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Extended Essay Visual Arts 2012
 

Extended Essay Visual Arts 2012

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    Extended Essay Visual Arts 2012 Extended Essay Visual Arts 2012 Document Transcript

    • VISUAL ARTS Topic of Study Does Interpretation and perception of art bring about adifferentiation in the works of Jackson Pollock and WassilyKandinsky? (ii) AbstractArt is an expression of thoughts and ideas to communicate one self. It maybe achildlike way or an amateur experimenting with forms of art or an artist tryingwith new techniques to explore. Even during the Cave Art period the simplest wayof interpretation was the line drawings which conveyed a great meaning towardsthe creation of history of art. Various forms of expression can be perceived andinterpreted by thousands of people .Some may use mediums to convey theiremotions and communicate.
    • The techniques and methods of art that were common between me, as anamateur, and the artist Jackson Pollock is what amused me. I involuntarily felt likeresearching more on him and his styles. I also found Kandinsky’s work, having alot of movement and force just like Pollock’s work of art but both were stilldifferent in application of lines and colour.There I see an art of abstraction portraying perception and interpretation withmediums and techniques. Both being Modern Artist I chose to analyze thepaintings of these two artists and come up with a topic that prevails myperception towards it.Thus the question: ‘Does Interpretation and perception of art bringabout a differentiation in the works of Jackson Pollock and WassilyKandinsky?’ Since the two artists have their unique differences of the art formsthey are known for, I thought of interpreting their differences through myperception. The differences include selecting their line, style, application ofcolour. Though they both being forceful painters, Kandinsky worked as anabstractionist and Pollock worked as an Abstract expressionist. Word Count: 263 (iii) Table of Contents
    • Contents Pg. No.1 Introduction 12 Interpretation and Perception 23 Analysis- Comparison 54 Conclusion 195 Bibliography 206 Book Bibliography 217 Glossary 23 -1- INTRODUTION:Art is one’s own individual creativity. It is also a medium of exchanging culturalideas and awareness as it plays the role of a messenger. It can be in any form andis present all around us. Just like in our normal life different people thinkdifferently about a situation or a subject, art too can have varied perceptions.Each one interprets art through their, own excellence of understanding. Each
    • one’s visual ideas about a work could also differ pertaining to the aura that thepainting sets in. Idealizing art in your own personal way is what perception of artis all about. Perception of art by a particular individual may also show his mindset.It’s like art judging the person. Each painting may not have the same appeal toevery individual. Some work, which may have non-violence and signs ofdestruction may be liked by some and disliked by some. The perception of art byan observer can be completely different than the actual ideas of the artist. Everybody’s ideas, views, thought processes and stream of consciousness areusually different. Perception can also be determined by the point of view from,which the painting is looked at. Looking at ones aspect of the painting, can givethe observer some different meaning of the same thing, if seen from some otherangle. Some perceive renaissance art, landscape and portraits to be a perfect artdue to the structured format and claim that abstract is not an art. Other thingslike mood also help in changing one’s perception to an extent.Without having a clear definition for art, art is how you perceive it to be accordingto your views. One can only talk about it if they look at it. Math and sciencemostly have a procedure to follow and therefore fixed, whereas art has freedomof expression and hence freedom of expression. Emotions play an important rolein art. Art is, I think, an externalized form of playing with perception: moving fromthe center of our normal perceptual world to its edges and purposely steppingbeyond. It’s one of the best ways I know to learn to experience the worlddifferently, in a way that permanently enlarges the world, which you can perceive. -2-Interpretation and Perception
    • Figure 1 1 An imagery Abstract art by children. Interpretation and perception have a thin line between them. Interpretationinvolves analysis and a detailed study. People use their perception to interpretworks differently. Everyone has their own justifications for their owninterpretations. People may conclude a 180 degrees far apart meaning of a workthan that of the artist who made it. Colors, texture, style, subject, brush strokes,rhythm are few things, which help in interpreting an artwork. Different colors areperceived differently. Brush strokes also portray the artist’s state of mind or alsowhat kind of mindset he wants to portray. Every element of art has some kind ofsymbolism involved. A person’s style of thinking, his perception, affects hisinterpretation. It also depends on the point of view of the person. Interpretationalso matters age-wise and experience wise. A child’s artwork is also interpreteddifferently. If just given a glimpse it may just look like some strokes but probablythey have a deep meaning beneath them too. Random strokes by great artists areconsidered as expensive artworks whereas a child’s artwork is just a random workfor most.-3-Action painter: PollockDuring the time of 1940’s, Pollockused the technique of ‘ pouringpaint ’ on his canvas. The termAction Painting originated fromthe same. His paint would flow onthe canvas. American PainterPollock is best known for his1 Abstract by Children
