American Romanticism Movement


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American Romanticism Movement

  2. 2. Factors leading to the rise of Romanticism Proliferation of Protestant denominations Independence in religion and politics Egalitarianism Rise of representative government Expansion in the ―new world‖ ―Evil‖ of industrialism and urbanization Significant rise in literacy
  3. 3. Factors leading to the rise of romanticism Confusion generated by science • Darwin’s Origin of Species stated humanity’s mean origins • Marx’s Das Kapital predicted capitalism’s decay and a triumphant working class
  4. 4. The Spirit of the age (1790 – 1860) A sense of a shared vision among the Romantics. Early support of the French Revolution. Rise of the individual = alienation. Dehumanization of industrialization. Radical poetics / politics = an obsession with violent change.
  5. 5. A growing distrust of reasonEnlightenment Early 19c RomanticismSociety is good, curbing Civilization corrupts!violent impulses!  The essence of human experience is subjective and emotional.  Human knowledge is a puny thing compared to other great historical forces.  ―Individual rights‖ are dangerous efforts at selfishness = the community is more important.
  6. 6. The romanticism Movement Began in the 1790s and peaked in the 1820s. Mostly in Northern Europe, especially in Britain and Germany. A reaction against classicism and rationalism of the Enlightenment The ―Romantic Hero:‖ • Greatest example was Lord Byron • Tremendously popular among the European reading public. • Youth imitated his haughtiness and rebelliousness.
  7. 7. Characteristics of romanticism Individualism • Emphasis moved from: • the stability of the community to the fulfillment of the individual. • the universal to the particular, for humankind to nations and ethnic groups • ―Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness‖ was a new ideal in the world. • During this time period, Women’s Rights and Abolitionism were taking root as major movements.
  8. 8. Characteristics of romanticism Individualism: The ―Rugged‖ Hero • American literature created this unique person. He was: • Youthful, innocent, intuitive • One with nature • Loner, and uneasy around women • Handsome, brave, moral and honorable • In James Fenimore Cooper’s Leatherstocking Tales, Nattie Bumpo is an example of this new American hero
  9. 9. Characteristics of romanticism Individualism: The ―Engaged & Enraged Artist‖ • Self-realization comes through art • The artist as: • apart from society • social critic/revolutionary • genius • the true philosopher • Individuals have unique, endless potential Wandering Above the Sea of Fog Caspar David Friedrich, 1818
  10. 10. Characteristics of romanticism Emotionalism: • Imagination, intuition and inspiration • Feeling, not reason, became the test of authenticity. • Romantic love became a subject of poetry and drama. • Poetry is a form of emotional communication. • Painful and pleasurable emotions are equally valid to Romantic poets.
  11. 11. Characteristics of romanticism Emotionalism: • Backlash against the rationalism characterized by the Neoclassical period or ―Age of Reason‖ • Imagination was considered necessary for creating all art • The Romantic artist, musician, or writer, is an ―inspired creator‖ rather than a ―technical master.‖ • Romanticism emphasized going with the moment, or being spontaneous, rather than being precise, controlled, or realistic.
  12. 12. The Raft of Medusa Theodore Gericault
  13. 13. The NightmareJohn Henry Fuseli, 1781
  14. 14. Ride of the Valkyries William T. Maud
  15. 15. Characteristics of romanticism Rejection of Traditional Authority • Influenced by the American & French Revolutions • Government hierarchies, notions of sovereignty and aristocracy, and systems of distinction all fell. • Romantics believed that authority derives from the self, not from authority. • Newness itself was a value. • Political statements were popular in art
  16. 16. Liberty Leading the People Eugene Delacroix
  17. 17. The Return of the (Jewish) Volunteer From War Moritz Oppenheim
  18. 18. Ossian Receiving the Ghosts of French Heroes Anne-Louis Girodet de Roucy-Trioson
  19. 19. Characteristics of romanticism Nature: Mysticism • Romantics loved, and were spiritually involved, with nature • Romantic writing looked for comforting or exotic settings from the past • This was found in the supernatural, in nature, and/or in folk legends • Romantics glorified the awesome, horrifying, overwhelming power of nature
  20. 20. Characteristics of romanticism Primitivism: The Noble Savage • Romanticism: ―civilization corrupts; institutions have rippling effects‖ • The child raised with the greatest possible freedom will develop in more admirable ways. • Youth and infancy are valued above wisdom of old age; holy wisdom is lost as we age. • Innocence is more valued than experience. • Humans are born into innocence, not innately depraved.
