conquered Shang, leaders worried Chinese people would not accept them
    • Introduced idea they ruled by Mandate of Heaven
    • Gods would support just ruler, not allow anyone corrupt to hold power
    Government
    • Zhou said Shang overthrown because they lost gods’ favor
    • Later rulers used Mandate of Heaven to explain dynastic cycle , rise and fall of dynasties in China
    • If dynasty lost power, it obviously had become corrupt
    Dynastic Cycle
  • 18.
    • Before Zhou, Chinese metalwork done almost exclusively in bronze
    • Zhou learned to use iron, became backbone of economy
    • Iron was strong, could be cast more cheaply, quickly than bronze
    • Iron weapons strengthened Zhou army, as did new weapons like catapult and creation of China’s first cavalry
    Zhou Achievements
    • Population grew under Zhou
    • Farmers learned new techniques, increased size of harvest, created food surpluses; cities also grew
    • Roads, canals allowed better transportation, communication
    • Introduced coins, use of chopsticks
    Growth
    • Conflict arose during latter part of Zhou dynasty
    • Clan leaders within China rose up against king
    • As time passed, more and more local leaders turned against Zhou, further weakening rule
    Decline of the Zhou
  • 19.
    • Result of rebellions was Warring States Period
    • 403 BC to 221 BC, number of small states fought each other for land, power
    • Zhou still nominally in charge, but power almost nonexistent by mid-200s BC
    • Qin, new dynasty, arose to bring end to Warring States Period, Zhou dynasty
    Small States Fight
  • 20.  
  • 21. Analyze How did China change under the Zhou? Answer(s): iron technology, population grew, new farm techniques, more food, cities grew, roads and canals built, coins and chopsticks introduced
  • 22. The conflicts of the late Zhou period led many Chinese thinkers to question the nature of society and people’s roles in it. New Philosophies Effort to make sense of chaos led to creation of many new Chinese philosophies, or ways of looking at the world
    • Of many philosophies created during late Zhou period, two became influential in later Chinese history:
      • Confucianism
      • Daoism
  • 23.
    • Confucius
    • Confucianism based on teachings of scholar named Kongfuzi, better known as Confucius, who thought people should treat one another humanely
    • Should express love, respect for others, honor one’s ancestors
    • Analects
    • Ruler should treat subjects fairly; subjects reward ruler with respect, loyalty
    • People should respect members of family, devote selves to public service
    • Confucian ideas spread elsewhere in Asia, including Korea, Japan, Vietnam
    • Love and Respect
    • Believed that love, respect had disappeared and was responsible for violence in society; restoring respect for tradition would make society stable
    • Thoughts on how to improve society collected in book, Analects
    Confucianism
  • 24. Daoism
    • Daoism embraced Chinese concept of yin and yang, representing balancing aspect of nature—male, female; dark, light; hot, cold
    • Neither can exist without other
    • Important for two to remain balanced for perfect harmony
    • Origins of Daoist teachings attributed to philosopher named Laozi
    • Wrote book called Dao De Jing
    • Laozi worshipped by some as a god
    Yin and Yang
    • Unlike Confucianism, which focuses on improving society, Daoism encourages people to retreat from laws of society, yield to law of nature
    • Heart of Daoism is concept of the dao, or the way
    • Dao is the limitless force that is part of all creation
    • Through the dao, all things in nature connected
    • Finding one’s place in nature allows person to achieve harmony with universe
    Definition
  • 25.
    • Daoism eventually proved less influential than Confucianism in Chinese history
    • Still played major role in later dynasties
    • Idea of balance key concept in China for centuries as result of Daoist teaching
    • Daoist philosophy led many followers to work for preservation, protection of natural environment
    Some Lasting Effects
  • 26.  
  • 27. Contrast What is one difference between Confucianism and Daoism? Answer(s): Daoism—retreat from society and commune with nature; Confucianism—improve society
  • 28.  
  • 29.  
  • 30. Video The Impact of Hinduism as a World Religion Click above to play the video.