• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
Elemental exercises of gym
 

Elemental exercises of gym

on

  • 1,644 views

Book about the fundamental principles of the Corrective Biogym. The printed version comes together to a video to show the movements described.

Book about the fundamental principles of the Corrective Biogym. The printed version comes together to a video to show the movements described.

Statistics

Views

Total Views
1,644
Views on SlideShare
1,644
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
15
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

CC Attribution-ShareAlike LicenseCC Attribution-ShareAlike License

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Elemental exercises of gym Elemental exercises of gym Document Transcript

    • Dario Palhares José Antônio RodriguesElemental Exercises of the Corrective Biogym
    • Dario Palhares José Antônio RodriguesElemental Exercises of the Corrective Biogym
    • NOVEMBRO, 2010 Direitos de Publicação Reservados Editores Gina Cordeiro Silva Ricardo Henrique de Brito e Sousa Assistente Editorial Assistente de Produção Moreno Cordeiro Carvalho Luanna Cordeiro Revisor Arte da Capa Prof. Dr. Omar Silva Lima Estúdio Ex Libris Conselho Editorial Ada Augusta Celestino Bezerra Doutora em Educação – USP (SP) Antenor Rita Gomes Doutor em Educação pela Universidade Federal da Bahia - UFBA (BA) Gina Cordeiro Silva Mestre em Educação, Comunicação e Administração – UNIMARCO (SP) Harrysson Luiz da Silva Pós-Doutor em Ergonomia Cognitiva - UFSC (SC) José Rodorval Ramalho Doutor em Ciências Sociais – PUC (SP) Omar da Silva Lima Doutor e Mestre em Literatura pela Universidade de Brasília – UnB (DF) Ricardo Henrique da Costa e Sousa Pós Doutor em Ciências Biológicas pela Harvard University (EUA) Ricardo Vélez Rodríguez Pós Doutor pelo Centre de Recherches Politiques Raymond Aron, Paris (França) Samuel Pereira Campos Doutor em Lingüística Aplicada - UNICAMP - Campinas (SP) Valeska Zanello Doutora em Psicologia pela Universidade de Brasília (DF) Vladimir Stolzenberg Torres Doutor em Informática na Educação pela UFRGS (RS)Palhares, Dario & Rodrigues, José Antônio.Elemental Exercises of the Corrective Biogym. Dario Pahares & José AntônioRodrigues. Brasília-DF. Ex Libris, 2010.Bibliografia1. Exercícios de Ginástica 2. Bioginástica 3. Ginástica CorretivaISBN 8590 287-72-6 EDITORA EX LIBRIS (61) 3522-5196 e (61) 7813-2176
    • Summary Presentacion, 7 PREFACE, 9 INTRODUCTION, 11 THE HUMAN POSTURE, 15 THE POSTURAL EXAMINATION, 31 PRINCIPLES OF FUNCTIONAL GYM, 35 LESION, 43 STRETCHING, 53 EXERCISE CLASSES, 61 EXAMPLE OF CLASSE, 87 References, 99
    • Presentation Prof. José Antônio Rodrigues is the creator of theCorrective Biogym. He first developed the Biogym for himselfto find the cure for his knee and back pain related to anextranumeric vertebra. He then administered gym classes atthe Clube dos Previdenciários de Brasília from 1982 to 2000.His knowledge and experience have been taught to manypractitioners. Nowadays, the two other authors keep the gymgoing with continuous advances in practice and theoreticalbases. Dario Palhares was a pupil of José Antônio Rodriguesfor 11 years. He was at the same time a practitioner and apatient of the Corrective Biogym: through the Biogym, achronic plantar fasciitis was finally resolved after years andyears of visiting various orthopaedists and attending severalsports classes. Nowadays, he is a paediatrician and thesupervisor of medical students at the University of Brasilia. Healso specialises in sports medicine. He teaches the CorrectiveBiogym at the University of Brasília. His complete academiccurriculum is available in English and Portuguese from theLattes platform of CNPq (National Counsel of Research ofBrazil): http://lattes.cnpq.br. For this book, he is thecorresponding author. Any comments and messages arewelcome to dariompm@unb.br.
    • Dario Palhares & José Antônio Rodrigues ‘Thaís Coury Piantino is graduated in PhysicalEducation by the University of Brasília and teaches Arabiandances. She takes part in the video containing some of theexercises of the Corrective Biogym. We are grateful to her forthe participation in the video. Any contacts with her can becarried out through the e-mail thaispadma@yahoo.com.br We are also grateful to Proof Reading Services(www.proof-reading-services.org) for the English review andcorrections and to Paky Produções for the video.8
    • PREFACE This book presents some of the theoretical andpractical advances that have been proposed by our method.Thus, the first part of the book is a brief review of the mostpertinent concepts of the fundamentals of the CorrectiveBiogym. The Corrective Biogym is greater than a series ofexercises to be repeated indefinitely: the instructor must keepin mind all the postural physiology and systematicobservations of difficulties and limitations in practitioners,and then propose corrections in the posture, way of steppingand so on. This way, we strongly suggest that readers arefamiliar with the basic textbooks in the fields of the physiologyof exercise, musculation, stretching, kinesiology andbiomechanics. The benefits of good physical activity are well knownand documented. Gyms focus on the amelioration of thelocomotor system; however, they continue to develop atheoretical and practical basis and paradigms. Anyway, werecommend the reader consults texts on toga, tai chi chuan,pilates and global posture re-education. Considered as agroup, they form the theoretical basis of functional gyms, onwhich our work finds support and then presents someadvances.
    • Dario Palhares & José Antônio Rodrigues Reading and consulting ancient books is alsoimportant. In them, there are descriptions of many good andcreative exercises, but that for some unknown reason havebeen lost over time or, at least, not cited in recent texts. In ourreferenced bibliography, we accessed the Portuguesetranslations of these cited books. To help the readers, weadded the original title and, when possible, the originaleditor, so these books can be found in other languages. We hope that readers enjoy our ideas. More than that,we want to inspire you to search for advances, for example,the use of weights during circular movements, research withsemi-professional athletes or manual labourers andobservations about diverse clinical situations. All comments, all criticisms and all suggestions arewelcomed: the e-mail of the corresponding author is there.We really want to improve our book in future editions.10
    • INTRODUCTION Since the beginning of time, humans have preparedthemselves to reach high levels of ludic and competitivepractices. Documents from ancient Egypt and Mesopotamiahave been uncovered concerning techniques for physicalimprovement, tips on planning gymnastic programmes andhygienic and nutrition concepts to achieve fitness for thesports events of those times. Since at least 2500 BC, Chinesescholars have said that the body must be continuouslyexercised to achieve harmonic development. Indeed, the musculature only stays strong and flexiblewhen used. For example, if an adult stays in bed for just a fewweeks, they would suffer an atrophy of the leg muscles thatwould eventually impede walking. Therefore, even afteryears and years of using leg muscles to walk, in just a shortperiod of time this ability can be lost. Clearly, with exercise themuscles can recover their memory and the person inquestion could walk again. During daily activities, the solicitation of themusculature is very restrictive and must be worked in anorganised and well-guided manner to stay active and retain alarge functional reservoir.
    • Dario Palhares & José Antônio Rodrigues The manner of exercising, however, strongly variesaccording to time, place and culture. In ancient Greece, fourtypes of gymnastics have been described: the Medicinal thathad a prophylactic aspect, the Therapeutic that cured specificdiseases, the Martial that prepared warriors for battle and theAthletic, which is the origin for modern artistic gymnastics.These basic elements are still valid nowadays, and recently,the aesthetic aspect of gymnastics has been more recentlyvalued by practitioners. The scientific knowledge of physical training hasallowed talented professional athletes to reach the maximum(or at least the sub-maximum) performance of thephylogenetic abilities of the human locomotor system.However, for the great mass of people, gymnastics representsa symbolic value, expressed in attitudes, corporal expression,aesthetics and physical and mental well-being. The body,thus, receives and emits information through the motorcommunication. To be concise and precise body movements need aself-image of the body, perception, ability and ease. In thisway, the practice of gymnastics contributes to the self-knowledge of the body and the development of variousabilities that influence the corporal expression andparticipation in games and thereby facilitate socialrelationships. Functional gyms, also known as corrective gyms,treat people with psychomotor disturbances and morpho-functional disharmonies. In a greater sense, their aim is thefull expression of psychomotricity. From the study of thebiomechanics of the body levers, exercises are described andexecuted. The automatisms decurrent from regular andcontinuous practice are gradually applied to daily gestures. Functional gyms do not only focus on the damagedpart(s), but the whole body as well. This explains theirprophylactic aspect: the individual is seen as a psychophysicalbeing searching for its own equilibrium.12
    • Elemental Exercises of the Corrective Biogym Musculature malfunctions can be distinguished aspsychomotor disturbances (bad habits) or dysmorphisms(structural alterations in musculoskeletal elements).Structural alterations need orthopaedic treatment and inadulthood the exercises are not able to induce permanentstructural correction. The exercises promote neuromuscularand motor-sensitive optimisation and can compensate for thedeficiencies of the affected parts. So, functional gyms mustnot create false expectations about a cure or definitecorrection for people with severe structural injuries and mustnot delay searching for a qualified orthopaedist. In all cases,however, functional gyms bring about muscularimprovements and facilitate orthopaedic treatment. Theclassic example is the idiopathic scoliosis of teenagers, whichis painless and affects girls (80% of cases) more frequentlythan boys; here, orthopaedic treatment is essential andfunctional gyms can be used in all cases. Functional gyms are also for the great mass of humanpopulation. In principle, any person of any age can undertakea well-guided programme. For that, however, a qualifiedinstructor that supervises and corrects practitioners duringclasses and the self-respect of the individuals limits arefundamental. 13
    • THE HUMAN POSTURE The human posture is characterised by bipedalismwith the upper members free and effective for precisionmovements. Walking is the most usual and simple everydaymovement. However, the body structure allows us to run,climb, jump, swim, walk on our hands, jump with one footand many other variations. In general, the musculoskeletalsystem is directed to self-locomotion in diverse environmentsand situations but not to lifting weights: the joints used forlifting and transporting weights are very inefficient, whichlimits the weight that can be handled without provokingirreversible lesions. Such a posture is recent in the phylogenetic scale andis still in evolution, needing to conciliate antagonisticmechanical functions such as flexibility, weight support andthe passage of a baby through the skeleton. In this way, thereare as many erect postures as people. The erect posture canbe understood as the individual manner of reacting to thecontinuous stimulus of gravity. In an erect posture, the basis must be large enough forstability. Compared with a quadruped animal, the ratiobetween the circumference of the thigh and the ankles isaround 4.5, whereas in human beings this value is around 3.0.
    • Dario Palhares & José Antônio Rodrigues So, the erect biped posture, in its evolution, reallyneeded a bigger support basis. However, the strongest structures of the locomotorsystem are not the feet but the pelvis. To explain this, let´srecord that in each lever there is one point of support andcomponents of tension and resistance. The pelvis is acomponent of resistance, whereas the feet are points ofsupport. So, the thighs are naturally the most developedregion of the legs because they exert more muscular work.The pelvic region is the fundamental structure for the generalhealth of the locomotor system because it supports the spine,the weight of the trunk and the objects handled by the uppermembers, with the feet as flexible support. Most body movements have a principal muscle, butin general, and especially in the trunk, there are groups ofmuscles that move in the same way. The coordinated actionof these various muscular groups is synergic: the effect of themuscles working together is greater than the mere sum ofeach isolated muscle. For each movement, there is a neuromuscularcoordination that prevents an articular injury. Also, there is anaxis and a plane of functioning that allows the best yield ofeach joint, where the pressions are equally distributed acrossthe contact surfaces, so the friction is processed slowly andevenly. In this sense, a good postural muscular tonusfacilitates all motor actions. An equilibrated posture results inmore efficient, more precise and less fatiguing movements. The posture undergoes multimodal controldepending on the vision, the feet, vestibule and muscularproprioceptors. The proprioception is divided into threecomponents: the static conscience of the body position, thekinaesthetic conscience and the unconscious reflexes ofmuscular contractions. Thus, educating the posture involveseducating the sensations since the muscles act according tothe processed information from the sensorial organs.16
    • Elemental Exercises of the Corrective Biogym To keep the body equilibrium, any disequilibrium inone region must be compensated by an inversedisequilibrium in other regions in order to keep the gravitycentre in a stable position. In an orthostatic position, there isno disequilibrium without compensation. So, misalignmentsor asymmetries in the muscular tonus in one region of thebody create compensations in distant anatomical segments.For example, while lifting a small weight with one hand, themusculature at the opposite side of the hips enhances itstonus. Asymmetries exist when the centre of the resultantforce is not the gravity centre of the body. Asymmetries in themuscular tonus result in abnormal patterns of globalmobilisation, such as sitting and walking. Limitations in any joints, such as congenitalabnormalities, bad postures or external injuries, imply a lackof function in this joint. One region with a lack of functionprovokes asymmetrical muscular tonus, bringingdisequilibrium among the muscular groups and overloadingthe regions responsible for the compensation of such adeficiency. This process continues in such a way that thewhole locomotor system can be seriously damaged and losethe ability to move and support the bodys weight. In a limited way, the musculoskeletal system reacts toaggressions and can regenerate some injuries. Cartilagesthicken and become more resistant in the regions of highertension, but faced with excessive stress they can present signsof destruction, degeneration or calcification. Articular ligaments can strengthen when solicited.However, they are unable to regenerate if they arecompletely sectioned, and even after partial lesion they cantake three to six months to heal. The bones continuously remodel, reflecting thehigher or lower solicitation on them. They react to abnormalconditions in three manners: local necrosis, modifications in 17
    • Dario Palhares & José Antônio Rodriguesbone deposition and modifications in bone reabsorption.Bone deformities are difficult to correct and include the loss ofalignment, abnormal length and bone protuberances. The bones react to exercise with hypertrophyinduced by work or disuse atrophy. In children, intermittentpressions related to normal physical activity are good stimulifor normal bone growth, but the epiphysary cartilages react ina limited way against a large number of abnormal conditions.They can accelerate growth, retard growth or generateasymmetrical growth. The capsules reduce the excessive mobility of thejoints. There are situations that weaken them such as traumasand genetic disorders that predispose joint lesions and bringabout deformities generated from the healing response. A person with musculoskeletal deformities should beanalysed not only regarding the affected structures, but also inthe sense of the effects of the abnormality over the wholelocomotor system.THE FEET The complex made up of the feet and anklesgenerates a stable basis over a large range of positions forsupporting the body weight. It acts as a lever for propulsingthe body while walking. It is a region mostly used for stabilityrather than mobility, but is flexible enough to absorb theimpacts of body weight and the rotations of the legs duringwalking, allowing the feet to adapt to any irregularities whilekeeping stable. The plantar surface continuously receivesstimuli, guiding the responses of muscles, ligaments andtendons through triplane movements. The musculature of the foot is made up of intrinsicand extrinsic muscles that functionally link the feet to the legsand hips. The soles present a lipidic cushion that absorbs theimpact of the feet on the floor, but that also suffers18
    • Elemental Exercises of the Corrective Biogyminflammation if the load and/or volume of solicitationsurpasses the resistance capacity. In an erect posture, the calcaneus takes 53% of thebody weight and the metatarsals, 43%. The distribution of thepressures over the feet is dependent on the shape of theplantar arches and the position of the centre of gravity at agiven moment. In this way, manners for exercising the feetinclude walking over irregular fields (grass, sand, pebbles)and positional variations during gym exercises (outwards,inwards, one foot in front of the other). In the case of theCorrective Biogym, the proposal is that classes are takenbarefoot to exercise the ability of the foot to adapt to differentfields and body postures. The abduction and adduction of the foot areconsequences of the medial and lateral rotation of the leg andnot the intrinsic movements of the foot. When ankles and feetmove, the fibula also moves in a harmonic way. Thus, thetorsion of the fibula is a limiting physiological condition thatalso depends on the internal or external torsion of the hip. Inother words, the position of the foot generates forcesthroughout the inferior member, not only in the ankle. The main musculature for walking is located in thethighs and hips. The legs and feet act as supports, reducingthe balance and the impact and making the centre of the massof the body adjust for smooth changes. The feet make themovement of the body mass a smooth curve instead ofintersection arches, allowing the knees to be horizontallypositioned. The forces for generating such smooth curvesactually originate in the legs. As walking is an activity that requires thecoordination of practically all the body parts, we canunderstand how each person has a peculiar way of walking. Itis often possible to recognise someone at a distance throughthe manner of their walking. 19
