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  • 1. Class 1 How to start programming in Java?This part of the study material is not intended to address still concepts, but rather, you canconfigure any computer window xp or Windows 7 32 or 64 bit and get it ready to startprogramming.First of all: Installing "jdk-7u7-nb-7_2-windows-i586-ml" JDK "Java Development Kit", will notonlycompile but run applications, available for a variety of operating systems: 1: Use the Shell to run java codeThis point is important for you to read and performers very well using the following commands:• javac.exe, compiler generated files *. Apartir class source code (*. Java). The *. Java is text, youcan create and edit in a text editor, using the syntax of Java.• Java.exe, systems interpreter for PC / Windows, executes bytecode files (files compiled classextension). The *. Class have executable code, bytecode, platform independent, to be executedon a "hypothetical or virtual machine" called Java Virtual Machine (JVM). Is this JVM neutralwho plays this code making a particular code on the CPU used. This avoids having to make adifferent program for each CPU or plataforma.1Shell enters the system and see what happens when Digitas commands: java or javac.You will realize that the javac command is not enabled, therefore the following steps and thentry to use the command in question, the difference observed.Remember watching the second image of this manual and look in the directory where it islocatedjavac command.
  • 2. To educate the system accepts this command indicating that we should add "environmentvariables" as indicated in the graph.Creating our first program in java Install then an editor to start coding (in this case Notepad + +) After that, create the following program and save it in the directory "c: ProgramasJava"Note that the file name must be named identical to the class, using case sensitive. Finally run the program, first compile the program with javac and then running the javaprogram.METHOD 2: Using the Eclipse IDE ENTERNO(Available at - Section "downloads" download the Eclipse Classic 4.2)This method is much faster than before, it is a method of abstraction for programming while weshould not install the JDK, and load the necessary libraries to program without tread very rodeo.STEP 1: Download and unzip the file indicatedSTEP 2: After that opening the Eclipse IDE, the program requests a folder where you will save theprojects that we believe in java, proceed as indicated in the graph (you must create the folderpreviously).STEP 3: Follow the following sequence of actions to create a project in java.Look what happens next.
  • 3. Now insert a class as followsWith the IDE, the only line of code you write play, which was noted belowRun the program with the button, watch out.Further notes what happened in "ProgramasJava2" you created.REFERENCES 2Step by step creation of the first program in Java using Eclipse1. Run the sequence of actions detailed in the chart.2. Run after the sequence of actions detailed in the chart.3. Insert a class called "PruebaAlbum" as follows.4. Now insert a class called "Album", in the same way as the previous step.
  • 4. 5. The result after the above steps is a structure as follows.6. Declare the following attributes within the class "Album"7. Then set the SET and GET methods (methods are inserting, modifying and extracting thevalues that variables may have happened before, "automatically generated"), this operation iscalled to create getters and setters.8. Notice how you generated the following code block without you had to write something.9. Define the following constructor.The constructor is a method that must have the same name as the class and is used to initializethe attributes of an object, usually receives values havepast, a quick way is to develop a method using getters and settersthe previous step.10. Now we instantiate an object of class "Album" in class "PruebaAlbum", this instance orreference to create should be made in the main.See how you created two instances, and the way in which you can send arguments.11. In the previous step we created two instances, how can we show these values on screen?We must develop a new method in the "Album", will be called"ImprimirAlbum"12. Then call the method created from the two instances declared in step 10.
  • 5. 13. And finally see the execution, after clicking on the button should appear something asfollows: Class 3INTRODUCTION TO JAVA CONCEPTSJava and all Java-based trademarks are trademarks of Sun Microsystems.1What is Java JDK?JDK stands de java Developers Kit is, toolset to develop (applications) in countless classes Java.Existen accompanying the JDK that is installed in order to get started programming in JAVA.What makes it different from the other JAVA programming languages?What distinguishes Java from other programming languages is its conception of departure, inwhich language is to create a road that can be used to program in all types of operating systemsand processors.One of the most important features is that the programs "executable", created by the Javacompiler, are independent of the architecture. Run interchangeably in a variety ofmicroprocessors and computers with different operating systems.Is the language is compiled or interpreted?Java is compiled when the source code is translated into an object called machine code (binary,bytecode) and is interpreted because the machine code can be run on any platform whichshould be an interpreter executing it in real time.
  • 6. To run it, you need an interpreter, the JVM (JavaVirtual Machine) Java virtual machine. Thus, itis possible to compile the program on a UNIX workstation and run it on another Windows usingthe Java virtual machine for Windows.This JVM is responsible for reading the bytecodes and translate them into executableinstructions directly on a particular microprocessor.The Java Virtual Machine (JVM).The Java virtual machine is the revolutionary idea of language. It is the entity that providesplatform independence for Java programs compiled into byte-code.Bibliography InputStream class- 4The programmer must establish the association between the machine model "solution space"that is where to deploy the solution, such as a computer, and the problem is what you reallywant to solve "problem space" that is where the problem exists, the business.What is an abstraction? Alan kayresumion the five basic characteristics of Smalltalk for an object, the first object-oriented language that was successful and one of the languages that is based on JAVA. Thesecharacteristics represent a pure approach to object-oriented programming.1. Everything is an object. Think of an object as a variable stores data, allows you "raiserequests" asking him to perform operations on itself. In theory, you can take any conceptualcomponent of the problem that is being addressed.2. A program is a bunch of objects that tell each other what to do rsending messages. To make a solicitude to an object, you must send a message to that object.