  21. 21. Characteristics of romanticism Nature: Romantic Escapism • Urban vs. Rural Settings • The Romantic journey is to the countryside • The Industrial Revolution caused Romantics to associate cities with corruption, greed, poverty, slums and dehumanization • Nature = escape from the abuses of industry • The Romantics associated the country with independence, moral clarity, and purity • The Gothic Romantic, Edgar Allan Poe, saw the country as a place of phantasm • Washington Irving saw the country as idyllic and as an escape
  22. 22. NatureThe Power & the Glory
  23. 23. An Avalanche in the AlpsPhilip James de Loutherbourg, 1803
  24. 24. Sunset After a Storm on the Coast of Italy Andreas Achenbach
  25. 25. The DelugeFrancis Danby, 1840
  26. 26. Tree of CrowsCaspar David Friedrich, 1822
  27. 27. The Wreck of the Hope (aka the sea ice) Caspar David Friedrich, 1821
  28. 28. ShipwreckJoseph Turner, 1805
  29. 29. The Eruption of Vesuvius John Martin
  30. 30. NatureRomantic Country Life
  31. 31. Flatford Milljohn constable m1817
  32. 32. The Corn Field John Constable 1826
  33. 33. The Hay WainJohn Constable, 1821
  34. 34. NatureInteresting & Exotic Lands
  35. 35. Grand Canal, VeniceJoseph Mallord William Turner, 1835
  36. 36. Massacre of Chios Eugene Delacroix 1824
  37. 37. The Fanatics of Tangiers Eugene Delacroix, 1838
  38. 38. The Sultan ofMorocco and His EntourageEugene Delacroix, 1845
  39. 39. The Women of Algiers in Their Apartment Eugene Delacroix, 1834
  40. 40. The Turkish Bath Jean AugusteIngres, 1852-1863
  41. 41. The BullfightFrancisco Goya
  42. 42. Charge of the Mamelukes, May 2nd, 1808 Francisco Goya, 1814
  43. 43. The Royal Pavillion at Brighton Designed by John Nash, 1815-1823
  44. 44. Characteristics of romanticism Nature: Revival of Things Past • Gothic & Romanesque revival. • ―Neo-Gothic‖ architectural style. • Medieval ruins were a favorite theme for art and poetry. • Romanticism fed the development of the Gothic novel
  45. 45. Characteristics of romanticism Nature: The Gothic Novel • The Gothic novel had wild, haunted landscapes • It had supernatural events in the plot • It was often mysterious • The Gothic concept had roots in France, Germany, and England • Edgar Allan Poe was America’s greatest Romantic Gothic writer
  46. 46. Salisbury Cathedral from the Bishop’s Ground John Constable, 1825
  47. 47. Salisbury Cathedral from the Meadows John Constable, 1831
  48. 48. Hadleigh CastleJohn Constable, 1829
  49. 49. Eldena RuinGaspar David Friedrich, 1825
  50. 50. Winter Landscape with Church Gaspar David Friedrich, 1811
  51. 51. British Houses of Parliament 1840 - 1865
  52. 52. Characteristics of romanticism Gothic Mysticism in Art & Literature: The Exotic, Occult & Macabre • In keeping with gothic themes, Romanticism was obsessed with the supernatural • Ghosts, fairies, witches, demons. • The shadows of the mind—dreams & madness. • The romantics rejected materialism in pursuit of spiritual self-awareness. • They yearned for the unknown and the unknowable.