    • Dario Palhares & José Antônio Rodrigues Foot pain generates antalgic gaits, resulting inabnormal patterns of movement and alignment in thecomplex make up of the foot, leg and hip. Such abnormalpatterns can result in stress and overload across thelocomotor system and can be responsible, for example, forshoulder or elbow pain. During childhood, the growth of the inferiormembers is not simultaneous, and differences of up to 5 mmin the length of the legs are physiological. Over this value, thedifferences of length provoke disequilibrium in the wholebody.THE KNEES The knee is the biggest and most complex joint of thehuman body. Like the spine, it conciliates two opposingfunctions: flexibility and stability. However, whereas the spineis protected and covered by strong and potent muscles, theknee is protected and stabilised only by tendons, capsules andligaments, and these are all tissues with the reduced ability forregeneration. This explains why, especially for professionalathletes, lesions in the knee are prevalent and a major causefor stopping participation in competitive sports. The knee reduces and stabilises the bouncing of thegravity centre, being both under forces originating from thefoot towards the pelvis and vice versa. This modulates theimpact such that modifications in the neurologic pattern ofthe patellar reflex can indicate biomechanical dysfunctions ofthe pelvis. The knee works under the compression of the bodyweight. The basic movement of the knee is that of flexion andextension. When the knee is flexed, it allows rotation over thelongitudinal axis of the leg. In the flexed position, the knee isparticularly unstable and exposed to lesions in the meniscus,whereas in extended position the knee is more vulnerable tolesions in the ligaments.20
    • Elemental Exercises of the Corrective Biogym Knee ligaments are naturally solicited tocounterbalance forces. Like every mechanical structure, theyhave a utile life, suffering ruptures and signs of fatigue throughthe excess of misuse. They also have proprioceptors thatmodulate the contraction of the leg muscles. So, the reflexarches between the ligaments and legs are lost when they areinjured, thereby predisposing to momentous discoordinationand risking the other ligaments and menisci. However, training muscular coordination caneventually replace good ligaments. Solely strengthening themusculature is not enough to enhance reaction quality andspeed, but dynamic training can reduce the response time ofthe musculature and the lessen the risk of lesions in otherknee structures. Corrective exercises for the knees include exercises ofequilibrium on just one foot, equilibrium over unstablesurfaces such as an elastic bed or tatami, global exercises ofcoordination, strengthening the legs and gluteus andmodifications in the position of the feet. When the axialmuscles are weak and unconditioned, the knees start to besolicited not only as a point of support, but as a propulsionspring, which overloads the ligaments, reducing their utilelife.THE PELVIS The pelvis is the region of the trunk situated below theabdomen where the trunk and legs are linked. The joints ofthe pelvis are very stable and strong. The pelvis contains thereproductive organs and inferior parts of the urinary anddigestive systems, supports the body weight, is the place forthe delivery of a baby and is the point of origin of manymuscles. The pelvis is the most important element for posture.Human bipedalism has positioned the gravity centre close to 21
    • Dario Palhares & José Antônio Rodriguesthe S2 vertebra, thereby inside the pelvis. The action of thepelvis in sustaining the body explains why the handling ofweights in the sitting position is more stressful to the spinethan in the standing position. In the standing position, thepelvic structure counterbalances the handled weights,whereas in the sitting position almost all the pressures aresupported only by the spine. The pelvis moves to keep the equilibrium betweenthe upper and lower body. The forces originating in the legsare transmitted to the pelvis before reaching the spine. Thus,the pelvis is crucial for the equilibrium of the column. Anymalfunction of the pelvis lowers the ability to compensate theforces that reach the spine. The strong muscle groups of the pelvis areresponsible for the high muscular tonus during rest periods.Situations where the abdominal pressure increases (such ascoughing or sneezing) are counterbalanced by a reflexcontraction of the muscles of the pelvic floor. Chronically, allsituations where abdominal pressure overloads themusculature of the pelvic floor, which can weaken andbecome exhausted, result in a loss of function. Bipedalism is a condition of unstable equilibrium thatneeds continuous control and adaptation. Walking is acontrolled fall. In normal walking there is a coordinated flowof muscular activity that begins proximally and then goes intoa distal direction. This is the physiological basis of the idea thatstrengthening the musculature is better started with exercisesthat work the proximal regions so that the structures arestrong enough to sustain more distal muscles that thenstrengthen. In other words, the distal muscles are notnaturally able to get more powerful than the proximal ones. The centre of gravity is continuously moving, evenwith respiratory movements. Thus, the whole body has thenatural tendency to lower the centre of gravity to facilitate theequilibrium: the head is projected towards the floor, the22
    • Elemental Exercises of the Corrective Biogymabdomen protrudes because of lumbar hyperlordosis, theknees are projected backwards and the plantar arches arecompressed. These compensations alleviate the generalmuscular work, but overload the ligaments. In this way, thedeconditioning of the muscles is a major cause of bad postureand painful symptoms.THE SPINE AND UPPER MEMBERS The spine is submitted and responsive to complexforces, since it not only conciliates contradictory mechanicalproperties – stability and flexibility – but also half of the bodyweight is equilibrated over the lumbar portion. Stability isprovided by its strong structure and flexibility is given to thestructure of superimposed vertebras. The spine presentsthree functions: static equilibrium, dynamic equilibrium andspinal cord protection. It also transfers the forces originatedby the movements of the head to the pelvis, allowing thecoordination of the movements of the head, trunk and legs. The anterior portion of the column is structured insuch a way to support the body weight and reduce shocks.The anterior elements – vertebral body and vertebral disc –sustain the body, whereas the posterior elements – joints andneural arches – are responsible for mobility. In a static erect posture, the spine presents twoflexible curves (cervical and lumbar) and two rigid ones(thoracic and coccyx). In a normal and healthy situation, allthe curves are placed at the centre of the medium line ofgravity. The spinal curves give the anti-gravitational action ofthe erector muscles that are developed when learning tostand in childhood. The physiological curves allow the spineto have a higher flexibility and ability to absorb shocks at thesame time as keeping the muscular tonus and providingadequate stability for the intervertebral joints. 23
    • Dario Palhares & José Antônio Rodrigues T h e a n t i - g r a v i t a t i o n a l m u s c u l a t u re w o r k scontinuously, i.e. during rest, during movement, during sleepand during wakefulness. At each instant, muscular action isstarted and corrected by proprioceptive stimuli thatimmediately try to keep the gravity centre in a stable position. However, since bipedalism is still under evolution,physiological weaknesses of the anti-gravitational musclescan be found in the abdominal and neck musculatures,indicating the continuous need to strengthen. The resistance of the spine is grown by the vertebralligaments. These ligaments are present longitudinally in thespine and reduce the excessive mobility of any vertebra byimpeding significant sliding. The physiological flexion of thespine requires from the posterior longitudinal ligament thesame degree of resistance as that from the paravertebralmuscles. In the spine, there are three lines of forces: theanteroposterior line that originates in the foramen magnumand goes to the coccyx, the posteroanterior line thatoriginates in the foramen magnum, passes the anteriorborder of L2–L3 and is halved in the acetabulum and themedium line of gravity that forms an upper triangle in C3 to C6and an inferior triangle in L1 to L4. If one triangle moves toone side, the other moves to the opposite side to compensatefor the deviation. Then, the gravity centre is kept inside thebasis provided by the feet. The whole spine is equilibrated over the sacrum.Thus, a hyperlordosis can only be achieved by movementsfrom the pelvis. The angle of the pelvis is the key for posture.The movements of the spine are a complex of neuromuscularactivities over a mechanical structure. Thus, bad postures canresult from a structural deviation or a repeated bad habit. In the same way, a good habit can be learned andperfected by well performed exercises and corrections indaily attitudes. The neuromuscular work must be precise and24
    • Elemental Exercises of the Corrective Biogymperformed together with a perfect mechanical action of thespine. The cervical spine supports and provides movementsto the head. This region has the greatest amplitude ofmovements of the spine. In this way, since an alteration in oneof the spine curves results in modifications in the other curvesand also since part of the cervical musculature originates inother portions of the spine, there is a clear intrinsic functionalrelationship between the neck and back. To emphasise, aprogramme for correcting problems in the cervical spinemust include exercises for the back and consequently for thepelvis. Notwithstanding, abnormal kyphoses are hallmarks ofweakness of the whole body musculature. The spine, being the support of the body, is frequentlyexposed to overloads. The lumbar region is particularly anorgan of shock and a precocious indicator that the locomotorsystem is under fatigue and/or overload. Functionally, the vertebral lesion is characterised bythe abnormal position or movement of one vertebra over theother. Basically, there might be local or global impediments ofextension, flexion and lateral flexion. In cases of slight lesionor fatigue in any structure of the spine, the surroundingmusculature enters into a tetanic contraction, which is at thesame time painful and protective, acting as a physiological tie.In fact, all the mechanisms of lumbar pain, such asdistensions, disc hernias and traumatic bone lesions, resultfrom the tetanic contraction of the paravertebral muscles. The most obvious cause of lesions of the spine is anexcess of work. However, inactivity is more prevalent andmore dangerous than effort. Inactivity results in muscularatrophy and neuromuscular incoordination. An inactiveperson is then exposed to the fact that the simple daily use ofthe spine becomes an excess of work. In other words, thesenility of the spine is mostly due to inactivity than to thesimple passing of years. 25
    • Dario Palhares & José Antônio Rodrigues The shoulder is the connection zone between thetrunk and hands. It allows both the refined gestures ofprecision and the lifting of weights. It is the articulation withthe most diverse amplitude and types of movements.However, it is the most unstable and has the worst mechanicalefficiency. The functional unit of the shoulder is a complexmade up of suspended articulations, which is related to thedescription of numerous syndromes of lesions of thesurrounding muscles. Generally, the point of support and thepoint of effort are close to each other, which explains the lowmechanical efficiency for lifting weights and the highprecision of movements. The movements of the arms generate forces that aretransmitted to the spine. The predominance of one arm overthe other provokes in the clavicles a tension of torsion that ispropagated over the whole locomotor system. In bipedalism,this aspect demands continuous exercises to compensate. The bilateral symmetry of the body demands thepredominance of one side over the other to quicken themanipulation reflexes but this also generates asymmetricalforces that overload the system, reducing its utile time.THE MOTRICITY Since the first texts on gymnastics in Ancient Greece,exercises have been classified as a simple combination ofpreparation and application. Using the correct technique hasalso been emphasised, which represents at least the beauty ofa determined movement. Also, analytical descriptions ofexercise amounts and targets have been organised accordingto the resulting effects (development of shoulders,development of legs, flexibility). The exercises weregraduated in terms of difficulty and complexity and dividedinto series. Summarising, the basis of modern gymnastics hasbeen described since then.26
    • Elemental Exercises of the Corrective Biogym Regarding the types of exercises, the development ofphysics in the 17th century raised a mechanicist vision of themusculoskeletal system: the paradigm that persists nowadaysis that the locomotor system is a machine of force with simplelevers. This paradigm is reflected when exercises areperformed only in straight and simple directions, theprogression being essentially the relationship betweenvolume and intensity. In human motricity, five components areinseparable: coordination, flexibility, force, speed andresistance. In each exercise, physical diversification isfrequently observed, which is why the predominant modes ofmotor solicitation are deployed. Each movement is the resultof a coordinated interaction among the muscles, localneurological control and brain control. Although motoractions are classified according to the emphasis on force,speed, coordination, the activation of the cardio-respiratorysystem or the mobilisation of one or more modes of energy forthe work, there are no precise limits among the groups ofexercises that pertain to more than one group. Coordination is the synergic action of the central andlocal nervous system and the musculature in a sequence ofmovements. The better the quality of the coordination, theeasier and the more precise is the movement. This lowersenergetic consumption, fatigue level and the risk of lesions.Precise coordination is even more important in morecomplex movements. There is an intramuscular coordination, expressingthe neuromuscular activation, inside the muscle andcoordination for the whole musculature. Many muscles covermore than one articulation, sometimes exerting antagonisticfunctions according to the angle, degree of contraction ordegree of elongation. Even more localised movements areinfluenced by the muscles and close articulations. Thecoordination, thus, is not just a sequence of muscles to besolicited, but a complete whole that must act synergically. 27
    • Dario Palhares & José Antônio Rodrigues When learning and adapting to a gym program,motor and respiratory coordination is increased. Thebeginner experiences a rapid growth of force soon after thefirst classes, and this is conditioned exclusively to theamelioration of intramuscular coordination. Thehypertrophy induced by the exercise is a slow and continuousprocess related to the progression of intensity and/or volume.However, exceeding a determined limit causes the exercisesto become hurtful and the practitioner experiences signs offatigue and loss of the previously acquired performance. Thisis known as overtraining. Muscular fatigue is the reversible reduction infunctional ability due to an excess of work. The time intervalfor the appearance of fatigue varies according to the qualityand quantity of muscular solicitation. Characteristic signs offatigue include a reduction in the ability to exert effort,delayed and insecure motricity, incoordination and anincrease in reaction times. Regarding manual labour, theMedicine of Work defines the limit of fatigue as the amount ofwork that can be completed continuously for eight dailyhours. Flexibility is related to the amplitude of articularmovement. In general, these articulations allow movementsthat are much greater than usual daily use. High flexibilityreduces the risk of injuring muscular fibres during abruptmovements. Furthermore, women are naturally more flexiblethan men for the same level of fitness. Higher bodytemperatures favour this flexibility.A gym that trains only force reduces flexibility because ofmechanical reasons. Flexibility must not be mistaken forhypermobility. Hypermobility is the flatness of the ligamentsthat, although allowing high amplitudes of movements, isinefficient at restricting an excess of mobility, therebypropitiating the chance of injuries.28
    • Elemental Exercises of the Corrective Biogym Regarding the speed of exercises, slower movementsare safer and this should be indicated to beginners. In fact,independent of the speed of a movement, the search mustfocus on refined and perfect control. The refined control of amovement is obtained through a continuous and supervisedpractice and is the best factor for ensuring the safety ofphysical activity. 29
    • THE POSTURAL EXAMINATION Although the human posture varies every second, theterminology postural examination is used to mean a personin a standing position with their feet together. This is a positionwhere body deformities can be evidenced, but in the generalpractice this does not seem to be a good method. Basically, aperfect posture is imagined and the person is compared to thisperfect image. Also, keeping the feet together is not a dailycommon posture. So, in research about postural deviationsusing this method, the control group presents an incidence ofup to 95% of deviations, and it is not clear if they are realdeviations or an adaptation to an unused posture. Evenconsidering that the human posture is still under evolution, toconsider that almost the whole population presentsdeviations from the normality does not suggest anysemiological information. Methods for the static postural examination includethe square and the automatic step. Dynamic evaluationsinclude computerised analysis that describes the angles of thefeet, the knees and so on. In the context of a gym class, the postural examinationis undertaken in a dynamic situation. Is the body correctlyaligned? Is the practitioner correctly performing the exercise?