  • 7. More specifically, you can think of a message is a request to call a method that belongs to aparticular object.3. Each object has its own memory made up of other objects. Stated anotherway, you can create a new class of Obeto defining a package containing existing objects.Therefore, it may increase the complexity of a program hiding behind the simplicity of theobjects.4. Every object has an associated type. As the saying goes, every object is an instance of a casewhere "class" synonymous with "type." The most important distinguishing characteristic of aclass is "the set of messages that can be sent."5. All objects of a particular type can receive the same messages. As discussed below, thisstatement is really important. Since an object of type "circle" is also an object of type "shape," acircle can be guaranteed to accept shape messages. This means that you can write code tocommunicate with objects of type form and automatically control anything that fits thedescription of a form. This capability is one of impersonation most important concepts of OOP.Booch offers an even more succinct description of object:- An object has state, behavior and identity.This means that an object can have internal data (which provides state), methods (to provide abehavior) and each object can be uniquely distinguished from other objects, ie, each object hasa unique memory address .The object-oriented approachReference is made to the elements in the problem space called "objects" to theirrepresentations in the solution space. The idea is that the program can adapt by itself to thelingo of the problem by adding new types of objects so that when you read the code describingthe solution, you are reading words that also express the problem. Thus OOP allows you todescribe the problem in terms of the problem rather than in terms of the computer.Why use classes?Since a class describes a set of objects having characteristics (data elements) and behavior(functionality) identical actually a class is a type of data because, for example, a floating pointnumber also has a set of characteristics and performance . The difference is that theprogrammer defines a class to fit a problem rather than force the use of an existing data typethat was designed to represent a storage unit in a machine. You can extend the programminglanguage by adding new data types specific to suit your needs. The programming systemsupports the new classes and provides all combinations of type providing defined types.Creating abstract data types (classes) is a fundamental concept in object-oriented programming.
  • 8. What is an object?Once a class has been defined, you can create as many objects of that class as desired and theseobjects can be handled as if the elements of the problem that is being addressed.But how do you make a object do useful work for the programmer? There must be a way tomake an application in order to do something, such as complete a transaction, draw somethingon screen or a switch.What is an interfaceAlso, each object can satisfy only certain requests. Requests can be made to an object aredefined by its interface and is the type that determines the interface. An example with therepresentation of a light bulb:The interface determines the applications that can be done to a certain object, so there must bea code somewhere to satisfy that request. This, along with the hidden data, define what it callsthe implementation. From the standpoint of procedural programming, this is not complicated.One type has a method associated with each possible request, and when a specific request ismade to a objesto, this method is called. This process is summarized by saying that thedeveloper "send a message" (make a request) to an object and the object knows what to dowith this message (it executes the code).In this example, the name of the type / class is Light, the name of this particular object is lz Lightand applications that can be done to an object light is on, off, or dim glow. It has created a lightobject defining a "reference" (lz) for that object and calling new to request a new object of thattype. To send a message to the object, defined the object name and is related to the applicationof the message by a point. From the point of view of the user of a predefined class, that is theultimate programming objects.The diagram above follows the format of UML (UnifiedModelingLanguage, Unified ModelingLanguage). Each class is represented by a box by typing the name of the guy at the top, the datamembers in the intermediate zone and methods (functions of said object receiving any messagesent to the developer that object) in the bottom . Often in these diagrams only show the nameof the class and public method, not including the buffer zone, as in this case. If you are onlyinterested in the class name, it is not necessary to include the bottom.Class 5
  • 9. Primitive data types IN JAVAThere are a bunch of guys that are used very often in programming and requires specialtreatment. Types can be considered as "primitive", the reason for this special treatment is thatto create a new object, a simple variable small, not efficient. To these primitive types, Java usesthe technique used in C and C + +, that is, instead of creating the new variable creates a variable"automatic" is not a reference.Java determines the size of each primitive type. These sizes do not change from one machinearchitecture to another. This invariability of the sizes is one of the reasons of portability java.Defaults primitive membersWhen a primitive data type as a member of a class, Java guarantees that you will be assigned adefault value if it fails to boot:The defaults are only the values that Java guarantees when the variable is used as a classmember. This ensures that the member variables of primitive type always be initialized(something C + + does not do), reducing a source of potential errors. However, this initial valuemay not be correct or even legal for the program you are writing. It is best to always initializevariables explicitly.This warranty does not apply to initialize local variables, those that are not class fields.Class 6CONCEPTS OF OBJECT-ORIENTED PROGRAMMING (OOP)1 What is OOP?Is to develop programs from objects. These objects waiting messages, process and sendmessages to other objects. In object-oriented programming, objects are defined that make up anapplication. These objects are formed by a series of features and operations that can beperformed on them.2 What is an object?