    • “splashed” Abstract Expressionism. His style influenced the American AbstractExpressionism.The Surrealists and Picasso influenced Pollock. Figure 2 2 “Action Painting” - Jackson Pollock.Pollock’s paintings usually have a webbed effect where there are many rhythmiclines put all together creating movement. He is considered an abstract paintingbecause there is nothing realistic in his paintings. It is left for the viewers to -4-interpret their own meaning. They may consider it just as a work with messy linesall over the canvas and confusion or perhaps find a concept or meaning behind it.They contain no shape or texture. It is the colors, which play a role indifferentiating his works. Some of his works even involve his footprints as hefollowed the idea of immersing oneself in a painting. Pollock was known orstepping into the painting rather than standing away from his canvas, which mostartists did. He would immerse himself in his piece of artwork. This style of“stepping into his canvas” made him feel as if he is actually a part of the painting.His aim was to express his thoughts and feelings through his works rather thanmaking it according to other people’s perception. Placing the canvas on the floor,he would walk over it and begin his splashes. Usually the artists fit their paintingsaccording to the canvas but he would let his paintings go out of the canvas. Thismay show his flow of thoughts, which are limitless and he avoids bounding them.He numbered his works. Numbers are neutral and don’t give much meaning.Therefore the people look at the painting how they should, just like a ‘purepainting’.2 Pollock Painting
    • Abstractionist:KandinskyKandinsky was an influential painter and was the founder of Figure 33 “Composition VII”Abstract Expressionism. Kandinsky began the category of paintings, which hecalled improvisations. His famous ten compositions involve sharp tones of colors. -5-Kandinsky’s ideas about his matter are portrayed through colors. He has acombination of geometric shapes and abstract in his works. Composition VIIwas the most complex piece he ever painted. Use of sharp tones creates rigidity.Shapes, lines and colors together make Kandinsky’s works. I have always beeninterested in symbols ascondensed elements of meaning,but I hadn’t really considered theelements of the shapes asevocative. That is, I knew humanbeings invested meaning inshapes and colors. He usedshapes in such a way that no onehas really used before.Comparison throughmy Perception:Comparison is carried out by analyzing the data according to time period, theme,style, colours.3 Composition VII by Kandinsky
    • Figure 4 4 COLOURS IN KANDINSKY Figure 5 5 COLOURS IN POLLOCK -6-“ It doesnt make much difference how the paint is put on as long assomething has been said. Technique is just a means of arriving at astatement.” Jackson Pollock"Colors are the keyboard, the eyes are the harmonies, and the soul isthe piano with many strings.” KandinskyThe Lines:In the history of modern art, Pollock’s work shows a great development in themost radical abstract styles by redefining the concept of drawing and painting andsearching for new means to create a space in the composition. Kandinsky’spainting shows influence of music in his works. We can observe and connect thisthrough the flow of lines and shapes with colours.Both these artists show movement and force in lines showing depth in density by4 Kandinsky’s work5 Pollock’s work
    • either making it thick and painting it complete as in Kandinsky lines are seen filledwith the spaces. In Kandinsky’s paintings, lines are straight and filled in contrast toPollock’s rhythmic interlocked lines. But somewhere in Pollock’s work the linesgather at various places on the canvas with a small amount of Black colourpatches. Figure 6 6 Shape and form of Pollock Figure 7 7 Shape and form of Kandinsky -7-The Shapes:Kandinsky a pioneer who attempted to draw shapes to convey emotions andfeelings directly on canvas rather than making it look real. Kandinsky showedshapes probably signifying the main elements of his ideas or thoughts. We noticehim use a lot of basic geometrical shapes. He painted objects using patches ofcolours instead of painting perfect details in the artwork.On the other hand, Pollock’s works do not involve a single shape or form but itseems to be developed while splashing the colour. His strokes were forced, rapidand impulsive. He used knives to apply the paint.Analyzing both the artists work’s I have gone through the “thought web” withtoo many questions in my mind!Then how do we interpret art? What does the form represent? Is there any symmetry evident in the artwork? How can a colour show emotion?Each human being has various interpretation and perception to art.Art being inevitable, perceptions will never end. It will differ from time to time,person to person, era to era and gene to gene. One single painting may have6 Pollock’s work7 Kandinsky’s work
    • millions of perceptions but not all of them are accounted valid.The Technique: Figure 8 WassilyKandinsky: Conducting Colour.Both Pollock and Kandinsky used naturalgrounds to start the works. Kandinsky’s styleincludes mixing sand with paint which, gave a granular texture whereas Pollockcreated textures of his footprints by stepping into his work. -8- Pollock wanted to create his own style whereas Kandinsky got influences by theosophy. Pollock was popular as an action painter and Kandinsky was famous for improvisation. Pollock’s important feature was the ‘all over ‘shapeless painting. On the other hand Kandinsky has his elements and proper geometric shapes. Kandinsky’s Abstract art shows no connection to the external world. The forms and shapes actually contained no reference to any object.