    • Dario Palhares & José Antônio Rodrigues By the way, what exactly is the correct execution of anexercise? To answer these questions, two basic concepts ofpostural physiology must be borne in mind: the integrity of theposture and the compensation of deviations, whereasymmetries represent a harmful element to the whole body. We have proposed and published one method forpostural analysis, the Method of the Imagined Square. Thestatistical indexes of concordance point out that this methodis useful (as are practically almost all manoeuvres of physicalexamination) for detecting conspicuous deviations. In thecontext of functional gymnastics, evident deviations must becorrected. The detection of the details of angles is notreproducible by unarmed eyes. Anyway, there is nocorrelation between postural deviations and osteomuscularsymptoms. For example, idiopathic juvenile scoliosis is adeforming condition that is painless. In the Method of the Imagined Square, the examinerdraws, mentally, a square over the examined person (Figure1). They then look at these principal lines to see whether themovement in the shoulders, hips, knees, ankles and so on issymmetrical. So, not only in a standing position, but alsoduring an exercise, body segments can be observed andevaluated. In particular, running and jumping exercises aresimple manoeuvres for highlighting weakness and globalmuscular asymmetries. The examiner should keep in mind that when adeviation is observed in any region that all the structure isunder tension and that it is highly probable that otherdeviations in other regions will be seen. Body movementsoccur in a triplane: scoliosis, for example, is accompanied byaxial rotations, not only by lateral torsions. Figure 2 illustratesa person who has suffered an acute torticollis or an acutetorsion in an ankle. The diagram shows that line by line thebody presents deviations to compensate for this problem.32
    • Elemental Exercises of the Corrective Biogym This can explain, for example, situations where oneknee develops osteoarthritis before the other or one shoulderis weaker than the other. These situations represent individualreactions to postural deviations. The Method of the Imagined Square can be appliedto people that present at least one healthy vertical line and anintact nervous system. Figure 2 cannot explain, for example, aperson that has fractured both ankles. In the case of severenervous injuries (generally in automobile accidents), theposture behaves in a different manner from the instantaneouscompensation of deviations. In the absence of a nervoussystem integrating the musculature, the compensation ofdeviations is lost. In the context of functional gyms, the evaluation ofstructured lesions should focus on the limitations theyprovoke. For example, how does this varus interfere with thepersons life? What exercises will present more difficulties? Inwhat sense does this disc herniation impede movement? Isthere a difficulty flexing the spine? In stretching? Thus, the Imagined Square is useful for detectingasymmetries, and the excess of curves can be highlighted tothe practitioner and systematically corrected, especiallyduring static positions. It can also quantify gym progress tocorrect the functional disturbances of lesions. Eyes Shoulders Hips Knees AnklesFigure 1: Diagram of the Imagined Square. The body is representedby a cylinder to remind that the postural exam is done in threedimensionas. The examiner draws imaginary horizontal lines over 33
    • Dario Palhares & José Antônio Rodrigueseyes, shoulders, hips, knees and ankles. The vertical central linerepresents the spine and the lateral vertical lines are the lateral limitsof the body. Eyes Shoulders Hips Knees AnklesFigure 2: Diagram showing the compensation of deviations. Thisdiagram can be applied to a person with intact neuronal reflexes anda strong lateral vertical line to support the damaged vertical line. Forexample, a torticollis, a scoliosis or a torsion of the ankle: thedeviations are compensated line by line, in a tridimensionalmovement.34
    • PRINCIPLES OF FUNCTIONAL GYMS Gyms can methodically and progressively increasethe abilities of the locomotor system. The less desenvolvedthe muscular resistance, the less the time before a givenmuscle presents signs of fatigue. The absence or inefficiencyof a tired muscle overloads other muscular groups, whichthen also suffer fatigue, producing a cascade effect.Moreover, the less flexible the muscles, the greater theprobability of suffering from excessive tension during dailyactivities. Sedentary persons from the point of view of thecardio-respiratory system are also sedentary from the point ofview of the musculature and joints. Persons with bettercardio-respiratory conditioning present fewer osteomuscularsymptoms. In addition, the greater the variety of movements,the greater the possibility of learning and developing newmovements. Besides the preventive aspect, gyms can also betherapeutic. Treatments for acute muscular pain are very oldand include massages, heat, cold, cataplasms and rest.However, people suffering from chronic painful syndromescan benefit from functional gymnastics that aretherapeutically indispensable and, in many cases, the onlypossibility for the definite alleviation of the pain. Progression
    • Dario Palhares & José Antônio Rodriguesis personal and continuous. It is not possible to expect perfectresults over a short period because functional correctionsneed a complete rearrangement. A peculiar situation is pregnancy, when lumbar andcervical pain is frequent and follows an individualisedpattern, with some pregnant women suffering moresymptoms than others. During pregnancy, the analgesicfunction of physical exercise is ambiguous: some pregnantwomen show maximal benefits after adhering to a gymprogramme. In general, a pregnant woman must not be inertbut also must not submit to extenuating exercise. The safestexercises are those of low intensity and volume. Professionalsthat work with pregnant women should keep in mind that if aproblem in the pregnancy occurs (bleeding, miscarriage,placental abruption) the vigorous exercise will be pointed outas the causative agent of the event, even if it had nothing to dowith it. Pregnant women that exercised in gyms for at least twoyears before the pregnancy can continue with their programsof exercise, but should avoid any progression in volumeand/or intensity. Ideally, pregnant women after the firsttrimester should go to classes specifically for them. Regarding the musculoskeletal system, the aims of acorrective gym program are analgesia, gain of movement,gain of muscular force, proprioception (self-knowledge of thebody), muscular resistance, functional motor learning andbody equilibrium. In particular, the Corrective Biogymproposes general physical preparation to develop globalmotor abilities and a harmonious development of the bodymovements. Besides harmonising the development of themusculoskeletal system, the effects of the exercises includethe enhancement of the glycolipidic profile, cardiovascularresistance, arterial function, venous return and pulmonaryfunction as well as the flexibility of the vestibular system.36
    • Elemental Exercises of the Corrective Biogym A child has a great flexibility of the tissues andvestibular system. During childhood, rotation is usuallyfollowed by pleasant sensations, whereas for adults rotation isfollowed by nausea and deeply unpleasant sensations. Theless the vestibular system is worked, the faster it will lose itsflexibility, until an end point where slight corporal rotationsare followed by body disequilibrium, vertigo and nausea. Allhead movements mobilise and exercise the vestibular system.In this way, proprioception (on which the body equilibriumdepends completely) can be worked both in static anddynamic situations. The intensity for challenging the bodyequilibrium can be varied according a reduction in thesurface of support, an application of an external weight or aposition that moves the centre of gravity of the body. The sequence of a functional gym is started bywarming up, continued by global exercises, followed byspecific exercises and ended with relaxing and mentalconcentration exercises. In gym classes, some exercises aredesigned for couples or groups, but the safer way to mobilise apainful joint is active movement within the amplitude that awarmed body can allow. The corrective gym program should not focus only onthe specific problem of the practitioner, but strengthen andstretch the musculature as a whole, in such a way that theperson finds its own axis of equilibrium. Therefore, the following programs are inadequate:programs to correct only the feet without working with thepelvis; to strengthen the arms without strengthening andstretching the shoulders and neck; and to strengthen theupper members without strengthening the pelvis, the inferiormembers and the spine. In a holistic vision of the locomotor system, the initialforce provided by the gyms is concentrated on the pelvis.Then, the force evolves towards the feet and the neck. At thesame time, the shoulders get stronger and the force evolves 37
    • Dario Palhares & José Antônio Rodriguestowards the hands. This means that for alleviating painfulsyndromes in the wrists and hands, sometimes an overallworkout is needed. Local treatments might not be enough. The organism weighs and so the muscular work tosupport this weight must be constant. Body positionsrepresent many diagrams of forces that the musculature mustsupport, such as standing, dorsal decubitus, ventraldecubitus, lateral decubitus, sitting, on all fours, and so on.Each of these demands detailed and distinct manners ofmuscular work. The body can and must be light. A light body meansthat the body weight represents a light load for a givenmusculature. The exercises turn the body parts that initiallyare heavy into the self-musculature, allowing just a fewrepetitions of movements, into a lighter load, allowing 30, 50or 100 repetitions of a given movement. Diverse positions can be sustained for seconds,minutes or hours. If a given posture represents the maximaluse of muscular force of a given joint, only a few seconds aresustained. As the body becomes lighter, the self-weightrepresents lighter loads, allowing it to keep a position forminutes or even hours. Resuming, the lightness of the bodyrepresents a good resistance to fatigue in situations where themusculature must overcome the force of gravity. Also, this self-lightness must present a symmetricalaspect: equilibrium between right and left, between anteriorand posterior, between agonists and antagonists. If thisbalance is not developed, injuries can arise such asmorphological alterations or bad joint positioning, with ahigher probability of lesions in tendons and cartilages. Regarding the regimen of muscular work, theexercises can be static (or isometric), where no apparentmovement occurs, dynamic (or isotonic), where there is anarticular movement or a composition of both. Circularmovements, involving semicircles and clockwise and38
    • Elemental Exercises of the Corrective Biogymanticlockwise circles, are essential for the body to slowlyrecover its axis of equilibrium, since the circle is a simple,smooth figure with a well-defined centre. The symbolrepresents, schematically, the majority of the movements ofthe joints: backwards and forwards, right and left, semicirclesand circles. In this way, each body segment can be exercised. Every musculoskeletal activity is preceded byanticipation and preparation. In appropriate conditions,imminent tension will make the body react with the tonus andform the correct contraction to support it. So, the practitionermust concentrate on the execution of the exercise, especiallyin the body region being worked. The ambience shouldfavour concentration. Noise, loud music, strong lights,uncomfortable temperatures, dusty floors and badlyventilated rooms do not combine with corrective gymnastics.The mind should be free of externally exaggerated stimuli toobtain the most correct and well-drawn exercises. Anyway,motor exercise can be helped by mental exercise. Previousimagining of the movement improves performance. Goodmusic at a comfortable volume helps gym classes but is not avital element. The preparation for the exercise involves thefollowing stages: explanation from the teacher (when themost relevant details should be highlighted), demonstrationof the correct execution of the exercise and routine correctionof the practitioners during the class. When learning a newexercise, attention is focused on the rational execution ofeach single element of the motor act so that it becomesautomatic, light and simple. In our experience, in the first twoclasses of a new pupil, corrections are made only for verywrong movements. The first classes are an adaptive period.As the practitioner continues with the classes, the correctionstend to be more constant and systematic. Beginners shouldnot be pressed to present the same performance as veteranpractitioners. 39
    • Dario Palhares & José Antônio Rodrigues Slight variations in the exercises give dynamism to themuscular work. To the frequent question are closed legs orstraight legs the correct position for abs, the answer is both arecorrect. The wrong way is to work repetitively with only oneof them. The least efficient mode for structuring classes iswhen the same means are applied repetitively in the sameway; very quickly an organic adaptation occurs andprogression in the results stops. There is not a single exercisethat can work the musculature in its complete plenitude.Rigid programs of exercises are inadequate, exactly becausethe basic need of the human musculature is the one ofworking in a great variety of exercises. There are an infinite number of possible classes. In agood sequence of exercises, one movement pulls the other.The movements can be slow and smooth or quick andexplosive. Beginners should do them slowly and smoothlyand, according to the results, start with the quick andexplosive ones. Theoretically, corrective gyms use only thebodys own weight; however, some external weights can beused after the first period of adaptation to the gym. This mightbe the weight of another person, especially if the aim of agiven exercise is to free force-velocity. In all cases, self-knowledge and self-respect with regard to the limits arecritical. In a way that is more evident in the trunk, themusculature presents functional redundancy: more than onemuscular group can generate the same type of movement.So, there is a large variability of muscular solicitation amongpeople and, as training evolves, there is also variability withinthe same person. The concept of the association ofmovements, which means the musculature as a whole worksfor a given movement, explains why different pupils perceivethe intensity and effect of the same gym class in different ways.According to the general and specific conditioning of each ofthe practitioners, a given muscular group can beproportionally more solicited than another.40
    • Elemental Exercises of the Corrective Biogym The description and development of new exercisesfollow these steps: 1) analysing the possible movements of ajoint; 2) imagining an exercise; 3) applying this exercise to agiven program; and 4) evaluating the ease and effect ofpractitioners. Common variations in a gym program includevariations in the intensity and number of repetitions, use ofdifferent materials of support (bars, steps) and stimulus tocomplementary training in other physical modalities. Owingto human behaviour, adherence is greater if classes are takenin groups and led by a teacher. The isolated prescription ofexercises is accompanied by abandonment by practically allpatients. With a number of repetitions from 20 to 40movements, the gain of resistance is linear and continuous.Obviously, if the practitioners tolerate 100 to 150 repetitions,there is once more a quicker gain of force and resistance.However, greater volumes than that limit are frequentlyassociated with fatigue and overtraining, showing decreasingeffects, becoming similar to the mechanism of lesions fromrepetitive movements. Each body lever presents a distinct degree ofmechanical efficiency. So, 30 repetitions can be enough for agiven exercise, excessive for others and insufficient for therest. The teacher, personal perception, aim of the class andyield of the practitioners should guide the number ofrepetitions. If the practitioner cannot complete the series, thenthe repetitions must be done correctly. Doing a few correctmovements is much more important and efficient than doinga lot quickly and wrongly. If a practitioner cannot complete agiven exercise, then an alternative should be proposed.Generally, more simple movements can prepare a beginnerfor the desired exercise. 41
    • LESIONS A constant preoccupation for whoever is responsiblefor a group of gym practitioners is the occurrence of lesionsderived from the exercises. Apart from accidents, lesions inthe musculoskeletal system can derive from, among otherthings, sudden overload, excessive repetition of movementand insufficient rest. In general, the majority of lesions occur during thesimple daily work. A lesion that suddenly appears derivesfrom the accumulation of work undertaken inadequately. All practitioners of physical exercise feel painfulsymptoms. The physiological response to exercise derivesfrom small lesions, sometimes perceptible only underelectronic microscopy. If the human body presents a lesion,an inflammatory response is started, the basic perception ofthis inflammation is pain and the final result is the formation ofa stronger tissue. So, as the exercise starts a reparativeresponse, it makes the locomotor system gain strongermuscles, bones and tendons and stronger and more flexibleligaments. When a process of body correction is started througha gym program, forgotten structures are suddenly mobilised.The organism perceives that something has been injured and
    • Dario Palhares & José Antônio Rodriguesit starts a reparative response. This initial phase isinflammatory and thereby painful. In this way, gym class beginners feel pain in themusculoskeletal system. If the lesions pass a given biologicallimit, the physical exercise is not beneficial and is malefic,bringing about progressive degeneration. All gym class professionals will have pupils that feelstronger or lighter pain. The question is to know thesemiological profile of the pain, including associatesymptoms and limitations. In general, veterans know how todifferentiate the good little pain of the gym from a moreserious lesion, for example a muscular distention. The typicalpain of good exercise only starts after an overnight period,lasts for two or three days and then gradually disappears. Signs that the pain indicates a more serious lesion or aprocess of lesions for repetitive work include continuous andrecurring pain in a same region (knees, shoulders, elbows,spine), pain worsened by the execution of a given exercise,pain during or immediately after the gym class and pain that isnot alleviated by the initial warm-up period. If a movement orposition feels painful during a class, the person mustimmediately stop. Ignoring the pain significantly enhancesthe risk and the degree of lesion. The behaviour of the gym teacher should varyaccording to the expressed pain of the practitioner. As ageneral principle, the beginner should not ignore the pain,but respect it. If a given movement is painful, then completeonly a few repetitions, stop, rest and continue. If a givenregion starts to show signs of suffering, relative rest can beprovided by reducing the intensity and/or volume of exercisesin that region. So, a painful region or a painful movementindicates that this region must be worked. But the teachershould think about the volume, intensity and amplitude ofmovements for that region. A previously painful region canoften present a rapid amelioration with the frequency to a44
    • Elemental Exercises of the Corrective Biogymcorrective gym program. Some weeks later, that region againpresents intense pain, as if the original lesion has returned.When this second pain disappears, this finally indicates theend of the reparative process of the lesion. The beginner has not accumulated enoughexperience to differentiate between physiological pain and amore serious lesion. Some teachers have the habit ofstimulating the beginner to ignore such pain, but the saferpractice is to respect the pain. Limits exist for our self-existence. Gym work aims to expand these limits not rupturethem. For example, if there were no limits, then the headwould easily detach from the neck and the feet would goaway from the legs, which means the integrity of the bodywould be endangered. The rupture of limits is harmful. Theenlargement of limits is desirable. Children can heal and recover faster from lesions, buttheir smaller size and development exposes them to cartilagelesions that could seriously harm the adult corporal structure.Avoiding lesions needs force, resistance and muscularflexibility, such as in adulthood. In preadolescent athletes, thedevelopment of the musculature is a factor of protecting itduring games. Much is discussed about the ideal time to startbuilding the body musculature of children with externalweights. But exercises that involve the childs own bodyweight are certainly safe. It is very important that the teacher observes carefullythe practitioners during the gym class and corrects them oneby one. This correction is based on the analysis provided bythe Imagined Square Method. In this sense, the participationof the group is important. Practitioners should be stimulatedto counter the repetitions of movements, so that the teachercan walk across the room and individually correct thepractitioners. Here, we point out again that beginners shouldnot be aiming for perfection but serious mistakes should becorrected. 45