  • 10. The answer to this question in terms outside the programming seems simple. An object is aperson, animal or thing. It is distinguished from other objects to have certain characteristics andis good for something, or put another way, you can perform various operations with or on thatobject. For example:A house is an object.FEATURES:Number of floors, Total height in meters, the facade color, number of windows, door number,city, street and number where it is located, etc..OPERATIONSBuild, destroy, painted facade, modify any of the characteristics, such as opening a new window,etc.Obviously, each object can be defined in terms of a multitude of features and an extensive arrayoperations. Now in terms of programming, the programmer mission will determine whatfeatures and interest to maintain operations on an object. For example, on the home object maynot be necessary to know its location and therefore, these features are not part of the objectdefined by the programmer. The same could be said about the operations. In terminology ofobject-oriented programming, the characteristics of the object are called attributes andoperations METHODS. Each of these methods is a procedure or functionbelonging to an object.FORMAL INFORMAL TERMINOLOGY TerminologyFEATURES ATTRIBUTESOperations (procedures and functions) METHODSAn object is formed by a number of features or data (attributes) and a set of operations(methods). No conceivable only on the basis of data or operations but as a whole.Example: Think about what methods would be needed to make a car turn Insert the keyTurn the keyThis would trigger the electrical systemThe engine ignite
  • 11. 3. Classes and ObjectsIn OOP we must distinguish between two closely related concepts, the class and object.Analogous to how to define variables in a programming language, when you declare an objectmust define the type of object to which it belongs. This type is the class.In C, we define two variables X and Y integer as follows:int X, Y;In this case, X and Y are variables and the type of these variables is integer. The way to declareobjects in Java is the same:Ccasa casa1, house2;In this case, house2 casa1 and variables are effectively but somewhat special, areOBJECTS. Furthermore, the type of objects is Ccasa. This type is the class of the objectAnalogyVariable → Object(X, Y) (casa1, house2)→ Class Type(Int) (Ccasa)Declaring casa1 and house2 as objects belonging to the class Ccasa, it indicates that house2casa1 and have a number of attributes (data) and are nPuertas, nVentanas and color, and also anumber of methods (operations that can be performed on them) as: abrirVentanas (),cerrarVentanas (), etc..4. Properties must meet to be considered a language object oriented.
  • 12. POTTING INHERITANCE POLYMORPHISMEncapsulationEncapsulation is the property possessed objects hide their attributes, and even methods toother parts of the program or other objects. The natural way to builda class is to define a set of attributes which generally are not accessible outside of the sameobject, but can only be modified by the methods which are defined as accessible from theoutside of that class.Ccasa class {int nPuertas, nVentanas; String color;public Ccasa (int np, int nv, co String) {nPuertas = np; nVentanas = nv, color = co;}public void paint (String co) {color = co;}public void abrirVentanas (int n) {nVentanas = nVentanas + n;}public void cerrarVentanas (int n){nVentanas nVentanas =-n;if (nVentanas <0)nVentanas = 0;}public void abrirPuertas (int n) {nPuertas = nPuertas + n;}public void cerrarPuertas (int n){nPuertas nPuertas =-n;if (nPuertas <0)
  • 13. nPuertas = 0;}}/ / HERE STATEMENT Ccasa casa1 objects and instances, house2;The normal way to declare the class Ccasa is to define a set of attributes that are not accessiblefrom anywhere in the program, but only through certain methods. So, if you open a newwindow in the house casa1, traditional philosophy of a programmer would do the following:casa1.N_VENTANAS casa1.N_VENTANAS = + 1;However, the natural way to do it in OOP is calling the method:casa1.abrirVentanas (1);That method (procedure) will increase by 1 nVentanas attribute. This does not mean that theattribute can not be accessed nVentanas the traditional way (if it had been defined as public,but for that language may be regarded as OOP, should allow for the possibility of prohibitingaccess to the attributes directly.Inheritance.One of the main advantages of OOP. This property allows you to define other descendantclasses, so that the new class (the child class) inherits from the parent class all its attributes andmethods. The new class can define new attributes and methods can even redefine existingattributes and methods (for example, change the type of an attribute or operations performedby a given method.) Is the natural way to define objects in real life. Most people would say, forexample, that a house is a house with a garden. It has the same characteristics and properties oroperations you can perform on a house and also incorporates a new feature, the garden. Atother times, they added functionality (methods) and attributes. For example: a duck is a birdthat nothing. It has the same characteristics as the birds and should only declare a method onthe new class (the swim method).This property enables code reuse and is very easy to take advantage of the existing class code,modifying them minimally to fit the new specifications.Example:Suppose we have constructed Ccasa class and we want to define a new class that represents thechalets. In this case you may want to define a new attribute that represents the square metersof garden. Instead of redefining a new class from scratch, can be used for writing code Ccasaclass as follows.
  • 14. As can be seen, only have to declare that the new class is a descendant of Ccasa Cchalet (extendsCcasa) and declares the new attribute.Clearly, we must redefine constructor method to initialize the new attribute mJardin. But themethods for open / close doors or windows is not necessary to define them, areCcasa inherited from class and can be used, for example as follows: chalet1.pintar ("White");PolymorphismPolymorphism allows the same message to objects of different classes do these also behavedifferently (different objects can have methods with the same name or the same objectmethods can have identical names but different parameters)Ccasa class {public Ccasa (int np, int nv, co String) {nPuertas = np; nVentanas = nv, color = co;}public Ccasa () {nPuertas = 0; nVentanas = 0, color = "";}}You have two methods with the same name but different parameters. In the first case, theattributes of the object initialized with the parameters of the method and in the second case willbe initialized to zero, for example. Also, if you have two objects and chalet1 casa1 and calls themethod:chalet1.abrirVentanas (2)Will execute the procedure code abrirVentanas Cchalet class and classCcasa.