    • Figure 09 Jackson Pollock, 1912 –1956 Number71951 Figure 9 The technique shown by Ed Harris Jackson Pollock from the movie "Pollack’’ -9- Comparison in Totality of Paintings: Figure 11 11 “Landscape withSteer” Figure 12 “Composition 12X”11 Pollock’s Landscape with Steer
    • ‘Landscape with Steer’ is a painting done by Pollock. Early work of this paintingwas painted between 1936 and 1937, which illustrates the innovations with whichPollock experimented during that time. -10-Technique: Pollock has used the Lithograph and airbrushing technique adding anabstract wash to the more realistic landscape.Colour: Pollock has used the basic of three primary colors – blue, red and yellowgreen, which are visible merging with the background. The sharpness of colourseems to be dividing the painting into halves. There are no definite shapes usedbut just forms of colours as if camouflaged with the background. As the name ofthe painting suggests ‘steer’, the colours are applied in that direction. The darkshades are used to give the effect to show something related to sky or night -time. The red may similarly show dawn. It appears as if each color shows eachtime of day.Where as in “ Composition X” Kandinsky has used all shades of colors: unlike thelimited use of colors in ‘Landscape with Steer’ where merging the colors showsthe transition from one color to another. The yellow I feel shows the ‘morningtime’. Coming downward it ends with dark shades of green and use of black isvital as its present all around the picture. Black has a huge emphasis on this workas it creates the impression of darkness and fear. The use of red color may givethe impression of anger. The colors used at the bottom show a lot of struggle. Themerging gives the blur effect, which may show unclearness.12 Kandinsky’s Composition X
    • Rhythm: Amidst all this turbulent and emotions of anger and fear, the movementmaintains a rhythm. The main role of conveying the thoughts is done by thecolors. The movement around the picture of the colors and the strokes is smooth.The tone of the painting is at least calmer at the top half and becomes sharpdownwards. Therefore it is not much balanced.Colours and Textures: The colors are dominant and the texture looks veryrough. The use of curved lines adds to the smoothness, whereas the straight and -11-sharp lines below make it look hard. The style of textures and colors give thepainting the ‘real’ feel. The colors are a part of the positive space and the black isused as a background only to create contrast and balance. Putting black in thebackground puts it in a negative space, perhaps to dominate the color because hemay want the brightness to dominate the black. The colors appear sharp againstthe background. Only a part of the landscape has been shown but that in itselflooks very real and conveys the right tone and mood to the viewers. Kandinsky’spainting gives an overall feeling of something bright, lively and vibrant due to itscolours. It also gives the feeling that all wishes will sail or fly smoothly. Theelements appear to be flying high and give the feeling of some view of an outerspace or universal objects. The elements have their own proper, perfect shapewith the same amount of colours. This art without any smudging is more like achild art done neatly. The sharpness avoids continuity, which makes each elementstand out on its ownComposition: Kandinsky always related his compositions to musicalcompositions. I could see the carefully balanced forms and shapes all theelements well placed to evoke the aesthetic and emotional response from theviewer. In “Composition X” Kandinsky expressed his inner self with a series ofCompositions at various stages. This may be his culmination of efforts towards
    • “pure painting”. This was his final work in the series. In this work of art you mayfeel varied colors are used in compare to Pollock’s composition. Due to so manycolors the painting looks bright and colors are bold and sharp. There is no mergingof colors here. He has coloured every form with pure single colour tone withoutmixing .This helps in maintaining the value the colour. No color overshadows theother. The elements of art like line is are curved and straight. It involves most ofthe principles of design. It has balance and harmony. The positive space is utilizedproperly. Being the tenth and the last work of his compositions, it gives a properending to his works as it has a very ‘happy’ and ‘cheerful’ look. -12-An investigation of paintings: Figu re 13 13 “T riad” 1948Figure 14 14“Black Triangle”13 Triad by Pollock14 Black Triangle by Kandinsky