    • Dario Palhares & José Antônio RodriguesWhen the teacher observes that a given practitioner cannotcomplete the exercise in a 100% correct and coordinatedmanner, then the next class should be used for thatpractitioner learn the most important aspects of the exercise.Sometimes a practitioner presents a particular difficulty in theexecution of certain movements. This is derived from gaps inmotor learning, something that has slowly been installed andthat will disappear gradually. For example, a practitioner thatis not able to jump on alternate feet while moving their armsin a circular direction can be simply a victim of the terriblewalkers during the period of the second semester of life. So,continuous practice will develop better motor coordination,if the practice is supervised and corrected. No pressing. Eachone evolves in a particular moment. Some authors of books on gymnastics describe theexistence of dangerous exercises, which are potentiallyharmful and therefore forbidden. As a contradiction, many ofthese exercises are described in yoga, a millenar practice, andmany others appear in texts of corrective exercises. However, in principle, there is no posture ormovement that is harmful by itself. There are certainly morecomplex movements that should be performed morecarefully and with good concentration. For example, a personcan be injured when trying to handle excessive weightswithout a good ergonomic position. Regarding active movements (those performedspontaneously), the literature has never shown an evidentcausative nexus between a given stretching exercise and aserious muscular lesion. Practitioners with previouscomplaints do not present higher risks than asymptomaticpersons. However, the appearance of pain in the bodyregions that are naturally overloaded is common,corresponding to the initial reparative response triggered bygym. The first trimester of a new gym program is the periodwhere pain is more likely to arise, whereas after six months themost common pain is from muscular fatigue. Empirically, six46
    • Elemental Exercises of the Corrective Biogymmonths is a general period of learning and motor adaptationto a new gym. As seen in the biomechanical study, the lumbarspine is the shock point of all the body weight and is the mostfrequent site of complaint, followed by the knees, ankles andfeet. In general, sporadic cases of serious injuriesprovoked by gyms are more likely to be related to the lesion ofrepetitive work than the type of exercise. The best way toavoid such a possibility is variety. In general, practitionersdislike similar classes, and this aspect is not just a demandfrom the market, but a deep theoretical view. Variety servesboth for a broader work of the musculature and enhancessafety during medium and long-term programs of exercise.Our experience with lesions We will now show some cases of where theCorrective Biogym apparently provoked a lesion. We will alsodescribe manual techniques for overcoming acute torsion inthe ankles, wrists and fingers and acute torticollis. The reasonfor showing these cases is to demystify the taboo exercises andremind that no exercise is always harmful. The danger isincorrect execution with inadequate supervision (or,generally, without any supervision). Case 1: a 48-year-old man, with cervical disc hernias in C5-C6 and C6-C7, diagnosed 10 years before. Over the past three years, he had not used analgesics and kept to light physical activity (irregular walking). During the Biogym classes, he tolerated well the exercises for neck, including the Bridge and the Meat of Neck series. However, a slight reduction in the mobility of his left thigh was noticed during the series from Light Legs to the Body. After three months of gym, he had developed 47
    • Dario Palhares & José Antônio Rodrigues a bursitis in the hip that, after 20 days, finally receded and did not recrudesce in at least the following four months. Case 2: a 43-year-old woman, practitioner of yoga, runner and member of her local gym. She presented a slight scoliosis (idiopathic juvenile scoliosis) and chronic tendinitis in the right elbow and wrist related to her work with computers. She also had previous tendinitis in the trapezoid muscle and had been plastered on two occasions: one year and six months before beginning the program. After about 60 days of regular frequency to the classes, she developed a chronic torticollis while on holiday. She returned to the Corrective Biogym and was treated with physiotherapy and Global Posture Re- education. During the classes, she was good at the Series of the Table and at the push-ups, but the Bridge and the flexions in the Bridge triggered needle-like pain in the neck. Subsequent classes planned to prepare her to support the Bridge, including the Inverted Table, the Meat of Neck and the elongations of the bow and of the boat. After two weeks, she did a perfect Bridge and flexions in the Bridge. In the next four months, she presented no more painful limitations during the classes. Case 3: a 57-year-old man, practitioner of yoga and walking. He had his thyroid removed 10 years before and was using thyroxin and had regular medical assistance. After three months of regular practice of the Biogym, he presented suddenly with thoracic pain after the Series of the Locust. The pain was described as a sudden cracking noise in the 12th left rib. He sought no further medical assistance. The pain worsened in the first four days and then gradually disappeared. Four weeks after this48
    • Elemental Exercises of the Corrective Biogym episode, he returned to the classes. Three weeks later he went for a bone scintigraphy as part of his medical routine that showed a hypercaptant area compatible with the consolidation of a bone fracture in the region in the rib. In the following year, he presented no similar symptoms, including during classes with the Series of the Locust. Case 4: a 29-year-old man, practitioner of gym and fitness work. After nine months of regular practice, he presented bilateral lumbar pain after a class that had the stretching of opening the hip with the Pose of the Turtle. The pain worsened during the following day, with spastic contraction of the lumbar musculature, a typical presentation of acute muscular distension. He presented a partial recovery after four days and a complete recovery after seven days. He never presented symptoms in subsequent classes with the same exercise. Case 5: a 37-year-old woman, practitioner of walking. She had suffered a fall in her teens and had fractured her right humerus. During the classes, the movements of the arm were preserved, but she had a habit of always keeping her right elbow flexed. She was oriented towards keeping her arms as extended as possible. After nine weeks of regular practice, she woke up with an acute pain close to the right elbow, described as a similar pain to when she suffered the fracture. The pain worsened in the first five days and then gradually disappeared. She noticed that the mobilisation of the right arm enhanced and the habit of keeping the elbow flexed was abandoned. She never presented a similar pain again. In all of these cases, the Corrective Biogym curedhidden lesions. As seen, all these cases presented a limited 49
    • Dario Palhares & José Antônio Rodriguesclinical course that did not repeat afterwards. The exercisesdid not provoke a lesion, they rather revealed lesions andunderlying weaknesses. The inflammatory response is apainful response that repairs an injury. Since the musculatureis not solicited in its complete plenitude, at the beginning of acorrective gym session, a previously forgotten region starts tobe recruited. This forgotten injured portion then triggers aninflammatory response, thereby generating a strongerhealing and a correction in the structure. Empirically, after a wound, the body develops aprotective cover over injured muscles, tendons and joints.With the massage provided by the Corrective Biogym, thiscover one day is broken, the lesion returns to its beginning, anew inflammatory process is started and a new cicatrix,stronger and more functional, is formed. In the cases cited, the events occurred mostly withinthe first six months of practice. The first six months are aperiod of adaptation to a new routine of exercises. The mostcommon lesions in gyms are torsions of ankles, wrists andfingers. Generally, these torsions do not present a seriousrupture of ligaments. Torsions provoked by mild forces (badstepping, holding a ball at high speed) can be immediatelyundone in a smooth manner, and for this the symbol Å mustbe remembered: delicate passive movements forwards andbackwards, side to side and in a circular motion. When thismanoeuvre is performed immediately after the accident, itreduces the posterior edema and eases the recovery of thejoint. However, it should not be done if the torsion occurredmore than half an hour earlier or if there are signs of bonefractures. The CD that comes with this book shows achiropractic sequence for the acute suppression of torticollis.Acute torticollis is not fully understood, but it is a situationwhere the local neuronal control activates a titaniccontraction of the cervical musculature. According to thepostural diagram, not only the neck but all the musculature is50
    • Elemental Exercises of the Corrective Biogymunder tension. The following manoeuvres relax themusculature within 20 minutes, but the painful sensation canlast longer. They can be applied to children over two yearsold, but the effects are less clear in children because of thehigh flexibility of their muscular system. a) In ventral decubitus, with the face turned to the side, is the most difficult. The patient inhales and exhales deeply. When exhaling, the therapist presses the thoracic vertebras with their wrists, from bottom to top. Three pressures follow: one in T11, another in T5 and another in T1. A loud cracking sound is generally heard; b) Then, the therapist pulls each leg, kindly and firmly, posteriorly in the direction of the opposite shoulder. Cracking sounds are common; c) With the arms extended and opened laterally, the therapist holds the hands of the patient and kindly tries to make one wrist touch the other. The patient then turns the head to the other side and this manoeuvre is repeated; and d) The sequence ends with the therapist holding the hands of the patient and lifting the trunk. The patient should try to sit on the ankles and then stand up. Acute torticollis occurs idiosyncratically. Thosesuffering from recurrent acute torticollis will benefit fromfunctional gyms. 51
    • STRETCHING Flexibility is a fundamental property of the musculartissue that allows the execution of movements with ease,optimised coordination and the exploitation of the totalamplitude of the joints. A rigid musculature is paradoxicallyfragile and liable to ruptures because one of the mechanismsof muscular lesion is that the muscle must be forced morethan its amplitude and shortened rigid muscles present areduced ability of distension. Force and flexibility must beexercised together for harmonic muscular development. The amplitude of a stretch exercise can present twoaspects: only keeping the existent arch of movement andamplifying the arch. Such a distinction is sometimes found inthe literature as a definition of stretching and flexing. Thebasic movements are the same, only the executionprocedures are different. The best stretching schools come from yoga. Yoginsbelieve that youthfulness is a synonym of flexibility, which isfundamental for the body to be light. A baby is born with ahigh flexibility and the optimal age for starting systematicstretching is around 3–4 years, when the musculature is veryflexible and the child has the maturity to execute simpleexercises. According to the biological law of use and rest, if a
    • Dario Palhares & José Antônio Rodriguesflexible ability is not worked, it will be lost. As a consequence,the amplitude of possible movements is reduced. Smallamplitudes of movements, repetitive movements andexhausted movements are the basic mechanisms of lesion tothe musculoskeletal system. Since daily activities arerestrictive, there is a need to continuously stretch in aconscious and well-guided manner. The level of flexibilityvaries along the day: inferior values are observed in themorning and throughout the day the values are enhanced,reaching their peak at twilight. This is reflected in the habit ofpractitioners of gyms: approximately 85% of people prefer toexercise at midday or in the afternoon and around 15% like togo to the gym early in the morning. Limits exist and must be respected. Our existencedepends on the limits our body imposes. Exercise aims toamplify, to enlarge the limits. If today the limit of stretching of agiven joint is X mm, next week the limit will be X + 0.1 mm, sothat slowly the musculature acquires great and beautifulflexibility. The tendons are inextensible and are not liable ofstretching. In the mechanism of stretching, the generation ofmyofibrils is done by the synthesis of new sarcomeres close tothe junction between the muscle and the tendon. So, from thepoint of view of a gym exercise, the stretch should beimagined as to elongate the tendon, which means, joints arewell extended. Stretching shows four phases: (1) an initial phase ofrelaxing the muscular tonus that is facilitated by the warmingup of the muscle; (2) an elastic phase where the musclequickly returns to the initial position; (3) a plastic phase,where the muscle is deformed and after some applicationsthis deformation becomes permanent; and (4) the rupturephase (lesion). Experiments with fragments of musclesconfirm the ancient teaching of yoga: with a stronger force,the elongation is higher. However, the plastic deformity afterthe removal of the external force is greater if the traction is of54
    • Elemental Exercises of the Corrective Biogymlow intensity and long duration. To the gym principles, astrong and sudden stretch exercise can rupture and injure themusculature, whereas a comfortable position sustained forenough time leads to extremes of movements. So, for the plastic action of stretching occurs, aminimum time is needed. In general, a minimum of 15seconds is indicated, but there are yoga practices thatindicate several minutes in each one of the poses. The plastic action of the stretching occurs only fromthe maximal amplitude of the joint position. The minimumtime for stretching is referred to as the time after thepractitioner reached the muscular limit. For each muscularchain, the series must include at least two repetitions, ideallythree or more. The first repetition of the series serves to relaxthe muscles. In the following repetitions, practitioners reachthe maximum amplitude slowly and continuously. In general,more than four repetitions do not add further elongation. Inthis case, classes that use a greater number of repetitions areworking with other aspects from the gym, such asconcentration, resistance or variation of the classes. Only onemovement in just one series is frankly inefficient forstretching. Stretching exercises can be in a spontaneous staticposition, ballistic movements, passive static positions or asequence of neuromuscular facilitation. The ballisticmovements do not induce good elongation, but they serve toprepare for sudden sports movements and for warming up.The passive positions are more frequently related to lesions.The spontaneous static position is efficient and safe. Theneuromuscular facilitation is a sequence of positioning in agiven amplitude of movement, followed by an external forceagainst the movement for three to five seconds and a rapidremoval of this force. This can provoke muscular relaxationand a slightly greater amplitude of elongation. 55
    • Dario Palhares & José Antônio Rodrigues In a stretching position, respiration must be smoothand the practitioner should smile. Stretching is relaxation: ifthe position is tense and uncomfortable the exercise is doingno good. Signs that the stretching is being performed badlyinclude discomfort, blushing, dyspnea, pain, fatigue andpalpitations. The muscle being stretched is under a reduced bloodflow. At the beginning of a stretching program the practitionercan feel the muscle pain and burn that are signs of theaccumulation of lactic acid. With practice, these signs slowlytend to disappear. It is important to be aware that one side of the body isoften more elongated than the other. In this way, theequilibrium is reached with symmetry of amplitude ofstretching. Flexibility must not be confused with hypermobilityor the lassitude of the ligaments. Good flexibility is associatedwith strong resistant muscles and ligaments, whereashypermobility and lassitude are clinical conditions where aperson can reach dangerous amplitudes of articularmovements. For these persons, stretching exercises should beslower and more conscious. The joints should be mobile toallow the necessary movements but they cannot be so mobileas to induce the instability of the joint. In general,hypermobility is expressed in the shoulders and kneesbecause these are the most unstable joints of the skeleton. Below, we list the principal basic stretchingmovements of the joints that more frequently tend to shorten.ShouldersThe shoulders continuously tend to move and stand onwardsand upwards, going with the movement of kyphosis. Theyshould be worked in gym programs in order to be openedbackwards and downwards. The main stretching exercisesare:56
    • Elemental Exercises of the Corrective Biogym a) The pose of the Inverted Prayer; b) The pose of the Horn; c) To cross the shoulders behind the back and hold the hip in the opposite side; d) The pose of the Plough; and e) To hold the hands behind the back, then to bend the trunk forwards and lift the arms. This position can be performed in a straight or diagonal direction.Elbows The stretching exercises for the elbows are similar tothose for the shoulders. Using the idea of the centre-to-extremities development of the force, an elbow withrestricted movements limits both the movements of theshoulders and those of the hands and wrists. Basic exercises: a) To hold the hands behind the back. The wrists can touch or just the fingers can be holding; and b) In the pose of the Plough, the hands hold each other and stay in contact with the floor.Wrists Stretching the wrists is particularly important forpeople who work with computers or other precise manualjobs. The basic movements are lateral extension, posteriorextension and inverted extension. The inverted extensionworks with the elbows that must be kept as extended aspossible. 57
    • Dario Palhares & José Antônio RodriguesPosterior muscular chain While walking, the posterior muscular chain is keptunder tension to maintain the bodys equilibrium. The backmusculature must be tensioned to avoid falling. The posteriormusculature of the legs and the musculature of the spine thentend to progressively shorten. The basic movement for stretching the posteriormuscular chain is to bend the trunk forwards as the headtouches the extended knees. The feet can stand in plantarflexion or dorsiflexion. The position can be carried out in astanding position or on the floor. If done on the floor, it isimportant to sit over the ischiums not over the sacrum and tokeep the spine erect. A hint for this position is to lift the hips forabout 10 seconds, supporting the body with the hands andankles. This manoeuvre facilitates this exercise. Although the basic movement is simple, this is themost important stretching exercise. This basic position alsoallows a great variability of movements and positions.Standing up or sitting, drawing an inverted V (the position ofthe Inverted Dog), standing on just one foot and extendingthe other leg are just some of the many variations for theelongation of the posterior muscular chain. The descriptionof exercises for this area is vast in the literature, and a goodsample can be found in Battista and Vives (1984), Alter(1990), Fernandes (1992), Hermógenes (1995), Anderson(2000), Voigt (2002), Dantas (2005) and Kaminoff (2008)among others.Trunk: lateral rotation The lateral rotation of the trunk is the ability to leanthe axil against the opposite side of the flexed knee. The basicexercise is the pose of the Lord of the Fishes. Variations in thisexercise can be done in the dorsal decubitus. Combinedexercises can be performed for the dynamism of the classes.58
    • Elemental Exercises of the Corrective BiogymExtension of the spine The extension of the spine also elongates theabdominal musculature. Basic movements are the pose of theBow and the pose of the Bridge. This is a particularly beautifulelongation, essential for artistic gymnasts. In a correctiveprogram, it is important for the rehabilitation of thelimitations imposed by disc hernias (always within thepractitioner´s limits).Opening of the hips Keeping the hips opened is important for a light andhealthy walk. As time goes by, the ligaments and musculatureof the hips shorten, which results in a senile pattern of walkingbased on short ant-like steps and can create difficulties forclimbing stairs. The opening of the hips involves: a) The lateral aperture, mainly the pose of the Lotus. Preparation for the Lotus involves the half-lotus pose with one leg extended or the movement of the Moth; b) Lateral aperture of the Cow Face pose; c) The classic aperture of 180°: lateral and forwards and backwards; d) Combined exercise with the stretching of the postural muscular chain: sitting with open legs, bend the trunk forwards and touch the floor with the chin; e) Squatting, which is a very important exercise. According to the yogins, the squatting position, also known as the Fetal pose, places all the musculature and pelvic organs in the correct positions; and f) To sit down over the ankles and then bend backwards to lie down. 59