  • 15. Bibliography 7ClassThe classes are the mold for the creation of objects comprise: Methods. - Functions programmed to perform a certain task. Attributes. - Variables we will use in our program. Builders.Method  main (in the case of JAVA)In Java, almost all are classes (objects). The language requires the OOP and allows the possibilityto program using any other technique other than this. For this reason, a program will consist ofone or more source files and each will have defined one or more classes. In a source file candeclare one or more classes and will look similar to this:class Class1 {...}class Class2 {...}Clasen class{...}A class consists of a portion of the return, and another for the body of the same:Class Declaration{Class body
  • 16. }In the previous template has simplified the look of the class declaration, but you can make surethat it contains at least the keyword class and the name given to the class.The body of the class starts with an open brace ({) and ends with a closing brace (}). Within thebody of the class are declared attributes and class methods. For everything written in Java aloneprogram starts running (as in C) from the main () method.public: indicates that the method main () is public and therefore can be called from otherclasses. All main () method must be public in order to run from the Java interpreter (JVM).static: indicates that the class does not need to be instantiated in order to use the method thatqualifies. (Not create any instance or object class Hello). It also indicates that the method is thesame for all instances that may be created. void: indicates that the main function returns no value.The main method must always accept, as a parameter, an array of strings, containing thepossible arguments that are passed to the program on the command line, but as in our case, notused."Conventions for writing classes, objects and methods"The following is not necessarily a rule, is only a convention in this case that seeks to make Javacode more readable touch for when you check your code and correct it. Classes always begin in uppercase as well as each of the words that follow. Example:myFirstClass methods instead start with lowercase letter and then capitalized on each additional word isused. Example: esteEsMiPrimerMetodo () Attributes like methods start with lowercase, and words have the same start with a capitalletter. Example: esteEsUnAtributoBibliography 8Object modeling
  • 17. The term object arises in the late seventies in computer science, to reference notations toproblem solving, which are apparently different but mutually linked from a perspective differentfrom structured analysis.These notations define objects representing components of the modular system is decomposedto define knowledge.This model looks at reality as objects interacting with responsibilities, whereeach object could contain internal objects to form more functionalitycomplex.Were set out different ways to perform the analysis, design and programming, and that varietyis still present.Object Oriented Analysis is a method of analysis to examine the requirements from a class ofobjects that are searched in the vocabulary of the problem domain, in order to represent theuser experience in outlining the requirementObject Oriented Design is a design method for understanding and process decomposition andobject-oriented notation obtaining the logical model is class and object structures and thephysical model is architecture modules and processes as well as static models and dynamic.The Object-oriented programming is the design implementation, where programs are collectionsof cooperating objects. Each object belongs to a class hierarchy, and classes belong to ahierarchy of classes related by inheritance.Object orientation provides elements to develop solutions based on their theory, and are thoseseen in the graph.Additionally there are three minor elements of the object model, and are now marked inpurple.What is abstraction?An abstraction denotes the essential characteristics of an object distinguishable from otherobjects and provides conceptual limits to the viewers perspective.When looking abstractions is necessary to focus on the important details, primarily onsimilarities, differences ignoring for the moment to describe and specify some details of thesystem and not go through the relevant unnoticed. A concept can be an abstraction only if it canbe described, understood and analyzed independently of the mechanisms used to achieve itsgoals.Abstractions are always influenced by the observer according to their experience and needs.
  • 18. Abstraction is the recognition of the similarities between objects, situations or real-worldprocesses.The abstraction focuses attention on the external view of the object to separate the essentialfunctioning of the object from its implementation, which is the principle of abstraction barrier.Obtaining the abstractions of the problem domain is the core of object-oriented design, whichcan be grouped into:Abstraction of Bank says that an object represents a useful model of the problem domain or thedomain of a solution which has a personality.Abstraction of Action states that an object provides a generalized set of operations whichperform the same function typeClass 8Object modelingThe term object arises in the late seventies in computer science, to reference notations toproblem solving, which are apparently different but mutually linked from a perspective differentfrom structured analysis.These notations define objects representing components of the modular system is decomposedto define knowledge.This model looks at the reality and responsibilities interacting objects, where each object couldcontain internal objects to form more complex functionality.Were set out different ways to perform the analysis, design and programming, and that varietyis still present.Object Oriented Analysis is a method of analysis to examine the requirements from a class ofobjects that are searched in the vocabulary of the problem domain, in order to represent theuser experience in outlining the requirementObject Oriented Design is a design method for understanding and process decomposition andobject-oriented notation obtaining the logical model is class and object structures and thephysical model is architecture modules and processes as well as static models and dynamicobject-oriented programming is the design implementation, where programs are collections ofcooperating objects. Each object belongs to a class hierarchy, and classes belong to a hierarchy