    • “Triad” made in 1948, by Pollock is a monochromatic painting. It has use of onlyblack and white. This selection can show contrasting ideas or contrasting ideasresulting in unity. Black is the background and white is used to depict figures. Thiscreates a contrast between the figures and the background. The background isplain and dark whereas the white is made up of random lines.The white lines make up the skeleton, which is the structure of the human body.Although there is only black and white used, the painting looks vibrant as the typeof paints use are fresh and bright. The background doesn’t show much but onlyplainness and darkness. The ‘random’ white lines show rhythm and movement. -13-Figures maintain a balance in the picture due to their placement. Even the blackand white creates a balance. The two figures are not geometric and have noproper shape, which again reminds us that this isPollock’s forms appear to be holding something perhaps some kind of instrument.The right figure has a guitar shaped lines next to it. The knob board and the bodycan be figured out easily. The figure on the left also holds some sort ofinstrument. There are few splashes of paint near the figures perhaps showingPollock’s splash trademark. Just like most of the other works of Pollock, this onetoo is not clear in its concept. “Black Triangle” made in 1925 consists of limited colours. It hasuse of dull colors with dark tones. The maximum colors are concentrated only onthe figure, to focus on it, which is the positive space and the background hasshades of green. The negative space has not been given many colors. Differentshapes combine together to form one whole figure. The figure in the painting is ahuman figure in armor. This portrays that maybe that artist is trying to showaggression or something related to war. It may also portray how a knight is beforeor after a war. The painting has not much of background and is focused on thearmor. The armor has been made up of shapes or rather the shapes are placed inorder to make armor. The triangles and a semi circle are effectively used to makethe knight’s legs and face respectively. The corners and the side of the
    • background have blackness shaded, which is also merging with the gray orgreenish part of the background. The use of purple helps in creating the armor tobecome the focal point of this painting. The semi circle in red shows a mix of blackin it. It also catches attention due to the mix of the colors and also the use of redColour, which is not present anywhere in the picture as the painting has use ofcool and dark colors and red is suddenly put in the middle. It is just like“composition X” where the use of the green ball with colors merging is differentfrom the rest of the painting. -14-This creates continuity and shows the similarities between the two works by thesame artists. There is no rhythm in the picture because the single figure has nomovement. The two works “Triad” and “Black Triangle” are similar as they bothuse figures but show them in different techniques.While I was researching, I was curiousto understand if others felt the sameso I interviewed different age levelsand identities. I took up few paintingsto analyze according to others pointof view.Figure 15 15 “Number 8”, 1949 Oil, enamel, andaluminum paint on canvas, Neuberger Museum,State University of New York.15 Number 8 by Pollock
    • -15-Interviewing the Audience:For analyzing the above artwork and to know more about perception, I decided toquestion a group of children around the age of 5- 8 yrs.(Children)According to the children, the painting gave a look of a dense forest tothem with green playing the role of trees and the lines as branches, I feel this maybe due to the brown color. It looked to them like some ‘jungle-party’ happening.They couldn’t trace a particular meaning out of it. It overall looked like a spider’sweb to one of them. The other interpreted it as blood falling from the ‘trees’,maybe due to the use of red color towards the bottom of the painting. Theyalmost ended up proving that the painting is against deforestation, which no adultcan even think of looking at this work. One of those child expressed that thepainting looked liked as if it was sowing cracks and something like a broken glass.This was children’s interpretation about this work of Pollock. Kids seem to have adifferent world of their own and interpret different from adults.I interviewed my teachers and our librarian to interpret this painting, which arenowhere connected to art and painting.What they would perceive and interpret in the work of art done by JacksonPollock titled “Number 8”.