    • Dario Palhares & José Antônio RodriguesKnees Any restriction of movement in the knees preventsexercises that stretch the hips. The stretching of the posteriormuscular chain needs the knees to be extended. Thestretching of the anterior musculature of the thighs can beimpeded when the knees cannot be totally flexed. Anyimmobility of the knees must be carefully respected: thecontinuous practice of a corrective gym will slowly release themovements of the knees. If a given exercise is particularlypainful, the practitioner should carry out just a fewrepetitions, gradually increasing the repetitions according tothe therapeutic response.Feet The feet must be stretched in dorsiflexion, plantarflexion and lateral flexion (this one particularly worked in theLotus pose). The stretching exercises of the feet usually followthose of the legs, and the variations in the positions of the feetgive dynamism to the gym classes. The stretching abilities ofthe feet are important for correct functioning, where the feetneed good flexibility in the direction of the triplanemovements.60
    • EXERCISE CLASSES We now describe the exercises to show thetheoretical proposal of the symbol Å in the drawings. Thevideo that comes together with the book shows many of theexercises of the Corrective Biogym. However, it is notexhaustive and there are movements that don’t appear in thevideo. Anyway, the idea of applying circular and diagonalmovements to the exercises is well documented in the video.To demonstrate our experience and clarify the nature of theclasses of the Corrective Biogym, we will then illustrate somesequences. We know that different instructors create differentclasses and this is the beauty of going to gym classes. Thecombinations of body movements are infinite; all thetextbooks on exercises do not even exhaust all thepossibilities. In this sense, we urge the reader to continuouslysearch for the described exercises both in ancient books andrecent videos and publications. The principles of the Corrective Biogym can beperformed personally. However, our classes are organised ingroups. Each day is different, and there are days with greateror fewer practitioners depending on the climate, schoolvacations, season and so on. Some practitioners really like
    • Dario Palhares & José Antônio Rodriguesour proposal and never miss a class, whereas others are theopposite. However, we believe this happens with all gyms. Performing classes in groups reunites motricity withsocial participation. Our classes are planned according to theneeds of each one of the practitioners. The gym classes workwith the whole musculature. However, we emphasise thatsome exercises could benefit a particular practitioner. In thisway, we can attend to any specific demands. Some practitioners of the Corrective Biogym are in arehabilitation phase, whereas others are still developingcoordination and force. Therefore, our experience withgroup exercises is limited. For more advanced classes, werecommend the cited literature, such as Netto and Beresford(1978), Kos et al. (1979), Battista and Vives (1984), Kucera(1983, 1984), Nespereira (2002) and Foquet and Balcells(2003) among others. Our proposal is basically to work against gravity. Weleave here the idea of experimenting by adding externalweights to the exercises. In this sense, exercising in doublescan represent an external force to be overcome. In athletic training, exercises are first performed inhigh volume and with moderate intensity. In the CorrectiveBiogym, the intensity provided by each persons weightvaries. Advanced practitioners might feel that the exercisesare less intense than beginners. The volume of repetitionsused in our experience characterises the Corrective Biogymas a method for resistance and flexibility training, therebyserving as a basis for more specific training regimens. Since body weight does not change quickly, there area number of ways to improve muscular training. Theseinclude improving of the speed of execution, adopting posesthat reduce the mechanical advantage of a given joint,suppressing the support given by one side of the body,improving the number of repetitions and improving the timein isometric contraction.62
    • Elemental Exercises of the Corrective Biogym Isometric exercises are a technique to be used, not inexclusivity, but as a useful complement for resistance trainingto fatigue. Healthy musculature can compensate the loss of onesupporting member. For example, there are people that playsoccer with just one leg. People born without hands havedeveloped delicate and precise coordination with their feetand are able to write and paint with their toes. This principle isroutinely used in the classes of the Corrective Biogym, withthe suppression of the support given by one member (e.g.squatting over just one leg, push-ups without one of the handsor feet). Overcoming gravity works with practically all thebody musculature. Notorious exceptions are the biceps andthe posteriors of the thighs, which are typical levers for themobilisation of weighs. In the Corrective Biogym, theseregions can be worked either by simple flexion with a highervolume of repetitions or by modification in the origininsertion: for biceps, exercises for lifting the body; for theposterior of the thighs, the Series of the Inverted Table. Exercises are classified by the greater movements andonly for didactic purposes, since although each one of themuscles presents a particular action of the bone levers, noneof them works alone. The given names are presented to makeremembering the exercises easier. The symbol Å represents the diversity of the jointmovements. In general, the muscles are prepared in a specificway for the solicited work. So, if a great variety of movementis needed, the musculature becomes prepared for greatermotor abilities. Please respect your individual limits. The response totraining varies according to age, previous physical condition,quality of sleep and so on. Each practitioner will present apersonal rhythm of progression that should be stimulated butnot underestimated and never overcome. 63
    • Dario Palhares & José Antônio Rodrigues The classes of the Corrective Biogym take between 60and 90 minutes and are divided into 11 parts:a) Pre-warming upb) Warming upc) Legs Light to the Bodyd) Body Light to the Legse) Hips/shoulders/climbingf) Transition to the exercises on the floorg) Miscellaneous stretchingh) Series of the Tablei) Abdominals/gluteus/neckj) Final stretchingk) Mental relaxation Such divisions are not rigid or unchangeable. Theyare, as previous stated, a didactic organisation to guide theexercises. In general, each movement is repeated 30 to 50times. The static positions vary from 20 to 50 seconds. Moredifficult exercises (for example, push-ups) are repeated fewertimes, say 10 to 20. A same movement can be repeated morethan once (two repetitions of squatting, for example), butclasses tend to work the same region in a distinct way. Only the feet are naturally developed to sustain thebody. The hands can also support the body and this requiresspecific training to develop such ability. So, the CorrectiveBiogym follows the yoga doctrine by starting a class withexercises in the standing position. However, this idea is, again,not rigid.64
    • Elemental Exercises of the Corrective Biogym1) Pre-warming up This first stage is the execution of movements thatsomehow self-massage the abdominal region, therebyimproving the blood flow. The abdominal organs areresponsible for at least half of a humans basal metabolism.The improvement in blood flow in this region raises bodytemperature. The abdominal cavity is moulded like a balloonfilled with water, a malleable cavity with liquid. When oneextremity is compressed, the other inflates. That is whyabdominal self-massages improve blood flow, therebyreleasing heat. Five to 10 repetitions are enough forpractitioners feel the effects of these exercises. Æ On the floor: Movement of the Beetle. Æ On the floor: pose of the Lotus or straight legs. With hands, suspend the hips away from the floor. Æ movement: holding the feet, circular Baby´s movements with the whole body. Æ position: inhale deeply, exhale while flexing Standing the knees and touching the floor with the hands. In the middle direction and in the laterals. Æ Releasing the hips: lateral and semicircular movements: side to side or forwards and backwards. Æ Cyclic movement of the Dog Upside Down. Æ one foot in front of the other. Stand up and Sitting with sit again. If this is not possible (and generally it is not), impulse can be taken, making this a continuous from the Movement of the Beetle. Æ 360o: jumping in a complete rotation. Jumping2) Warming up Exercises for global motor coordination involve thesimultaneous mobilisation of upper and inferior members 65
    • Dario Palhares & José Antônio Rodriguesfrom the same and/or opposite sides. In the CorrectiveBiogym, the Series of the Table reminds the body of themovement of a baby crawling, that is ontogenetically the firstmovement to improve global motor coordination. In thewarming up series, the simultaneous mobilisation of jumps,shoulders and hands follow this idea of global coordination.Moreover, standing on just one foot is a semiologicalmanoeuvre that can highlight anomalies and posturaldeficits. Therefore, this series is also an empirical instrumentfor the evaluation of the progress of the practitioner in theBiogym classes. Æ Yogin choreography of the Saudation of the Sun: one series with eight seconds in each static position or two series – one with three, the other with six seconds. Æ twice on each foot, 100 repetitions in total. Jumping Divided into groups of 25 repetitions according to the movements of the arms: arms straight forwards, downwards, upwards and in a lateral position (obviously the amount of repetitions can be varied): a) “Blink” hands, facing down; b) Blink hands, facing up; c) Adduction and abduction of the fingers; d) Prone/supine wrists; e) Circular movements of the arms; f) Combination of blinking the hands and/orabduction and adduction of the fingers and/or with circularmovements of the arms; and g) Posterior stretching of the shoulders: pose of theInverted Pray or the pose of the Horn. Æ feet in the natural direction of the hips. To do Place the so, start with the feet together. Move them in abduction and keep ankles touching. Then, turn the toes to the66
    • Elemental Exercises of the Corrective Biogym frontal position. A total of 25 repetitions in each position of the feet parallel to the frontal position. To the lateral position. To the inside position. Lift the body, stand on the toes and go back. The upper members complement the jumping on one foot. For example, if during jumping the hands were turned down, here the hands are turned up. If during jumping the pose of Inverted Pray was done, here continue with the pose of the Horn. Æ without locomotion. Variations: feet Running touching the gluteus; flexed knees lifted up. Æ Small jumps opening the legs laterally, small jumps with legs to the front or small jumps with legs backwards. Æ jumps of the Frog to finish: squat and then Ten to 15 jump. During the warm up, the posterior muscular chain isrelaxed and stretched. The equilibrium, the global motorcoordination and the shoulders are all worked. An aerobiccomponent is also present. To improve the classes, theinstructor can run in the room if there is enough space. In thiscase, it is important that the instructor makes movements in afigure of eight for practitioners to run clockwise andanticlockwise.3) Legs Light to the Body The classes start with a series where one leg issuspended, both in static and dynamic movements. Below is alist of the exercises of the Corrective Biogym. However, it ispossible that new exercises have been created. This sectiondemands that practitioners work symmetrically from back tofront and from front to back, in an ideal of anterior–posteriorsymmetry in relation to the sagittal plane. 67
    • Dario Palhares & José Antônio Rodrigues Æ with flexed knees: Exercises a) Lift one leg up and down. The static pose consists ofstanding the leg in the upper position. The supporting footcan stand normally or, for higher intensity, on the toes, b) Diagonal direction: outwards and inwards.Movements or static pose. The foot can vary: side by side orcrossed, c) Lateral direction. The foot of the suspending legpoints outwards. Care should be taken to not rotate the hip;try to keep the hip parallel to the front plane, d) Superseries: the amplitude of the movement isdivided into three parts. The leg stands for three to fiveseconds in the lowest, the middle and the upper parts, for fouror five movements. Ten repetitions for each leg take time.Practitioners generally like this because it seems simple, but itis actually hard, e) Union of frontal and lateral movements. The leg islifted up. Then, move outwards and then inwards. The otherway also: first inwards then outwards. This exercise works themusculature of the hip in an unusual pattern. A frequentcomment from practitioners is that this exercise awakensmuscles that were never imagined to exist, f) Combination of movements: bend the spine toplace the head between the knees, g) Circular movements: semicircles and circles(clockwise and anticlockwise) at the front or side; and h) Flex the leg in the posterior direction. Since this isan easy movement, the way to improve the muscular work isto use a higher number of repetitions and a higher speed ofexecution. Positions: leg straight, leg outwards, leg inwardsand union outwards/inwards.68
    • Elemental Exercises of the Corrective Biogym Æ with the legs straight: Exercises a) Exercise of the cow kick. Straight spine, legsstraight. Lift to the front. To the side. To the back. Variations:touching the ankle after each movement or continuousmovement without feet touching the floor. The initial positionof the feet can vary: feet side by side (normal position),crossed feet or one foot in front of the other. b) Scheme Å : front direction and diagonals. Fromback to front or front to back. Static positions can be used.This can be complemented by a classic stretching exercise(e.g. holding the legs in the air). A bar in the wall can be usedas support and facilitates the exercises in greater amplitudes.Option: half of the series with the bar, the other half without it. b.1) Pendulum: move the leg from back tofront continuously without touching the floor; b.2) Complement: lateral movement of theleg. The moving leg crosses the supporting leg at the front orback; b.3) Circular movements. There are twokinds: the Great Wheel, where the semicircular and circularmovements are done in great amplitudes, and the SixWheels, where the movements are to the front, side and back; b.4) Circular movements, but forming a ¥ ,instead of a circle; and b.5) Combinations of exercises: touch thehead to the knees and then lift, bringing the leg up. Becausethis massages the abdomen it can be used as a pre-warmingexercise. c) The movements in the straight directions allow thesuperseries. Divide the amplitude into three portions. Standfor two to five seconds in the inferior third, then in the middlethird and then in the superior third. After, five movements andthen stop downward in each third. 69
    • Dario Palhares & José Antônio Rodrigues Æ with hands on the floor. This is similar to the Exercises series of the gluteus, but this position improves the stretching of the lower back and posterior leg: a) Move one leg from back to front. Diagonals.Laterals; and b) Leg extended in the back. Symbol Ådown. : lift andDiagonals, circles and semicircles. Æ Lateral decubitus. This series can be worked either as lateral abs or leg works. Lift and lower one leg. Variations: lift the leg at the front or back. Semicircles. Small circles. Big circles. Two legs at the same time.4) Body Light to Legs In these series, the basic movement is squatting.Squatting involves a complex mobilisation with a lowmechanical efficiency from the knees and hip joints.However, it is a common daily movement, such as using stairsand walking uphill. In a functional gym, training this aspect isimportant. Squatting: Æ Observations: the practitioner should flex the kneesand move the hip backwards as if going to sit in a chair. Thereis a natural tendency to protrude the knees, but this should beavoided. This natural tendency overloads the knee ligaments,and the gym aims to work with these muscles. As previouslysaid, this is not a taboo, and in some classes practitionersmight be asked to protrude the knees. But especiallybeginners should learn how to do this movement withoutoverloading the knees. At the beginning of the movement,70
    • Elemental Exercises of the Corrective Biogymthe knees should not pass the line of the ankles. Obviously, asthe pelvis approaches the floor, an acute angle between theankles and knees is formed. The initial position of the feet can vary: feet at thesame line as the hips, abducted 45o outwards (this is thesimpler and most stable position). Feet at the line of the hips,parallel to each other. Feet more abducted than the hip. Feetclose together. When the feet are close together, one tip is toslightly separate the malleolus because touching can beuncomfortable. The series of feet close together have threepositions: straight, outwards and inwards. The amplitude ofsquatting with the feet close together is very low, but can workwith the knees in many angles of muscular and ligamentrecruitment. The upper members act as stabilisation levers. Thesimpler position is to keep the hands in front of the chest. Agreater intensity in the postural correction can be obtainedwith poses where the arms are not stabilisation levers, forexample: the Inverted Pray or arms aligned with the ears. We suggest that at the end of a series of squatting, theseries is finished by 20 to 30 seconds in the squatting position.Improvement of squatting can be achieved by touching thehands on the floor, behind the ankles (the Spider pose).During squatting, the ankles must touch the floor. Squatting inonly the toes is another kind of exercise. Some beginners arenot able to squat, so a bar in the wall can be helpful. The squatting position is important according to theyogins. This is a pose where the abdominal and pelvic organsare located in the most natural and correct position. Whenstanding after squat exercises the pelvic diaphragm mustfirmly contract to avoid the involuntary loss of urine or faeces.However, it is an exercise that requires a lot from the knees, soindividual limits must be respected. 71
    • Dario Palhares & José Antônio Rodrigues Æ Double movement of the calf and squat: the knees are flexed to half of the amplitude of squatting. Straight spine. Lift and down on one ankle, then the other. Squat, stand up, lift and back down onto two ankles, and then back to the middle position. Æ of the pose of the Warriors. Exercises a) The Master Warrior. One foot forwards, abductedlegs. The other foot outwards. In this position, the hip tends toturn outwards – do not allow that. Try to keep the hip parallelto the front. Flex the knee of the outwards foot. The kneeshould not pass the line of the ankle. The initial position of thearms is wide open. If the knee passes the ankle, open the legs alittle more. After flexing the knee, the elbow touches thethigh. With a flexioned knee, turn the spine back. Then, goback to the initial position. After the repetitions (20, 25, 30, 50,...), we suggest standing in each static position for 20 or moreseconds. Completing the sequence, the stretching exercisesof the Triangle or Inverted Triangle are indicated; and b) Junior Warrior. This time the hip moves towardsthe foot that points outwards. The arms are extendedsuperiorly, holding the ears. The knee is flexed, never passingthe vertical line of the ankles in a moving or static position. Asa complement, we suggest the horizontal posture over onefoot for 20 or more seconds, with the supporting leg wellextended. The most difficult squatting exercises are those wherethe body is supported by only one leg. In general, our doubleorgans can overcome the absence of the other, although theyare not as efficient. As stated before, there are many peoplewith just one leg that are able to play soccer. So, exercising thebody weight over just one leg turns the body even lighter toitself. Imagine that each leg supports half of the body weight, ifthrough exercise we can make each one support the total72