  • 19. of classes related by inheritance.Object orientation provides elements to develop solutions based on their theory, and are thoseseen in the graph.Additionally there are three minor elements of the object model, and are now marked in purple.What is abstraction?An abstraction denotes the essential characteristics of an object distinguishable from otherobjects and provides conceptual limits to the viewers perspective.When looking abstractions is necessary to focus on the important details, primarily onsimilarities, differences ignoring for the moment to describe and specify some details of thesystem and not go through the relevant unnoticed. A concept can be an abstraction only if it canbe described, understood and analyzed independently of the mechanisms used to achieve itsgoals.Abstractions are always influenced by the observer according to their experience and needs.Abstraction is the recognition of the similarities between objects, situations or real-worldprocesses.The abstraction focuses attention on the external view of the object to separate the essentialfunctioning of the object from its implementation, which is the principle of abstraction barrier.Obtaining the abstractions of the problem domain is the core of object-oriented design, whichcan be grouped into:Abstraction of Bank says that an object represents a useful model of the problem domain or thedomain of a solution which has a personality.Abstraction of Action states that an object provides a generalized set of operations whichperform the same function typeVirtual Machine states that an object abstraction grouping of operations used in an upper orlower level control is associated with a set of common purposes verbsAbstraction coincidental groups a set of operations or unrelated models and are associated witha set of verbs or nouns unrelatedEvery good abstraction reflects how well you manage the system vocabularyWhat is encapsulation?The abstraction of an object precedes the implementation of its services, the implementation of
  • 20. an object is a secret for abstraction and should be hidden for its customers, leaving as the onlyanswer to their service commitment regardless of how the fix, making nowhere a complexsystem depends on the implementation of some other object, edging to respect the purpose ofthis abstractionWhile the abstraction suggests to do, encapsulation is directed at how it will perform, allowingprograms to reliably change with minimal effort this barrier.Encapsulation and abstraction are complementary concepts, abstraction focuses on theoperation of an object observable. The encapsulation is focused on the implementation whichgives rise to the operation.The class of an object that is born must have two parts:An interface for services that are related to other objects, also known as external view.An implementation which is the implementation of services is known as internal viewThe encapsulation of the idea of having a very complex system that requires much attention andbecome an object that handles everything internally and can be created easily.Encapsulation is a process of sharing of elements constituting an abstraction of its structure andoperation, serves to separate encapsulation of an abstract interface and implementation.ModularityThe target an individual program components also reduces complexity of grouping a set ofcomponents for some purpose or common feature allowing components locate efficientlyModularity is performed to divide a system into modules separately compilable, but with certainminimum connections dependencies with other modules.Modularity takes care of packing abstractions in discrete units calledmodules, ie the physically packaged modularization classes and objects.By modularizing takes advantage of the cost reduction of software design and review allowingindependent modules even reuse core modules for any system.To achieve good modularity, modules should be constructed:Modularity is the property of a system of decomposed into a cohesive set of modules with weakcouplings.
  • 21. There are three factors likely to accept the decisions of modularization:The modules serve as indivisible units of software that can be reused in other applications. Many compilers can generally object code in segments, one for each module.A good code modularization allows quickly locate function as amap.HIERARCHYA hierarchy is a rank or order of abstractions. A set of abstractions can repeatedly form ahierarchy. By identifying hierarchies in the design, understanding the problem is simplified.The hierarchy of generalization / specialization is formed by grouping abstractions within thescheme which is a type B of A. For example, a car is a type of vehicle, is therefore to define arelationship between classes, where a class defines the structure and behavior of one or moreclasses (single inheritance and multiple inheritance respectively)Inheritance represents a hierarchy of abstractions where a subclass (child class)one or more inherited from superclasses (parent class).The structure and operation of the various classes can form a superclass, and the inheritancehierarchy is a generalization / specialization where the superclasses represent generalizedabstractions and subclass represents the specialization of the superclass methods, which areadded, modified and hidden .The abstraction is intended to provide a barrier to hide the methods and statements, butinheritance opens this interface to see the states and methods without abstraction. There arelevels of abstraction, speaking in terms of hierarchy.A high-level abstraction is a generalization and a low-level abstraction is aspecializationThe hierarchy of total / part is formed by grouping abstractions within the framework of C D isan example: A student is part of a group; Aggregation denotes the ratio total / part of ahierarchy in which several objects are part of a Overall, the set of objects of a group denotes thetotal lack of any such objects does not affect the overall identity and total destruction does notinvolve the destruction of conforming parts.A family seen as a total is made up of a father, a mother and children who are the parties, thelack of a child does not destroy the family, but also the division destroys family members.Summary
  • 22. Finally, the encapsulation helps reduce complexity hiding details. The modular group helps thesolution to a problem.Abstraction and hierarchy to classify similarities to simplify the understandingTipeamientoOne type is an accurate characterization of the structural and functional properties shared by acollection of entities, classes or objects.A force tipeamiento is a class of an object as well as to other types of objects to beinterchangeable or most can be exchanged only for very restricted roads, to have guys like unitsof measure you can divide distance for a speed type, but not be possible to divide thetemperature between weight, tipeamiento requires only to perform certain legal combinationsof abstractions.A programming language can be strongly typed, regularly typed or simply not be typed, and stillbe object-oriented.A strong typing prevents mixing abstractions illogical or unexpected results.A semantic dependency introduces strong typing, so any small change in the class, can interferewith customers who interact with it.A force tipeamiento is a class of an object, and objects of different types, to be interchangeable,or most, may be exchanged only limited changes.The most important benefits of a strongly typed language are:- Detects errors in the cycle of edit, compile and debug, despite being tedious.- The type declaration auida to document a program.- Most compilers generate efficient code when the types are declared.- Disappearance of unpredictable behavior by assuming unwanted conversions.- No type checking a program can rumble mysteriously at runtime.CONCURRENCEConcurrency allows different objects to act simultaneously, each program has at least one childcontrol, but a concurrent program can have multiple threads of control: some transient andothers throughout the runtime.The machines run on multithreaded systems truly allow concurrent threads of controlA lightweight process shares memory space with another lightweight process, while thecombination of a heavy process is assigned its own memory space.