    • (Librarian) Our librarian could see a fish jumping out of the water in a painting,maybe a shark. Due to the shark it gave him an overall feel of violence and alsothe colour red played the role of signifying blood and danger. He could relate thiswork with a dream.The forest look, which the kids interpreted, gave the librarian the look of autumnand the painting’s concept seemed very environmentally focused. -16-(Teacher)A homeroom teacher interpreted as creepers and leaves around. Alsocould see an electric bulb in the work, which is a unique observation and differentfrom others. According to her, the painting also gives the feel as if everything iscoming out bursting or like blast from a focal point and everything scatteredaround all over the place. (Counselor)Next was a counselor, Ms. Rene could relatethe piece with some kind of war happening in the woods. She relates the splasheswith snow. She could also see the image of an arrow and the red paint as blood,which led to her thoughts concluding the painting as an aggressive one.According to me Pollock’s “Number 8” in one glimpse gives me a feeling ofconfusion and dull effect due to rhythmic lines creating movement in randomdirections and splash of colours. The random lines show no steady thoughts andthat the artist probably moved his thoughts to any direction with the help of thelines. No shape and structure leaves the viewers unclear. Specific colors used butthat too are splashed anywhere. The black is very much visible and attracts the eyes the most, which makes the work look little bright. The colors give a dull effect due to the use of warm colors like red and yellow.
    • Amongst this confusion also, we can interpret objects in this. The black line canplay the role of wings of a butterfly. English alphabets can also be foundconnecting the colors like ‘D’ (the black line) and ‘H’. At the bottom the yellowsplash gives the look of a dancing girl in her own world and a deer next to it.Towards the bottom right, we can see a person sitting, resting his back at the rightside of the work and looking at us. He selects simpler forms of nature andtransferred into our work. Figure 1616 “Composition VII” -17-Interpretation of the composition of Kandinsky’s work according to me:I feel Kandinsky’s “Composition VII” has more shapes along with complementarycolours. We can see different types of shapes like a triad, waves, letters, forms,net etc. The use of colors is something I liked here. I feel there is an appropriateuse of colors with the shapes. The colours are merges with each other, whichmakes it appear blur. The statement ‘Sharpness of Blur’ fits here perfectly. Thered and blue circle at the top seems sharper than merged. Blurred splash ofEnglish alphabets are also visible in this like ‘P’ and ‘L’. Kandinsky has shown senseof expression with the help of shapes and colors sharpness of blur. The bluehorizontal line looks like a part of the Eiffel tower. A yellow parrot can also beseen on the right. The nets seem to be some kind of railway track. The left bottommost side has a paw made with the help of the lines. The painting gives a happyand a cheerful look. The focal point here looks like the black circle kind of a shapein the centre and the red and blue clear circle on top. I happen to show the same group of children and teachers the above painting.(Children)The children came up with the idea that many insects fighting all16 Composition VII by Kandinsky
    • around. Children could spot bugs and insect like figures. A heart, boat and a guitarwere spotted too. It gave them the feeling of everything smashed together. Thispainting was introduced to my librarian for him it felt like a festive and acelebration mood. It seemed to him like the coronation of a king, which is theblack focal point and the all other his ministers around him, which are the othershapes around it forming a circle.(Teacher)The Primary teacher’s first word was “Complicated”. That was her firstfeeling when she looked at the painting. The painting is ‘bright and vibrant’. Thefocal point seemed to her like a man weaving a thread and all the random shapescoming out of his weaving. The other focal point, the circle stands out accordingto her. -18-(Counselor)To the Counselor it gave her a fun and party mood. The painting lookslike very impulsive done and with spontaneity. A paintbrush, peacock, clouds andships were visible to her in the work.
    • -19-Conclusion:Different people of different age groups, different profession and none related toart had different views regarding a single work. Their perceptions show how thereis differences in the works of both the artists. My perception and interpretationcreate difference in the works. My thinking, use of shapes, lines, colors andconcepts make them different from one another. Different people’s thinking alsocreates differences.