    • Elemental Exercises of the Corrective Biogymweight, then when the two legs are acting together, the bodyweight will represent only 25% of exigence to each leg. Æ Basic movement: a straight suspended leg. Hold the foot with the hand. Squat on one leg. Observations: this is a difficult exercise that requires lots of practice, but is common among yogins and dancers. In the Biogym, we use the support of a bar. The support is more efficient if done in X: to hold the foot with the opposite hand. After a series of movements, we suggest a stretching pose of 20 to 30 seconds down in each leg. Æ This variation works in a distinct way: instead of suspending the leg straight, flex laterally the knee, supporting the ankle on the opposite thigh. When the body goes down, the joint of the hips is stretched or, in common words, opened. Opening the hips is an important series of yoga stretching. In this position, the exercise can be performed with or without the bar. With the bar, the amplitude of the down movement is greater. Without the bar is a position that works with the bodys equilibrium. Æ legs opened, squat on one side and then on With the the other. The ankles must always be in contact with the floor. A frequent error by beginners is removing the ankle from the floor and supporting on the toes. After a series of movements, we suggest a stretching pose of 20 to 30 seconds down in each leg. Æ exercise is common in local gyms. One foot Lunges: this is on the floor, and the opposite leg is extended posteriorly with only the toes on the floor. The knees are flexed and the knee of the extended leg touches the floor. Important: the knee of the side of the supporting foot, when flexed, should not pass the line of the ankle. The movement is down to the pelvis in the direction of the floor, and not protruding the body over the knee. 73
    • Dario Palhares & José Antônio Rodrigues Observations: people with mobility restrictions mustrespect their limits. A bar can facilitate the movement. Acommon mistake of the practitioner is to adduct the toes (feetpointing inwards): the instructor must correct the footextremity so that it is parallel to the sagittal plane. There isclearly a difference between men and women. A woman´ship is larger and so her knees tend towards a valgus position.The instructor should differentiate a normal valgus in womenfrom an excessive one. In all the squatting exercises, there are two types ofsuperseries: a) Superseries of three: the amplitude of themovement is divided into three portions. Three to fiveseconds in the static position in the upper, middle and inferiorportion followed by five to 10 movements; and b) Superseries of four: go down to half the amplitudeand back to the standing position. Then, go totally down, backto the half of the amplitude, totally down again and back tothe standing position.5) Exercises for the Hips Æ Basic movement: move the trunk from one side to the other. The static position is on each side. Variations: feet in the natural direction of the hip, feet close together, one foot away from the other, feet pointing outwards, feet parallel, feet outwards at an angle of 45o. Regarding the arms: pose of Inverted Pray and pose of the Horn. Wrists behind you. Wrists united behind the back. Arms extended upwards, holding the ears. Arms opened laterally. Æ movements: half rotation of the hip to the Diagonal side, and movement in the diagonal direction. Æ Semicircular movements (bowl and cupule) and small circles. Position: to the front. To the sides. To the back. In74
    • Elemental Exercises of the Corrective Biogym the particular case of to the back, kindly flex the knees and move the pelvis forwards. Æ The Great Wheel of the Trunk: circular and semicircular movements. Let the pelvis rotate to the equilibrium. At the end of the series, beginners feel dizzy and sometimes annoyed. Quickly tell them to move the neck to interrupt the lymphatic movement of the vestibule: 10 movements of no, 10 of yes and 10 of maybe. This exercise works the labyrinth. Although all movements with the head move the vestibule, the Great Wheel works the whole body. The practice of this exercise also aims to keep the labyrinth flexible, which means ensuring the rotation is not followed by nausea. Æ the Rebolation: feet close together or away. Series of With the hip, make the movements of the symbol Å . Æ Rebolation Bowl: legs spread. Semiflexioned knees. Move in the bowl: from one side to the other or from backwards to forwards.6) Exercise for the Shoulders – standing position Æ the Shrugs: application of the symbol Å Series of . Variations: one shoulder each time. The shoulders in different senses of the circular movements. As the shoulders are normally light to the body, the volume of repetitions should be at least 50. Æ Lift the arms in a straight position. Directions: in the middle and diagonal. Series of Å arms. Arms in with the prone or supine. Æ for the biceps: lift hands up and down as if the Exercises hands were holding weights. In the frontal direction, in the lateral direction and going frontal/lateral. As this is normally light, the exercise should be of great volume (more than 50 repetitions) and at a high speed. 75
    • Dario Palhares & José Antônio Rodrigues Æ exercise. Arms opened laterally. Move the hip The Stick from one side to the other. Do not allow the arms to become close. Keep looking forwards, do not look laterally. Æ The Helicoidal Flight. Complex coordination. Should be repeated in some classes. Repeat decreasingly five to the right, five to the left until the complete movement of 1:1.7) Scaling a Horizontal Bar If the gym room has a climbing frame, it is interestingto work the inherent ability of the human body to climb stepswith the arms. Although our skeletal system allows that, this isan ability that is rarely used and so it gets lost. The bodysability to climb steps using only the force of the arms is thebasis of many circus choreographies and competitive gyms.Anyway, we describe here only the basic movements. As theclasses become more advanced, new exercises can be foundin the literature cited. Æbar and keep bending for 20 to 50 seconds; Hold the Æ Keep bending in one arm only; Æ hands prone or supine. Lift up and down; Bar: either and Æ Keep bending and turn the hips from one side to the other. Or lift the legs.8) Transition to the FloorThis series is made up by stretching, equilibrium and strength: Æ of the Ocean. Sit with legs crossed. Hold the The Waves feet and raise the ankles off the floor. Rest the elbows on76
    • Elemental Exercises of the Corrective Biogym the knees. Move from one side to the other, with a straight spine. Place the right foot in front of the left. Then, change position; Æ Bouncing. Hold the feet and extend the legs The Turtle in the air; Æ and Scissors. Keep the arms and ankles off the Penknife floor. Static or dynamic exercise. Open and close the legs; Æ in this, it is important to touch the flexioned Bicycle: knee with the elbow and ensure the other leg is very straight and as low as possible; Æ Strengthening the toes. Sit on the ankles with the toes supporting the weight. Go down, touch the floor with the hand and go back. Also, go backwards and touch the floor with the hand dorsal; and Æ the wrists for the Series of the Table Preparing9) Miscellaneous stretching exercises Carry out some stretching on the floor (see section 8for ideas). Carry out the series for preparing the wrists for theSeries of the Table (see section 10): in the crawling position,move forwards, stretching the wrists: forwards, to the sides,backwards and the inverted position with elbows straight.10) Series of the Table This is one of the most important series of theCorrective Biogym. At least one of the exercises should bepresent in all classes. This is called Table because the spinemust be horizontally straight to support the plates. Lookforwards, avoid looking to the floor: Æ a) hand and feet away one from each other Variations: in the diagonal. In this case, ankles touch the floor. b) Hands and feet close together; 77
    • Dario Palhares & José Antônio Rodrigues Æto the front, to the sides, to back and inside. Hands: Minimum of 50 seconds in each position. In the intervals between positions, a suggestion is to carry out a posterior stretch of the hips or strengthening of the toes; Æ stand on closed wrist. This strengthens the Variation: wrist and the punch; and Æ stand on the fingers. Variation:10.1) Series of the Inverted Table Æ Dorsal decubitus. Hands and soles on the floor. Lift the hip and keep the abdomen level. Lift up and down. Static position: keep in the higher position; Æ straight: series with each leg: up/down, One leg diagonals, side to side, semicircles and circles. Take care to not allow the hip to fall to the other side; and Æ Dorsal decubitus. Hands dorsal and ankles on the floor. In the diagonal and in the middle. Forcing the floor, try to lift the body.10.2) Series of the Dismantled TableWe call them dismantled because one or more of the supportswill be withdrawn: Æ original Table pose. Remove one hand from From the the floor (alternate the hands) and stand in the static position. Remove one foot. End with the four supports on the floor. This series turns the Table lighter to the body: first, the body needs to stand without one support. At the end, with all the supports, the Table becomes lighter; Æ in X: remove one hand and the foot of the Moving opposite side. Movements ending with the static position. The Table can be hands and feet opened in the diagonal or close together in the middle position; and78
    • Elemental Exercises of the Corrective Biogym Æ In the position of the Inverted Table, remove one hand, one foot and in X.11) Body Light to the Arms (on the floor)The basic exercises are the push-ups and the upside downposes: Æ There are at least three types of push-ups: of Push-ups. triceps, where the elbows stand close to the trunk, of pectorals, where the hands are laterally away from the chest and of deltoids, where the hands are positioned in the horizontal line of the eyes. The position of the feet interferes in the mechanical efficiency of the movement. The feet can stand close together with only the toes on the floor or stand apart with the ankles on the floor. If the practitioner presents difficulties in the movement, the knees can give support on the floor. Æ remove one hand or one foot or in X. Variations: Æ the original position and clap the hands. Jump from ÆÅ of the amplitude of the push-up, Symbol : in the half stand still and move forwards and backwards or from one side to the other.Comment: for an unknown cultural reason, many gym instructorsdivide the push-ups into for men and for women. Women areguided to always sustain the knees on the floor. The paradigm of theCorrective Biogym is totally contrary to such an idea. The body mustbe light, no matter if you are a child, and adult, young, old, a man or awoman. Notwithstanding, the musculature worked by the push-upsis requested in the daily activities. In our experience, all thepractitioners present a good performance in push-ups after practice. Æ for upside down: jump and try to turn upside Preparing down. Variations: jump with the feet together or alternate 79
    • Dario Palhares & José Antônio Rodrigues the feet. Head suspended or laying on the floor. Directions: middle, diagonals and from one side to the other. Æ Stand upside down. Flex the elbows, touch the head on the floor and lift. Æ besides the static position, flex the arms. Bridge: Variation: remove one foot from the floor.12) Abdominals (including dorsal musculature) The abdominals present a great variability ofmovements. Owing to the intrinsic function of the abdominaland dorsal musculature in stabilising the spine, we considerthese exercises to have anterior/posterior symmetry, whichmeans that for each movement when the spine is flexed thereis a corresponding movement when the spine is extended(but generally without the same amplitude). In generalwords, the abdominal and dorsal exercises are a combinationof the symbol Å amplitudes of the movements (total with theor partial), with the position of legs (flexed or extended), withthe position of the arms (hands on the chest, hands behind theneck, extended shoulders, etc.) and static or dynamicmovements. In particular, the book by Nogueira and Dias(2001) illustrates diverse exercises to enrich classes. Below wedescribe the basic exercises; combinations should be createdby the instructors. The series of dorsal exercises are generallynamed the Series of the Locust. Æ Abdominal/dorsal superior (works more with the muscles superior to the belly button): lift the head up and down. Symbol Å spine or only the shoulders. . Lift the Static position. Superseries of three. Superseries of four. Combinations with abdominal/dorsal inferior. In the dorsal exercises, the feet can stand apart or be close80
    • Elemental Exercises of the Corrective Biogym together: a nice stretching of opening the hips can be performed at this moment: ankles together and touching the floor. Æ Abdominal/dorsal inferior (works with the muscles inferior to the belly button): in this series, it is important to keep the lumbar spine in contact with the floor. If the pelvic musculature is weak, practitioners should be instructed to flex the knees to not allow the lumbar spine to lose contact. Movements of the symbol Å . Variations: straight legs. Flexed legs. Legs together. Legs alternating. Legs at 90. Legs starting on the floor. Static positions. Combinations with the abdominal/dorsal superior.There are basically three movements of the abdominallateral: Ædecubitus. Lift the shoulders away from the Lateral floor. Static or dynamic exercises. A useful hint for beginners is to imagine a cord in the air and pull it up; Æ legs. Positions: straight along the body. 90o Lift the forwards. Backwards. The symbol Å is applicable; and Æ body. Supported by one hand and the lateral Lift all the portion of the foot. Static or dynamic exercise. To facilitate, support can be given by the elbow on the floor.13) Meat of the Neck Æ Movements with the neck within the symbol Å in dorsal, ventral and lateral decubitus. A minimum of 50 repetitions of each movement is suggested, since in general the head is naturally light to the neck. If steps are available, laying on a step allows a greater amplitude of movements. 81
    • Dario Palhares & José Antônio Rodrigues Æ decubitus, with legs extended or flexed, with In dorsal the foot on the floor or just the ankles, force the neck to behind to lift the body from the floor. Dynamic or static exercises. Upside down, but supporting the head on the floor. Æ14) Group of the Gluteus Æ On all fours: move one leg forwards (touch the head with the knee) and extend behind. Directions straight and diagonals. With extended leg, movements of Å ; Æ Dorsal decubitus or sitting with hands on the floor. Lift the hip from the floor (moving or static position). Variations: ankles close to the hip, extended leg or half distance between hip and extended leg. Symbol Å is possible. To improve intensity, take one leg off the floor. The Pose of the Bridge is good as a complement to these exercises; Æ Ventral decubitus. Abduct one leg 90o laterally. Lift up and down. Static position. Abduct and adduct the leg; and Æ over the ischiums. Straight legs or pose of the Sit down Lotus. Support the hands on the floor. Lift the hip up and down. Static position.15) Final stretching The final stretching acts basically over the posteriormuscular chain (legs and trunk). It is very important that all oralmost all the classes do this series: the posterior muscular82
    • Elemental Exercises of the Corrective Biogymchain continuously tends to shorten. While walking, theposterior chain contracts to avoid falling. So, we finalise theclasses with the following series:Æ hands on the knees: 10 to 15 seconds;Touch theÆ for 15 to 20 seconds;Slow poseÆ Happy Baby for 10 seconds; andPose of theÆ foot and down the other, 15 seconds each side.Hold oneThis series is repeated three times.16) Final Mental and Body Relaxation The series for relaxation is performed without music.Our world is too noisy, we don’t need more noise, even if it issupposedly harmonic. Practitioners lay down in acomfortable position with their eyes closed. Mental relaxation is a situation where attention isconcentrated on one point in a conscious and voluntarymanner. Such as the exercises for the musculature, beginnerscan take some weeks or months to become able to enter intothe mental and physical state of being far away, reaching amental state between alertness and sleep. So, beginners thatshow defensive reactions must be respected. If an instructorforces them to concentrate, this can cause even more tensionand distraction. Some practitioners sleep during therelaxation moment. Advanced practitioners can dominatethe mind, keeping their concentration. To guide the relaxation, the instructor says: “While wewere in this gym class, our muscles obeyed to our desire,within each one´s limits. At the same time, our braincoordinated all the vital functions: respiration, heart beating,hormones, and so on. In other words, our mind is naturallyable to do many tasks at the same time. However, just as a 83
    • Dario Palhares & José Antônio Rodriguesmodern computer, the more tasks performed at the sametime, the lower the speed and the lower the precision ofprocessing information. So, modern science confirms whathas long been thought: that the tired mind is dispersed, full ofthoughts, full of tasks to do and full of preoccupations,whereas the rested and productive mind is concentrated onlyon one point at a time. This is why practitioners consideradventure sports relaxing, because despite the risk of injury,the mind concentrates only on the task in hand. In fact, thetired mind dominates us with its diffuse aspect, sufferings,afflictions and lack of productivity, whereas the serene mindimposes our wishes on our minds. In the same way, we workwith our muscles in this class to impose our wishes onto ourmuscles. Let´s, at this moment, relax our minds by relaxingour muscles. Just as the muscles can obey our wishes andcontract they can obey our wishes and relax. When ourmusculature relaxes, the sensation is either we become asheavy as a rock or as light as air. Talking about air, feel the air.The air you inhale is full of energy, full of vitality. The air youexhale carries out all our toxins, all our tiredness, all we needto throw away from ourselves. Calmly, slowly, become a rock. Your ankles become a rock. Your knees become arock. Your belly becomes a rock. Your chest becomes a rock.Your arms become a rock. And finally, your neck, your face,your head lose the tonus and become a rock. Now you´veturned into a rock, feel all the surrounding sensations: thetemperature of the air, of the floor. The texture of your clothes.Listen to the surrounding sounds, feel the surrounding smells.Stand in this state of concentration for 1 minute” (the time canbe more according to the aim of the class. Mark off the timewith a chronometer. Turn off the lights and all electronicequipment. Even low music is not good for this mentalrelaxation exercise.). “One (or two, or n) minute(s) have passed. Your bodythat is now in a rocky state will dissolve in the air. Just like a barof dry ice, you dissolve in the air. Slowly, your chest dissolves84
    • Elemental Exercises of the Corrective Biogymin the air. Your belly dissolves in the air. Your legs dissolve inthe air. Your arms dissolve in the air. Finally, your neck, yourface, your head dissolves in the air. While you become air, thisexternal world slowly disappears from your perception. Let´sgo to a trip to inside, to an always pleasant place, away fromthis world of pain and suffering we live in. In today´s trip, wewill …:” Some options for positive images: Æ To a rainfall. Pay attention to the vegetation, the birds, the fish, the insects, the crystalline water, the people joining you, etc.; To a beach; Æ To a garden; Æ Æ garden; To a kitchen To an orchard; Æ To a flowering field; Æ Æhome. Pay attention to all the details of your To your home: the things you like, the things you want to change but, mostly, to be joyful on how good it is to have a home; Æworkplace: the things you like, the things you To your hate, the things you want to change, but, mostly, to be joyful on having a means of surviving; Æ with the people you know and knew; To a party Æyourself in front of a mirror. You are immersed Imagine in a fire that burns all you dislike in yourself and you hate in the world. This fire turns all these nasty things into light and warm for your life; Æ yourself involved by a cloud of clear colour. Imagine This cloud has a temperature, a texture, a flavour you like and plays a song you like; Æ for respiration: breathe slowly, feel the air Exercises 85
    • Dario Palhares & José Antônio Rodrigues entering and leaving your ears. Your belly button. Your urethra (these are respiration exercises described by the yoga); and Æ Respiration exercise: close a nostril with the fingers. Inhale for five seconds. Close the two nostrils. Stand for more five seconds. Disclose the other nostril. Breathe for five seconds. Keep without air for more five seconds. Start with this last nostril. After half of the time, improve the exercise for eight (or 10, 12 or 15) seconds.“And keep in this for more than two minutes.”After this time, say: “Two (or n) minutes have passed. Let´s come back to thereal world. Move your toes and your fingers. Wake up fromlegs to head. Move your feet from one side to the other. Theknees from one side to the other. The hips from one side to theother, the chest from one side to the other. Extend the arms,flex the knees, open your eyes and stand up. At the end of onemore of our classes.”86
    • EXAMPLES OF CLASSES For illustration purposes, we will now show how fourclasses were elaborated to work with specific situations. Situation 1: When one practitioner was a woman with chronic swelling of the knees, typically a prepatellar bursitis with some painful limitation to flexing the knees. Class 1: pre-warming up, warming up. Legs Light: flexed legs: forwards, lateral up and down, lateral to the middle, circular. 30 repetitions of each movement. Body Light: series of Master Warrior: 30 repetitions each side, static positions for 20 seconds. Hips: in Inverted Pray, lateral and diagonal movements. 50 repetitions each, with 10 seconds for rest.