  • 23. An object-oriented system can see the real world as a set of cooperating objects concurrently,with each active site is an independent activity center.Concurrency is the property to distinguish an object from one active inactive in a multithreaded.PERSISTENCEPersistence is responsible for saving the state and the class of an object over time and / orspace.Persistence is the property of an object to transcend time (the object continues to exist evenafter the cessation of its creator) and / or space (the object changes its position in the memoryspace that was created).ObjectFrom the perspective of human knowledge can be an object: Anything tangible or intangible. Anything that can be learned intellectually. Something toward which thought or action can be directed. An object has:- State.- Operation.- Identity.STATEThe operation of an object is influenced by its history: the order under which he operates anobject is influenced by its history: the order under which an object is important opera.We define an attribute property, or referenced single variable, with an inherent characteristic ordistinctive trait or faction which contribute to a single object.The terms property and attribute are indistinct, both refer to the characteristics of an object.The state of an object are all properties (typically static) of an object plus the current values(usually dynamic) of each of these properties.OPERATIONThe operation of an object acts and reactúa in terms of its state changes and messages posted ortransmitted.The operation of an object represents the outside is visible and its activity is measurable.OPERATION
  • 24. It is the action performed by an object to invoke the services of another object in order to get areaction, the result of the operation will be defined by the objects state at the time ofresponding to the client. The operations defined for an object are called methods in terms ofprogramming and are defined as procedures and functions "To every action there is a reaction"The state of an object represents an accumulation of results of its operation, a method denotesa service provided by an object to its clients. The three most common types of methods are:Modifier. Method that modifies the state of an object.Selector. Method to query the state of an object without altering the state.Iterative. Method to query all relevant parties to the state of an object with a well-defined valuerepeatedly.Additionally there are also methods to create and destroy objects:Constructor. The constructor is a method created by an object which is initializer their statusDestroyer. It is a method of liberating state of an object and destroyer of it.The role of an object is the mask to define a contract between abstraction and its clients, ie therole of an object is defined by its methods.The responsibility of an object are all services provided to all contracts supported.A role are the services offered by an object, while responsibility is the fulfillment of the servicessupported by a contract, the state jointly define the role and function of an object to play in theworld while meeting their responsibilitiesThe terms are interchangeable and operation method, both refer to its operationIDENTITYEach object is unique, even though sharing the same properties of another object, since itoccupies a different space. That is, an object has an authenticity identidad.Esta shown in thevariable of time and space. Identity is the property of an object to be distinguished from all other objects.
  • 25. Relationships between objectsWhen multiple objects relate these make assumptions about each other, including the methodsperformed well as the state of operation. The hierarchy of objects are of two types:- LeagueA league is derived from the physical connection (with a message) or conceptual (no message) oftwo objects, wherein an object can collaborate with another object by means of a message.The message represents an association between an object that acts as a client using the servicesof another object acts as a server.The message between two objects is usually unidirectional and bidirectional rarely. An object tointeract with another through a league can play three roles. Customer actor. An object can operate on other objects but never be operated by otherobjects. Server. An object does not operate upon other objects but can be operated by other objects. Agent. An object can be operated on other objects and can be operatedon other objects. Namely to serve as a client or server for one or more objects, for example:If we consider two objects:During the analysis of a problem can ignore the visibility, but you need to consider whenimplementing the visibility through the leagues to determine the scope and access of objects oneach side of the league.Currently an object can see another of four ways: The server object is global customer. The server object is a parameter of the method of the client. The server object is an object of the customer. The object server is locally declared object in a client method.Two objects can communicate through a single league if they are synchronized and to achievesynchronization of an active object with a liability can exist in three forms Sequential. A passive object synchrony guarantees the existence of a single active object lookupon synchronization. Protected. A passive object ensures synchronization with multiple threadscontrol only when active objects provide mutual exclusion Synchronized. A passive object ensures synchronization with multiple threads of control onlywhen the passive object ensures mutual exclusion
  • 26. When an object passes a message to another through a link, the objects must be synchronizedsomehow past messages can take any of the following ways. Synchrony. An operation begins when the station has initiated the action and the transmitteris ready to both receive the message, the sender and receiver definitely wait until both partiesare ready to proceed Resistance. It is similar to the sync, except that the emitterabandon the operation if the receiver is not completely ready Waiting Time. It is similar to the transmitter sync except wait a certain time until the receiveris ready Asynchronous. The issuer can initiate messages regardless of whether the receiver is ready toreceive the message.- AggregationThe league denotes a relationship between client server, moreover aggregation denotes ahierarchical part / total to navigate from the whole (aggregate) to any of its parts (attributes).If the lifetime of an object or attribute is determined by the lifetime of the whole object, to beconsidered as a parameter value is known as the aggregation composition, but if the life time ofan object is independent of the time Object life entirety to be considered as a referenceparameter known as aggregation,.Aggregation helps encapsulate secret parts as a whole, but the links may be substituted ifdesired aggregation break the coupling between objects.Aggregation allows objects with complex workings but displayed by the encapsulation as simpleobjectsWhat are classes?A class is a group, type or group marked by common properties, cot distinction, a classificationof qualities or conditions classification.A class is a set of objects sharing a common structure and operation.An object is an instance of a class, therefore, an object is not a class, a class of objects born.Objects that share common structures and performances can not be grouped in a class except bynature objects.