  53. 53. Cloister Cemetary in the SnowCaspar David Friedrich, 1817 - 1819
  54. 54. Abbey in an Oak ForestCaspar David Friedrich, 1810
  55. 55. Mad Woman with a Mania of EnvyTheodore Gericault, 1823
  56. 56. PityWilliam Blake, 1795
  57. 57. The Great Red Dragon and the Woman Clothes with the Sun William Blake, 1808 - 1810
  58. 58. StonehengeJohn Constable, 1836
  59. 59. Manfred and the Witch of the Alps John Martin - 1837
  60. 60. Witches SabbathFrancisco Goya, 1798
  61. 61. Man and Woman Contemplating the Moon Friedrich David Caspar, 1824
  62. 62. The Cemetery EntranceFreidrich David Caspar, 1825
  63. 63. Witches in the Air Francisco de Goya 1798
  64. 64. ColossesFrancisco de Goya or his apprentice Asensio Juliá 1808 - 1812
  65. 65. Saturn Devours his son Francisco Goya, 1819 - 1823
  66. 66. Romantic Mysticism The Return to theGreat Christian Mysteries
  67. 67. God as the Architect William Blake, 1794
  68. 68. Elohim Creating Abraham William Blake, 1805
  69. 69. The Body of Abel Found by Adam & Eve William Blake, 1825
  70. 70. The Seventh Plague of Egypt John Martin, 1823
  71. 71. The CatherdralGaspar David Friedrich 1818
  72. 72. The Age of the Great Novel Gothic Novel: • Jane Eyre - Charlotte Bronte (1847) • Wuthering Heights - Emily Bronte (1847) Historical Novel: • Ivanhoe - Sir Walter Scott (1819) • Les Miserables - Victor Hugo (1862) • The Three Musketeers – Alexander Dumas(1844)
  73. 73. The Age of the Great Novel Science Fiction Novel: • Frankenstein - Mary Shelley (1817) • Dracula – Bramm Stoker (1897) Novel of Purpose: • Hugh Trevar - Thomas Holcroft (1794) Folklore • Grimm’s Fairy Tales - Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm (1814)
  74. 74. The Age of the Great Novel The American Novel • Most American Romantic writers imitated the European writing style • American Romantic novelists broke away from the European tradition and discovered uniquely American topics and settings • American novelists explored the vast unknown lands – something the Europeans could not do
  75. 75. The Romantic Poets The Great English Romantic Poets • Percy Byssche Shelley • Lord Byron (George Gordon) • Samuel Taylor Coleridge • William Wordsworth • John Keats • William Blake
  76. 76. George Gordon’s (Lord Byron) Poem The Prisoner of Chillon
  77. 77. WilliamWordsworth’s Poem,Tintern Abbey
  78. 78. Samuel Taylor Coleridge’s Poem,The Rime of theAncient Mariner
  79. 79. The Romantic Poets The American Romantic Poets • Most Romantic poets worked within conventional European literary structures • They proved that American poetry could reflect American subject matter, yet still hold to conventional poetic style • Most American Romantic poets wrote about the past
  80. 80. The Romantic Poets The American Romantic Poets • The Fireside Poets, a Boston group of Longfellow, Whittier, Holmes, and Lowell, were widely read and loved in America • They were the television of the American Romantic period and families gathered around the fireside to be entertained by their poetry • Their subject matter was comfortable and instructional
  81. 81. Consequences of Romanticism• Violent outcomes of Romantic ideals • American Revolution (1775 – 1783) • French Revolution--storming of the Bastille in 1789 • The French Revolution derived from and generated Romantic ideas. • Both revolutions developed from strong convictions about the innate rights of individuals.
  82. 82. Consequences of Romanticism• Movement from rural to urban settings • There was a move to city for industry and a corresponding romanticizing of the country. • Cities were often filled with congestion, poverty, and misery. • Educated men and women expressed a nostalgia for rural landscapes.
  83. 83. Consequences of Romanticism Political Implications • Romanticism could reinforce the greatest themes of political liberalism or political conservatism • Contributed to growing nationalist movements • The concepts of the ―Volk‖ and the ―Volkgeist‖ • The uniqueness of cultures was emphasized
  84. 84. Bibliography  CGFA: A Virtual Art Museum.  ―Romanticism‖ on Archive.  Susan M. Pojer’s presentation: ―Romanticism: The Artisitic Expression of Liberalism‖ for Horace Greeley HS, NY 