    • Dario Palhares & José Antônio Rodrigues Transition to floor: Waves of the Ocean (30 seconds), Turtle Bouncing (20 seconds), Penknife (20 seconds), Scissors (25 movements), bicycle (30 repetitions). Miscellaneous stretching: pelvic stretch with legs open: try to touch elbows on the floor. Three repetitions of 15 seconds. Between the repetitions, suspend the hips for 10 seconds. Series of the Table: hands and feet in the diagonal position, 50 seconds in each position of the hands (to front, to back and outwards). Between the positions, posterior opening of the hips: sit on the ankles, bend the spine backwards and try to touch the head on the floor. 10 s, 15 s, 20 s. Push-ups: two series of 20 repetitions of push-ups of pectorals, 15 seconds interval between the series. Series of gluteus, position on fours. Final stretch, mental relaxation. Class 2: After warming up. Legs Light: flexed knees: semicircles forwards and outwards. 30 repetitions each. Body Light: Junior Warrior, 30 repetitions, followed by static pose of standing on one foot with a straight88
    • Elemental Exercises of the Corrective Biogymback. Then, two series of 30 squats, each onefollowed by 15 seconds down and 15 seconds in thepose of the Spider (touch the wrist behind theankles).Hip: with extended shoulders upwards, 50repetitions back/behind.Transition to floor: same as class 1, but substitutingbicycle for the circular movements of the legs (30repetitions in each direction).Miscellaneous stretching: pose of half Lotus. Tworepetitions for each leg of 15 seconds (first) and 20seconds (second).Series of the Table: instead of posterior opening ofthe hip, strengthening the toes.Push-ups: two series of 20 repetitions. The first, ofdeltoids. The second, of triceps.Series of gluteus in dorsal decubitus.Final stretch, mental relaxation.Class 3:Initial pre-warming up, warming up.Legs Light: straight legs. From back to front andthen from front to back. Middle and diagonal 89
    • Dario Palhares & José Antônio Rodrigues directions. 30 repetitions each. At the end of the forwards movement, hold the foot and stand with a straight leg in the air. 20 seconds (middle and diagonals). At the end of the backwards movement, stand with the leg straight behind. Body Light: simple lunges, 30 repetitions. Simple squatting, 30 repetitions. Hip: Great Wheel, clockwise and anticlockwise. 30 repetitions each. No interval to avoid dizziness. At the end, 10 movements of yes, no and maybe. Transition to floor: same as class 2, but the legs now move circularly together. Miscellaneous stretching: torsion of the spine. Two repetitions of 15 seconds. Series of Table, with posterior opening of the hip. Dorsal exercises: superior and inferior. Directions in the middle and diagonals. 30 repetitions each. The pose of the Bow for 10–15 seconds in the intervals. Final stretch, mental relaxation. Situation 2: A man with cervical disc hernia, stable, two years without using analgesics. He also presented a partial restriction of the mobilisation of the left hip.90
    • Elemental Exercises of the Corrective BiogymClass 1: in the warm up, hands in Inverted Pray andin the pose of the Horn.Legs Light: Great Wheel, both senses. 30 repetitionseach.Body Light: with the help of the bar, leg in half Lotuspose. Squat over one foot, 30 repetitions. 20seconds static in the end. Afterwards, 30 simplesquats, 20 seconds in the Spider pose.Shoulders: straight arms, forwards and diagonals.50 repetitions each.Transition to Floor:Waves of the Ocean, Turtle Bouncing, Penknife,Scissors. Bicycle with straight legs (30 repetitions).Miscellaneous stretching: torsion of spine followedby the Cow Face pose. Two repetitions of 15–20seconds on each side.Series of the Table, with posterior opening of thehip.Series of Dismantled Table, in the diagonaldirection. 30 movements, 20 seconds static in theair.Abdominal superior: straight legs on the floor. Tothe middle, diagonals, semicircles and circles. 30repetitions each. 91
    • Dario Palhares & José Antônio Rodrigues Final stretch, mental relaxation. Class 2: first, warming up. Legs Light: the Six Wheels. 30 repetitions. Body Light: with the help of the bar, squatting over one foot. The opposite hand holds the foot in the air. 30 repetitions. 20 seconds static in the down position. Afterwards, 30 simple squats with 20 seconds of Spider pose at the end. Shoulders: complete series of the Shrugs. 50 quick repetitions of each movement. Transition to floor: same as class 1, but at the end, the Great Cupule: legs lifted 90º moving from one side to the other (30 repetitions). The ankles should stand together. The knees can be flexed if the exercise is too heavy. Then, ventral decubitus: movement of cupule with the feet together (30 repetitions). Miscellaneous stretching: posterior stretching of shoulders. Two repetitions of 20 seconds. Bridge with flexion in the bridge: 20 seconds static, 10 flexions. 15 seconds of interval. Between one bridge and the other. Series of the Table: hands and feet together with strengthening the toes in the intervals.92
    • Elemental Exercises of the Corrective BiogymPush-ups: two repetitions of pectorals. The first,opened feet with ankles on the floor. The second,feet together with only the toes on the floor.Superior dorsal: straight, diagonals and cupule. 30repetitions.Final stretching, mental relaxation.Class 3: after warming up.Legs Light: the Kicks of the Cow. 30 repetitionseach.Body Light: lunge: three times down, then lift upand kick with flexed knee. 10 repetitions on eachside.Shoulders: movement of the Stick. 60 quickrepetitions. The Helicoidal flight: initial learning.Transition to floor: same as class 2, but afterScissors, the two legs in opposite circles at the sametime. 30 repetitions each direction.Miscellaneous stretching: frontal of pelvis: openlegs, touch the floor with the elbows. Three series of20 seconds.Dorsal decubitus, hands on belly, straight legs. Liftthe body, supported by the ankles and the neck. 30repetitions. Short movements. 15 static in the end. 93
    • Dario Palhares & José Antônio Rodrigues Series of Inverted Table. 30 repetitions each. Series of Meat of Neck: dorsal decubitus. Final stretching, mental relaxation. Situation 3: a woman with unwanted loss of urine. Urodynamic exams normal. The loss occurred when she was distracted and suddenly coughed. The general impression was that she had problems of general motor coordination. Class 1: pre-warming up. In the warming up, circular movements with the arms at the same time to blink the hands. Legs Light: together with gluteus: hands on the floor, legs straight. Bring one leg and go back. Directions straight and diagonal. 30 repetitions, 10 seconds interval between the exercises. Body Light: superseries of three of squatting: three seconds in each third position, four dynamic movements. 10 repetitions. Hip: lateral semicircles, 30 repetitions. Transition to floor: Waves of the Ocean, Turtle Bouncing, Penknife, Scissors. The Great Cupule of the legs. Miscellaneous stretching: pose of Lotus/half lotus: two series.94
    • Elemental Exercises of the Corrective BiogymSeries of the Table: hands and feet together. 50seconds in each position of the hands (forwards,outwards and backwards). In the intervals, stretchof fitting in the hip: 15 seconds lay down on ankles.Then, keep one leg behind and the other is flexed,touching the knee with the foot. Lay downbackwards.Series of Dismantled Table: with hands and feettogether. 30 repetitions. 20 static seconds.Abdominal inferior: bring the knees flexed to thebelly and extend up into the air, bring to the bellyand extend close to the floor. Directions: straight,diagonals and one diagonal to the other. 30repetitions each.Final stretch, mental relaxation.Class 2: first, warming-up: rotate the arms at thesame time with prone and supine of wrists.Legs Light: superseries of three: extended legs tofront and to lateral. Three seconds in each thirdpart, five movements. 10 repetitions.Body Light: double movement of calf and leg. 30repetitions.Hip: semicircles: front and back. 30 repetitions.Transition to floor: same as class 1. 95
    • Dario Palhares & José Antônio Rodrigues Miscellaneous stretch: Bridge with flexion. Two series of 20 seconds with 10 flexions. Series of the Table: hands and feet diagonal, posterior stretch of hip. Dorsal series: superior and inferior. Straight and diagonals. 30 repetitions. In the interval, 15 seconds in the pose of the Bow. Final stretch, mental relaxation. Class 3: pre-warming up, warming up. Legs Light: pendulum middle and diagonals. 30 repetitions. Body Light: Master Warrior, 30 repetitions. Hip: Series of the Rebolation. 100 quick repetitions each movement. Transition to floor: same as class 2, but instead of Great Cupule, dorsal decubitus: move one leg to 90 laterally, come back and change leg. 30 repetitions for each leg. Miscellaneous stretch: lateral pose of Bow: lateral decubitus, pose of Bow. Two series of 15 seconds on each side. Series of Table with posterior stretch of the hips.96
    • Elemental Exercises of the Corrective BiogymPush-ups: two series of 20 repetitions with ankles onthe floor: one series of pectorals, one of triceps.Series of lateral abdominal. 30 repetitions eachexercise.Final stretch, mental relaxation.Comments: imagine these three persons wereclassmates. The three gain benefits from all theclasses, although each week focused on the specificproblem for one of them. 97
    • ReferencesANDERS K. 1997. A Força Física da Mulher. Rio de Janeiro: EditoraCampus. Original in English: A Woman´s Book of Strength. NewYork: TheBerkeley Publishing Group.ANDRADE J, LOPES C. 2005. Atividade física na gravidez. Revistada Sociedade de Cardiologia do Estado de São Paulo 15(3): 193-196.ALTER M. 1990. Sport Stretch. Champaign (USA): Leisure Press.ALTER M. 1999. Ciência da Flexibilidade. Porto Alegre: EditoraArtmed. Original in English: Science of flexibility. Champaign (USA):Human Kinetics.ANDERSON, B. 2000. Stretching. 20th Anniversary. Bolinas (USA):Shelter Publications.ARAÚJO A, MELLO J, MOREIRA C. 2003. Reeducaçãoneuromuscular e propriocepção em pacientes submetidos àreconstrução do ligamento cruzado anterior. Fisioterapia Brasil4(3): 217-222.ARIYOSHI M, SONODA K, NAGATA K, MASHIMA T, ZENMYO M,PAKU C, TAKAMIYA Y, YOSHIMATSU H, HIRAI Y, YASUNAGA H,AKASHI H, IMAYAMA H, SHIMOKOBE T, INOUE A, MUTOH Y.1999. Efficacy of aquatic exercises for patients with low back pain.Kurume Medical Journal 46(2): 91-96.ARRIBAS TL. 2002. A Educação Física de 3 a 8 Anos. Porto Alegre:Editora Artmed. Original in Spanish: La Educación Física de 3 a 8Años. Barcelona: Editorial Paidotribo.AXLER C, McGILL S. 1997. Low back loads over a variety ofabdominal exercises: searching for the safest abdominal challenge.Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 29(6): 804-811.