  • 27. A class is the mold of a compound data type, and an object representing the variable typememory housed in a class. When you assign a memory space for the object is when we say thatwas instantiated, for example:Consider the class with their respective attributes RabbitWe can make an instance of this class have similar attributes, but does not mean you have to bean exact copy of the class rabbit, for example we PEPE object that has the attributes listedbelow, and is different from Koko is another rabbitBut both maintain similarities with the class of which have been instantiatedINTERFACE AND IMPLEMENTATIONIf a class is segmented this can have two views, one internal and one external, the external formits interface while the inner shape its implementationThe interface of a class provides an outside view and emphasizes the abstraction while hidingthe secrets of the structure and functioning. Initially is to declare all methods applicable toinstances of that class, the statement may also be included in other classes, constants, variables,and exceptions, ie properties necessary to complete abstraction.The implementation of a class provides the internal view, which covers the "secrets" of theoperation. The implementation of a class is to implement all the methods defined in theinterface.A class interface basically consists of three parts: PUBLIC: Statements available to all customers. PROTECTED: Statements accessible only to its class, its subclasses and their friends. PRIVATE: Statements accessible only to the class and their friends (friends refers to what is inthe class and its methods).Relationships between classesIn particular, the problem domain abstractions relate obtained in different ways, the totality ofthese relations are known as class structure. Relations between two classes have two mainreasons: A list of classes may indicate the hierarchical share some characteristics. A list of classes mayindicate some connection semantics.
  • 28. There are three basic types of relationships: Generalization / specialization. In this, two classes are linked by the relationship Total / Party. Two classes are linked by the relation "part of" Association. Two classes are linked by descent semanticsProgramming languages, specifically object-oriented, providing direct support for somecombinations of the following relationships: Association. The association denotes a semantic dependence, ie, their relationship is applied inconcept and is not required to encode physical dependence.The association is named after the link through which bind classes and indicates a direction tohear the reading direction of the association for their classes.At the time of analysis are extremely useful to indicate dependencies, without elaborating. Anassociation has a cardinality between parts to indicate the number of classes associated withanother number of classes Inheritance.For there must be an inheritance subclass can inherit the structure and operation of itssuperclass.Inheritance is the relationship between classes, where one class shares the structure and / orfunction defined in a class (single inheritance) or more classes (multiple inheritance).The class to inherit property is called superclass and inherited class is called subclass.A subclass can increase or restrict the structure and operation of its super class. When a subclassincreases its superclass is said that "inherited by extension".When a superclass is designed to group functionality and structure, but not designed to createinstances is called abstract class.
  • 29. What are the clients of a class?Polymorphism is useful when tenemosmuchas classes with the same protocol.With polymorphism, eliminating large CASE instruction type, for each known object type andtherefore known to react.Polymorphism is a concept, where the name of a method, operations may denote objects ofvarious kinds, as long as these are related by some common superclass.An object is enabled to respond as required by the message, despite having the same methodname, for example:Its like talking about the method to drive a car and a standard automatic, both methods areconsistent with the name but have different solution sequences, furthermore, both derivedfrom the car class.The need for multiple inheritance in programming languages oriented OOP is a great debate,because multiple inheritance is like having many parents for a child. One of the problems raisedby the presence of multiple inheritance is an ancestor inheritance of more than one possibleconceptual path, this situation is called inheritance repeated. The problem arises if the childsparents have different religions, therefore, be difficult to choose a religion.CLASSES AND OBJECTS AS THE ANALYSIS AND DESIGNIn all practical applications are always static classes, so their existence, and semanticrelationships are fixed, but the objects are dynamic, being created and destroyed at the time ofprogram executionANALYSIS AND DESIGN RULESDuring the initial stages of analysis and design, developers have two primary tasks- Identify the classes and objects of the vocabulary of the problem domain.- Inventing the structures with which objects work to provide the solution to the problem.Classes and objects are called abstraction of the problem, and the structures are called
  • 30. cooperative implementation mechanisms.In the analysis it is important to focus attention on the external view of the abstractions andimplementation mechanisms. These views represent the logical framework of the problemIn the implementation of design attention is fixed on the inside view of the abstractions andmechanisms of implementation, thus involving physical framework.BUILD QUALITYProcess design of classes and objects is incremental, iterative, to determine whether a class orobject is well designed can be measured based on:- Coupling. A measure of strength in the partnership established by a connection from onemodule to another or between classes, a strong coupling avoids the independence betweenmodules or classes of system, a module or class is tightly coupled hard to understand, change orcorrect therefore the complexity of system design can be reduced using a weak couplingbetween modules or classes- Cohesion. A measure of the degree of community among design elementsOO as a module, simple objects or simple classes, the least desirable form of cohesion iscoincidental, in which abstractions are complete unrelated grouped in the same class or module.Coupling and cohesion are criteria to allow a class or module be sufficient, whole and primitive.- Sufficiency. For sufficiency means that class or module have characteristics indispensable topermit abstraction and iteration different meaning, but using the minimum necessary- Fortitude. This means the class or interface module that captures everythingabstraction without significant gaps, a class or module must have ageneral interface to be useful to any customer allowing us to obtain reusable code for differentpurposes, one must also consider that as long as general design and construction.- Primitiveness. If too many methods provided in levels get final levelsend resorts but many methods may leave early levels to achieve a grouping of operations. Ifnecessary increase the functionality sufficient to rely on primitive classesSELECTION METHODSPlanning a class or interface module is usually very hard work, it is advisable to make a first