    • -20- Bibliography1) (htt) http://www.theartstory.org/artist-pollock-jackson.htm.2)(htt1)http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_Wassily_Kandinskys_art_style#ixzz1euM2uYBT3) "What Is Wassily Kandinskys Art Style." The Q&A Wiki. Web. 09 Jan.2012.<http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_Wassily_Kandinskys_art_style>.4) (htt2)http://poulwebb.blogspot.com/2011/02/jackson-pollock.html"Jackson Pollock." POUL WEBB. Web. 09 Jan. 2012.<http://poulwebb.blogspot.com/2011/02/jackson-pollock.html>.5) (htt3)http://entertainment.howstuffworks.com/arts/artwork/jackson-pollock3.htm"HowStuffWorks "How Jackson Pollock Worked"" HowStuffWorks"Entertainment" Web. 09 Jan. 2012.
    • <http://entertainment.howstuffworks.com/arts/artwork/jackson-pollock3.htm>.6) (htt4) http://www.theartstory.org/artist-pollock-jackson.htm.7) (htt5)http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_Wassily_Kandinskys_art_styl e#ixzz1euM2uYBT8) "What Is Wassily Kandinskys Art Style?" The Q&A Wiki. Web. 09 Jan. 2012. <http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_Wassily_Kandinskys_art_style>.9) (htt6)http://poulwebb.blogspot.com/2011/02/jackson-pollock.html10)"Jackson Pollock." POUL WEBB. Web. 09 Jan. 2012. <http://poulwebb.blogspot.com/2011/02/jackson-pollock.html>. -21- (htt7)http://painting.about.com/od/colourtheory/a/Pollock_paint.htm.11) (htt8)http://www.jackson-pollock.com/action-painting.htm.12) (htt9)http://EzineArticles.com/174576313) (htt10)http://jinawallwork.blogspot.com/2010/05/composition-7-by- wassily kandinsky.html - kand pic compositon 715) (htt11)http://www.linesandcolors.com/2006/09/21/jacksonpollockorg"Lines and Colors :: A Blog about Drawing, Painting, Illustration, Comics,Concept Art and Other Visual Arts » JacksonPollock.org." Lines and Colors ::A Blog about Drawing, Painting, Illustration, Comics, Concept Art and OtherVisual Arts. Web. 09 Jan. 2012.<http://www.linesandcolors.com/2006/09/21/jacksonpollockorg>.16) http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/j/jackson_pollock.html
    • "Jackson Pollock Quotes - BrainyQuote." Famous Quotes at BrainyQuote.Web. 22 Jan. 2012.<http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/j/jackson_pollock.html>.17) http://www.squidoo.com/my-abstract-paintings"My Abstract Paintings." Squidoo : Welcome to Squidoo. Web. 22 Jan. 2012.<http://www.squidoo.com/my-abstract-paintings>.18) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Action_painting"Action Painting." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 22 Jan. 2012.<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Action_painting>.19) "WebMuseum: Pollock, Jackson." Ibiblio - The Publics Library andDigital Archive. Web. 22 Jan. 2012.<http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/pollock/>.20) http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/j/jackson_pollock.html"Jackson Pollock Quotes - BrainyQuote." Famous Quotes at BrainyQuote.Web. 24 Jan. 2012.<http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/j/jackson_pollock.html>.21) http://www.squidoo.com/my-abstract-paintings"My Abstract Paintings." Squidoo : Welcome to Squidoo. Web. 24 Jan. 2012.<http://www.squidoo.com/my-abstract-paintings>.22) http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/pollock/"WebMuseum: Pollock, Jackson." Ibiblio - The Publics Library and DigitalArchive. Web. 24 Jan. 2012.<http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/pollock/>.
    • -22- Bibliography of BooksThe books I have referred to are -1) “Kandinsky’’ is written by Ulrike becks-MolornyPublished by – TASCHEN GmbH
    • Hohenzollernring 53, D – 50672 Koln. Published in the year 2007. 2) “Jackson Pollock” is written by Landau Published by Thames and Hudson 181A High Holborn, London WC1V 7QX Published in the year 1989. -23- GlossaryAction painting – A style of painting or an artwork in which paint is splashed onthe canvas, rather than being carefully applied.
    • Improvisation- It is making and creating art in a moment and with one’simmediate environment and inner most feelings.Works of Pollock -1) Landscape with Steer2) Number 83) TriadWorks of Kandinsky -1) Composition X2) Composition VII3) Black Triangle