    • Dario Palhares & José Antônio RodriguesBATTISTA E, VIVES J. 1984. Exercícios de Ginástica. São Paulo:Editora Manole. Original in French: Exercices de Gymnastique.Paris: Éditions Vigot.BATTISTELLA L, SHINZATO G, KISS H, SANTOMAURO A,YAZBEK, P. 1993. Lesões osteomioarticulares no programa decondicionamento físico. Revista do Hospital de Clínicas daFaculdade de Medicina de São Paulo 48(4): 156-160.BIASOLI M. 2007. Tratamento fisioterápico na terceira idade.Revista Brasileira de Medicina 64 (ed. esp.): 62-68.BOUISSET S, ZATTARA M. 1987. Biomechanical study of theprogramming of anticipatory postural adjustments associated withvoluntary movement. Journal of Biomechanics 20(8): 735-742.BROWN I. 1970. Intensive exercises for the low back. PhysicalTherapy 50(4): 487-498.CAILLIET, R. 2001. Dor no Joelho. São Paulo: Livraria Manole.Original in English: Knee Pain and Disability. USA: F.A. DavisCompany.CAILLIET, R. 2004. Distúrbios da Coluna Lombar. Porto Alegre:Artmed Editora. Original in English: Low back disorders – a medicalenigma. Los Angeles: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.CAILLIET, R. 2003. Dor Cervical e no Braço. São Paulo: LivrariaManole. Original in English: Neck and Arm Pain. USA: F.A. DavisCompany.CAMBRA R, ORTIZ R, CORTES N. 1986. Programa para las AreasTerapeuticas de la Cultura Física. Cuba: INDER-MINSAP-MINED.CARANDENTE R, MONTARUIL A, ROVEDA E, CALOGIURI G,MICHIELON G, LaTORRE A. 2006. Morning or evening training:effect on heart rate circadian rhythm. Sports Sciences for Health 1:113-117.CHECHENIN A, VAN L, BOGUSH A, SHMIDT I. 2000. Correlationbetween changes in patellar reflex and functional biomechanicdisorders in the pelvis. Bulletin of Experimental Biology andMedicine 3: 227-229.CONCEIÇÃO M, VALE R, BOTTARO M, DANTAS E, NOVAES J.2008. Efeitos de quatro tempos diferentes de permanência deflexionamento estático na flexibilidade de adultos jovens. Fitness &Performance 7(2): 88-92.COTTINGHAM J, MAITLAND J. 1997. A three-paradigm treatmentmodel using soft tissue mobilization and guided movemente-awareness techniques for a patient with chronic low back pain.Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy 26(3): 155-167.100
    • Elemental Exercises of the Corrective BiogymDANTAS E. 2005. Alongamento e Flexionamento. Rio de Janeiro:Editora Shape.DeROSE. 1977. Prontuário de Svásthya Yoga. Rio de Janeiro:Editora Ground.DeVITA P, HONG D, HAMILL J. 1991. Effects of asymmetric loadcarrying on the biomechanics of walking. Journal of Biomechanics24(2): 1119-1129.DIECK G, KELSEY J, GOEL V, PANJABI M, TECH D, WALTER S,LAPRADE M. 1985. An epidemiologic study of the relationshipbetween postural asymmetry in the teen years and subsequent backand neck pain. Spine 10(10): 872-877.DIEËN J. 1996. Asymmetry of erector spinae muscle activity intwisted postures and consistency of muscle activation patternsacross subjects. Spine 21(22): 2651-2661.DRERUP B, HIERHOLZER E. 1987. Movement of the human pelvisand displacement of related anatomical landmarks on the bodysurface. Journal of Biomechanics 20(10): 971-977.DRID P, DRAPSIN M, TRIVIC T, LUKAC D, OBADOV S, MILOSEVICZ. 2009. Asymmetry of muscle strength in elite athletes. BiomedicalHuman Kinetics 1: 3-5.DUMAS G, REID J, WOLFE L, GRIFFIN M, McGRATH M. 1995.Exercise, posture and back pain during pregnancy. ClinicalBiomechanics 10(2): 104-109.FERNANDES, N. 1992. Yoga Terapia: o Caminho da Saúde Física eMental. Brasília: Nilda Fernandes.FROST H, LAMB S, MOFFETT J, FAIRBANK J, MOSER J. 1998. Afitness programme for patients with chronic low back pain. Pain 75:273-279.FROST H, MOFFETT J, MOSER J, FAIRBANK J. 1995. Randomisedcontrolled trial for evaluation of fitness programme for patients withchronic low back pain. British Medical Journal 310: 151-154.FOQUET OC, BALCELLS MC. 2003. 1001 Exercícios e JogosRecreativos. Porto Alegre: Editora Artmed. Original in Spanish:1001Ejercicios y juegos de recreación. Barcelona: Editorial PaidotriboGARDNER-MORSE M, STOKES A. 1998. The effect of abdominalmuscle coactivation on lumbar spine stability. Spine 23(1): 86-91.GHORAYEB N, BARROS-NETO T. 1999. O Exercício. São Paulo:Livraria Atheneu.GUEDES A. 1993. Ginástica Localizada: Teoria e Prática. Rio deJaneiro: Sprint. 101
    • Dario Palhares & José Antônio RodriguesGUIMARÃES B. 1992. Ginástica global corretiva. Pediatria Moderna28(2): 58-59.GOMES M. 2005. Física e Esporte. Ciência e Cultura 57(3): 36-39.GROSS J, FETTO J, ROSEN E. 2005. Exame Musculoesquelético.Porto Alegre: Artmed Editora. Original in English: MusculoskeletalExamination. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.HATZE H. 1977. A complete set of control equations for the humanmusculoskeletal system. Journal of Biomechanics 10: 799-805.HAY J, REID J. 1985. As Bases Anatômicas e Mecânicas doMovimento Humano. Rio de Janeiro: Prentice Hall do Brasil.Original in English: The Anatomical and Mechanical Basis of HumanMotion. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.HERMÓGENES. 1995. Autoperfeição com Hatha Yoga. Rio deJaneiro: Record.HEYWARD V. 2004. Avaliação Física e Prescrição de Exercícios.Porto Alegre: Artmed Editora. Original in English: Advanced FitnessAssessment and Exercise Prescription. Champaign (USA): HumanKinetics Publishers.HOLLMANN W, HETTINGER T. 1989. Medicina do Esporte. SãoPaulo: Editora Manole. Original in German: Sportmedizin – Arbeitsund Trainingsgrundlagen. Berlin: F.K. Schattauer Verlag.HUGUET G, TOUITOU Y, REINBERG A. 1997. Morning versusafternoon gymnastic time and diurnal and seasonal changes inpsychopathological variables of school children. ChronobiologyInternational 14(4): 371-384.HUNGRIA-FILHO J. 1986. Postura: a primazia da primazia da pélvisno seu condicionamento e na correção de seus desvios. RevistaBrasileira de Ortopedia 21(4): 144-148; 21(5): 201-206; 21(6): 236-242.JÄRVHOLM U, PALMERUD G, KARLSSON D, HERBERTS P,KADEFORS R. 1991. Intramuscular pressure and electromyographyin four shoulder muscles. Journal of Orthopaedic Research9(Supl.4): 609-619.JAYSON M, SWEZEY R, KNOPLICH J, HUBAULT A. 1989. BackPain, Painful Syndromes and Muscle Spasms. Carnforth (UK): TheParthenon Publishing Group.KAMINOFF, L. 2008. Anatomia da Ioga.São Paulo: Editora Manole.Original in English: Yoga Anatomy. New York: Human Kinetics.KANTOR E, POUPARD L, BOZEC S, BOUISSET S. 2001. Does bodystability depend on postural chain mobility or stability area?102
    • Elemental Exercises of the Corrective BiogymNeuroscience Letters 308: 128-132.KAPANDJI I. 1987. Fisiologia Articular – Vol 1, 2 e 3. São Paulo:Editora Manole. Original in French: Physiologie Articulaire. Paris:Librairie Maloine.KIM S, CHUNG M. 1995. Effects of posture, weight and frequency ontrunk muscular activity and fatigue during repetitive lifting tasks.Ergonomics 38(5): 853-863.KINGMA I, DIEËN J, LOOZE M, TOUISSANT H, DOLAN P, BATENC. 1998. Asymmetric low back loading in asymmetric liftingmovements is not prevented by pelvic twist. Journal ofBiomechanics 31: 527-534.KNOPLICH J. 1983. Enfermidades da Coluna Vertebral. São Paulo:Panamed Editorial.KOS, TEPLÝ, VOLRAB. 1979. Ginástica: 1200 Exercícios. Rio deJaneiro: Ao Livro Técnico. Original in German: Gymnastik – 1200Übungen. Sportverlag: Berlin.KRAEMER W, KEUNING M, RATAMESS N, VOLEK J, McCORMICKM. 2001. Resistance training combined with bench-step aerobicsenhances women´s health profile. Medicine and Science in Sportsand Exercise 33(2): 259-269.KOHLRAUSCH W, TEIRICH-LEUBE H. 1984. Ginástica Sentada.São Paulo: Editora Manole. Original in German: Hockergymnastik.Stuttgart: Gustav Fischer Verlag.KOLTYN K, UMEDA M. 2006. Exercise, hypoalgesia and bloodpressure. Sports Medicine 36(3): 207-214.KUCERA, M. 1983. Exercícios de Ginástica Médica. São Paulo:Editora Manole. Original in German: Krankengymastische UbüngenAnleitungen mit und ohne Gerät. Stuttgart: Gustav Fischer Verlag.KUCERA, M. 1984. Ginástica em Grupo. São Paulo: Editora Manole.Original in German: Gruppengymnastik. Stuttgart: Gustav FischerVerlag.LACERDA C, VASCONCELLOS H. 1981. Movimentos do pé: basesanatômicas. Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia 16(4): 135-139.LEBOEUF-YDE C, LAURITSEN J, LAURITZEN T. 1997. Why has thesearch for causes of low back pain largerly been nonconclusive?Spine 22(8): 877-881.LEKHEL H, POPOV K, ANASTOPOULOS D, BRONSTEIN A,BHATIA K, MARSDEN C, GRESTY M. 1997. Postural responses tovibration of neck muscles in patients with idiopathic torticollis. Brain120(4): 583-591. 103
    • Dario Palhares & José Antônio RodriguesLICHT P. et al. 2000. Is there a role for premanipulative testing beforecervical manipulation? Journal of Manipulation and PhysiologicalTherapeutics 23(3): 175-179.LUOTO S, AALTO H, TAIMELA S, HURRI H, PYYKKÖ I, ALARANTAH. 1998. One-footed and externally disturbed two-footed posturalcontrol in patients with chronic low back pain and healthy controlsubjects. Spine 23(19): 2081-2090.MALMIVAARA A, HAKKINEN U, ARO T, HENRICHS M,KOSKENNIEMI L, KUOSMA W, LAPPI S, PALOHEIMO R, SERVO C,VAARANEN V, HERNBERG S. 1995. The treatment of acute low backpain. New England Journal of Medicine 332(6): 352-355.MANNION A, TAIMELA S, MÜNTENER M, DVORAK J. 2001. Activetherapy for chronic low back pain. Spine 26(8): 897-908.McGILL S. 1991. Electromyographic activity of the abdominal andlow back musculature during the generation of isometric anddynamic axial trunk torque: implications for lumbar mechanisms.Journal of Orthopeaedic Research 9(1): 91-103.McGILL S. 1998. Low back exercises: evidence for improvingexercise regimens. Physical Therapy 78(7): 754-765.MENEZES A. 2004. The Complete Guide to Joseph H.Pilates´Techniques of Physical Conditioning. Alameda (USA):Hunter House Publishers.MONTEIRO, A. 2007. Emagrecimento, Exercício e Nutrição. SãoPaulo: AG Editora.MOFFAT M, VICKERY, S. 2002. Manual de Manutenção eReeducação Postural. Porto Alegre: Editora Artmed. Original inEnglish: The American Physical Therapy Association Book of BodyMaintenance and Repair. New York: Henry Holt Company.NATVIG B, BRUUSGAARD D, ERIKSEN W. 2001. Localized lowback pain and low back pain as part of widespread musculoskeletalpain. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine 33(1): 21-25.NESPEREIRA, AB. 2002. 1000 Exercícios de Preparação Física.Porto Alegre: Artmed. Original in Spanish: 1000 Ejercicios dePreparación Física. Barcelona: Editorial Paidotribo.NETO C. 1995. Motricidade e Jogo na Infância. Rio de Janeiro:Editora Sprint.NETTO F, BERESFORD, E. 1978. Coletânea de Exercícios Físicos.Porto Alegre: Prodil.NOGUEIRA A. 2009. Manual de Medicina do Esporte. São Paulo:Livraria Atheneu.104
    • Elemental Exercises of the Corrective BiogymNOGUEIRA E, DIAS E. 2001. Ginástica Localizada: 1000 exercícios.Rio de Janeiro: Sprint.OLIVEIRA M, NÓBREGA A. 2003. Tópicos Especiais em Medicinado Esporte. Vol 1 e 2. São Paulo: Livraria Atheneu.PALHARES D, RODRIGUES J, RODRIGUES L. 2001. Modosimplificado de exame postural. Brasília Médica 38(1-4): 27-32.PALHARES D, RODRIGUES J, RODRIGUES L. 2002. Descrição deexercícios terapêuticos para a coluna lombar. Revista de CiênciasMédicas da PUCCamp 11(3): 187-196.PALHARES D, RODRIGUES J, RODRIGUES L. 2008. Theoreticalprinciples for postural corrective gymnastics. Brasília Médica 45(2):116-121.PEDERSEN B, SALTIN B. 2006. Evidence for prescribing exercise astherapy in chronic disease. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine andScience in Sports 16(suppl 1): 3-63.PINHEIRO F, TRÓCCOLI B, CARVALHO C. 2002. Validação doquestionário nórdico de sintomas osteomusculares como medidade morbidade. Revista de Saúde Pública 36(3): 307-312.PINTO R, GUERINO C, CONSOLIN D, CUNHA A. 2000. Relaçãoentre lordose lombar e desempenho da musculatura abdominal emalunos de fisioterapia. Acta Fisiatrica 7(3): 95-98.PIVARNIK J, CHAMBLISS H, CLAPP J, DUGAN S, HATCH M,LOVELADY C, MOTTOLA M, WILLIAMS M. 2006. Impact ofphysical activity during pregnancy and postpartum on chronicdisease risk. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 38(5):989-1006.PLATONOV V, BULATOVA M. 2003. A Preparação Física. Rio deJaneiro: Sprint.POPOV K, LEKHEL H, BRONSTEIN A, GRESTY M. 1996. Posturalresponses to vibration of neck muscles in patients with unilateralvestibular lesions. Neuroscience Letters 214: 202-204.POWERS S, HOWLEY E. 2000. Fisiologia do Exercício. São Paulo:Editora Manole. Original in English: Exercise Physiology: Theory andApplication to Fitness and Performance. New York: McGraw-Hill.PRIFTIS K, HAGER J, VIACHOU M, ANTHRACOPOULOS M. 2003.Effects of bracing on lung function in idiopathic juvenile kyphosis.Pediatric Pulmonology 35(2): 83-86.PREUSS A, GRIMM D, SOUZA M. 1985. Marcha em rotação medial:relação com hábitos posturais. Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia20(5): 193-199. 105
    • Dario Palhares & José Antônio RodriguesRAMEY M, YANG A. 1981. A simulation procedure for humanmotion studies. Journal of Biomechanics 14(4): 203-213.RASCH, P, GRABINER M, GREGOR R, GARHAMMER J. 1991.Cinesiologia e Anatomia Aplicada. Rio de Janeiro: GuanabaraKoogan. Original in English: Kinesiology and Applied Anatomy.Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger.RHEA M. 2009. Treinamento de Força para Crianças. São Paulo:Phorte Editora.RICARD F, SALLÉ, J. 1996. Tratado de Osteopatia. São Paulo: RobelEditorial.ROSADAS S. 1991. Educação Física Especial para Deficientes. Riode Janeiro: Livraria Atheneu.ROSE J, GAMBLE J. 1998. Marcha Humana. São Paulo: EditorialPremier. Original in English: Human Walking. Baltimore: Williams &Wilkins.SAKATA R, ISSY A. 2003. Lesão por esforço repetitivo. RevistaBrasileira de Medicina 60(11): 77-83.SALTER R. 1985. Distúrbios e Lesões do Sistema Músculo-Esquelético. Rio de Janeiro: Editora Medsi.SAVAGLIO S, CARBONE V. 2000. Scaling in athletic world records.Nature 404: 244.SILER, B. 2005. Your Ultimate Pilates Body Challenge. New York:Broadway Books.SILVA A, SILVA J. 2003. A importância dos músculos do assoalhopélvico feminino, sob uma visão anatômica. Fisioterapia Brasil 4(3):205-211.SILVA OL. 2003. Semiologia do Aparelho Locomotor. Rio deJaneiro: Guanabara Koogan.SOUCHARD PE. 1992. RPG Quid?: Réeducation Posturale Globale.Saint Mont:Le Pousoé.TAKASHIMA S, SINGH S, HADERSPECK K, SCHULTZ A. 1979. Amodel for semiquantitative studies of muscle actions. Journal ofBiomechanics 12: 929-939.THE PEOPLE SPORTS PUBLISHING HOUSE. 1981. The ChineseWay to Family Health and Fitness. London: Mitchell BeazleyPublishers.TRIBASTONE F. 2001. Tratado de Exercícios Corretivos. São Paulo:Editora Manole. Original in Italian: Compendio di GinnasticaCorrettiva. Rome: Società Stampa Sportiva.106
    • Elemental Exercises of the Corrective BiogymTOKARS E, MOTTER A, MORO A, GOMES Z. 2003. A influência doarco plantar na postura e no conforto dos calçados ocupacionais.Fisioterapia Brasil 4(3): 158-162.TORRES J, CONCEIÇÃO M, SAMPAIO A, DANTAS, E. 2009. Acuteeffects of static stretching on muscle strength. Biomedical HumanKinetics 1: 52-55.TULDER M, MALMIVAARA A, ESMAIL R, KOES B. 2000. Exercisetherapy for low back pain. Spine 25 (21): 2784-2796.VERDERI E. 2001. Programa de Educação Postural. São Paulo:Phorte Editora.VERONESI J, AZATO M. 2003. Alterações posturais decorrentes dadiscrepância dos membros inferiores. Fisioterapia Brasil 4(3): 173-180.VOIGT, L. 2002. A Prática da Flexibilidade. Rio de Janeiro: Sprint.VOIGT L, VALE R, ABDALA D, FREITAS W, NOVAES J, DANTAS E.2007. Efeitos de uma repetição de dez segundos do estímulo dométodo estático para o desenvolvimento da flexibilidade de homensadultos jovens. Fitness & Performance 6(6): 352-356.VOLKOV N. 2002. Teoria e Prática do Treinamento Intervalado noEsporte. Campinas: Editora Multiesportes.VOLPON J. 1996. Semiologia ortopédica. Medicina 29: 67-79.VOLPON J. 1997. Avaliação e princípios do tratamento ortopédicodo paciente com sequela de paralisia cerebral. Acta OrtopedicaBrasilica 5(1): 35-42.YLINEN J, TAKALA E, NYKÄNEN M, HÄKKINEN A, MÄLKIÄ E,POHJOLAINEN T, KARPPI S, KAUTIAINEN H, AIRAKSINEN O.2003. Active neck muscle training in the treatment of chronic neckpain in women. JAMA 289(19): 2509-2516.YOUDAS J, GARRET T, EGAN K, THERNEAU T. 2000. Lumbarlordosis and pelvic inclination in adults with chronic low back pain.Physical Therapy 80(3): 261-275. 107