  • 31. attempt to design a class, then to rely on the needs of their clients created is determinedwhether increases, modifies and redefines interface, but worth saying that you need to have ageneral thought at all times to allow classes capable of responding to different customers.If in a given class are stored all methods in primitive form is displayed and well defined smalloperation, a good designer knows the balance between wanting many contracts: large classes inmethods, and few contracts: small classes with many relationships.Methods can be placed taking into account the following criteria. Reusability. Useful operation in more than one context. Complexity. Difficulty of implementing the operation. Applicability. Operating Considerations for specific contexts Implementation Knowledge. The implementation of the operation depends upon internaldetails of the class.SELECTION OF FOREIGNThe relationship between classes and objects is linked to the choice of methods.If it is decided that in order to send an "m" to object B, then B can directly or indirectly beaccessible to A, for which they must name the operation "m" in the implementation of A,considering the visibility requiredThe representation of a class or object should be, almost always, one of the secrets ofencapsulation of abstraction.An advantage of encapsulation is to make changes to the representation, provided they do notapply a functional violation of the assumptions made by the customer. This happens withoutaffecting any of its customers or contract because the protocol is not affectedCLASSIFICATIONTo find the solution of a problem is necessary to discover and identify. The process ofdiscovering abstractions and mechanisms to look detached from the vocabulary of the problemdomain plus some other implicitIf we rely on the classification of the abstractions and mechanisms are identified generalizationhierarchies, specialization and aggregation.Classification is a tool to modularize, you can place certain classes and objects in the samemodule depending on the similarities of their statements. The similarity can be obtained using
  • 32. the cohesion and coupling.The classification will always be related to the focus, vision, experience and need the classifier.IDENTIFICATION OF CLASSES AND OBJECTSHistorically there are three basic approaches to classify:No classification is absolute, because some structures can be mostly favored classes of oneapplication to another, no classification scheme represents the actual structure or the naturalorder. Some classifications may be more significant over other as our interest but not representreality more accurately or adequately but to serve our purposesClassification classic. - All entities with a property or collection of properties common form acategory, the traditional classification comes from Plato, Aristotle then, by means of classifyingplants and animals, and to find answers to questions like: Is animal? Is Mineral? Is it vegetable?One thing can be named according to the knowledge gained from the nature of their propertiesand effects, the practical approach using real estate as a criterion of similarity between objects,specifically objects can be grouped into sets depending on the presence or absence of aparticular propertyConceptual clustering. - It is a modern variation of the classical approach of trying to explainderivative knowledge, this approach class or group of entities is generated to make the firstconceptual description of the class. The long tapering conceptual clustering with fuzzy theory inwhich objects belong to one or more groups of attitudes varying degrees, depending on theclassification considers the functionality of their bodies.The traditional classification and conceptual clustering are sufficient to explain most complexdesigns classificationsPrototype theory. - Is derived from the use of cognitive theory, if we try to classify games andthey can not be properly represented by the classical mold by not sharing similar properties allgames, however the teams theory unifies game ratings as family resemblances. An object classis represented by a prototype object and an object is considered a member of that class if andonly if it is similar to the prototype significantly.Instead prototype theory unifies the classification of games as family resemblances, an objectclass is represented as an object prototype and an object is considered a member of this class ifand only if it is similar to the prototype significantly.Currently these three classification approaches have direct application to object-orienteddesign.
  • 33. CLASS 9Primitive Data Types in JavaA data type is an attribute or characteristic that is the data-this serves to tell thecomputer what kind of information to be processed, for example, what values can takeand what operations can be performed with them. The most common data types are:integers, floating point numbers (decimal), strings, dates, times, colors, etc.. Below is atable of the most primitive data types used, and a description of each.Booleanie values that can be true or false. Occupies 1-bit and the default value is falsecharThe characters are 16-bit and are encoded in Unicode 1.1.5, in other languages areonly 8-bit ASCII. Occupies 16-bitsbyteunsigned 8-bit integer, ie the fewer number (two to the seventh) and two in the eighth.The internal representation is in 2s complementShortunsigned 16-bit integer. The internal representation is in 2s complementintunsigned 32-bit integer. The internal representation is in 2s complementLongunsigned 64-bit integer. The internal representation is in 2s complementfloat32-bit real mobile with coma. The internal representation is IEEE 754-1985.doublé32-bit real mobile with coma. The internal representation is IEEE 754-1985.Each primitive type has an associated class, you can store the same information butalways through objects.