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Biological Evolution and Evolution of the Spirits
Biological Evolution and Evolution of the Spirits
Biological Evolution and Evolution of the Spirits
Biological Evolution and Evolution of the Spirits
Biological Evolution and Evolution of the Spirits
Biological Evolution and Evolution of the Spirits
Biological Evolution and Evolution of the Spirits
Biological Evolution and Evolution of the Spirits
Biological Evolution and Evolution of the Spirits
Biological Evolution and Evolution of the Spirits
Biological Evolution and Evolution of the Spirits
Biological Evolution and Evolution of the Spirits
Biological Evolution and Evolution of the Spirits
Biological Evolution and Evolution of the Spirits
Biological Evolution and Evolution of the Spirits
Biological Evolution and Evolution of the Spirits
Biological Evolution and Evolution of the Spirits
Biological Evolution and Evolution of the Spirits
Biological Evolution and Evolution of the Spirits
Biological Evolution and Evolution of the Spirits
Biological Evolution and Evolution of the Spirits
Biological Evolution and Evolution of the Spirits
Biological Evolution and Evolution of the Spirits
Biological Evolution and Evolution of the Spirits
Biological Evolution and Evolution of the Spirits
Biological Evolution and Evolution of the Spirits
Biological Evolution and Evolution of the Spirits
Biological Evolution and Evolution of the Spirits
Biological Evolution and Evolution of the Spirits
Biological Evolution and Evolution of the Spirits
Biological Evolution and Evolution of the Spirits
Biological Evolution and Evolution of the Spirits
Biological Evolution and Evolution of the Spirits
Biological Evolution and Evolution of the Spirits
Biological Evolution and Evolution of the Spirits
Biological Evolution and Evolution of the Spirits
Biological Evolution and Evolution of the Spirits
Biological Evolution and Evolution of the Spirits
Biological Evolution and Evolution of the Spirits
Biological Evolution and Evolution of the Spirits
Biological Evolution and Evolution of the Spirits
Biological Evolution and Evolution of the Spirits
Biological Evolution and Evolution of the Spirits
Biological Evolution and Evolution of the Spirits
Biological Evolution and Evolution of the Spirits
Biological Evolution and Evolution of the Spirits
Biological Evolution and Evolution of the Spirits
Biological Evolution and Evolution of the Spirits
Biological Evolution and Evolution of the Spirits
Biological Evolution and Evolution of the Spirits
Biological Evolution and Evolution of the Spirits
Biological Evolution and Evolution of the Spirits
Biological Evolution and Evolution of the Spirits
Biological Evolution and Evolution of the Spirits
Biological Evolution and Evolution of the Spirits
Biological Evolution and Evolution of the Spirits
Biological Evolution and Evolution of the Spirits
Biological Evolution and Evolution of the Spirits
Biological Evolution and Evolution of the Spirits
Biological Evolution and Evolution of the Spirits
Biological Evolution and Evolution of the Spirits
Biological Evolution and Evolution of the Spirits
Biological Evolution and Evolution of the Spirits
Biological Evolution and Evolution of the Spirits
Biological Evolution and Evolution of the Spirits
Biological Evolution and Evolution of the Spirits
Biological Evolution and Evolution of the Spirits
Biological Evolution and Evolution of the Spirits
Biological Evolution and Evolution of the Spirits
Biological Evolution and Evolution of the Spirits
Biological Evolution and Evolution of the Spirits
Biological Evolution and Evolution of the Spirits
Biological Evolution and Evolution of the Spirits
Biological Evolution and Evolution of the Spirits
Biological Evolution and Evolution of the Spirits
Biological Evolution and Evolution of the Spirits
Biological Evolution and Evolution of the Spirits
Biological Evolution and Evolution of the Spirits
Biological Evolution and Evolution of the Spirits
Biological Evolution and Evolution of the Spirits
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Biological Evolution and Evolution of the Spirits

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English version of the book: A Evolução Biológica e a Evolução dos Espíritos

English version of the book: A Evolução Biológica e a Evolução dos Espíritos

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  1. Biological evolution And evolution Of spirits evolucao_biologica__ing__emenda__ISAAC ing.indd 1 05/08/2013 15:08:51
  2. evolucao_biologica__ing__emenda__ISAAC ing.indd 2 05/08/2013 15:08:51
  3. São Paulo 2013 Dario Palhares Biological evolution And evolution Of spirits evolucao_biologica__ing__emenda__ISAAC ing.indd 3 05/08/2013 15:08:51
  4. Copyright © 2013 by Editora Baraúna SE Ltda Capa Projeto gráfico e diagramação Thaís Santos Revisão CIP-BRASIL. CATALOGAÇÃO-NA-FONTE SINDICATO NACIONAL DOS EDITORES DE LIVROS, RJ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ Impresso no Brasil Printed in Brazil DIREITOS CEDIDOS PARA ESTA EDIÇÃO À EDITORA BARAÚNA www.EditoraBarauna.com.br Rua da Glória, 246 – 3º andar CEP 01510-000 – Liberdade – São Paulo - SP Tel.: 11 3167.4261 www.editorabarauna.com.br evolucao_biologica__ing__emenda__ISAAC ing.indd 4 05/08/2013 15:08:51
  5. 5BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF SPIRITS Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Summary Chapter 1 – God.......................................................7 The Theory of the Systems..................................... 26 Chapter 2 – The Spirits ..........................................31 Chapter 3 – the evolutionary cycles of universe......39 Chapter 4 – life.......................................................42 Microorganisms as the start and the end of the ecolo- gical cycle. ............................................................ 48 The plants are angels in the ecosystems.................. 49 Life needs to get spread out................................... 51 The extinction of the dinosaurs under the spiritualist view. ..................................................................... 57 Chapter 5 – the human existence............................59 Weaknesses of human life: points to evolution....... 64 The symbology of Jesus Christ............................... 73 The self-responsibility of poverty........................... 74 evolucao_biologica__ing__emenda__ISAAC ing.indd 5 05/08/2013 15:08:51
  6. 6 Dario Palhares Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. evolucao_biologica__ing__emenda__ISAAC ing.indd 6 05/08/2013 15:08:51
  7. 7BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF SPIRITS Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Chapter 1 – God The Spiritualist Doctrine tends to adjust its theo- ries to the revelations that the Spirits give to people over time. Cajazeiras (2008) classifies Spiritualism into three great branches of study: the Moral Theology, the Medium Theology and the Natural Theology. The Moral Theology searches for improvement of humans as moral beings; the Medium Theology describes the modes of communication between humans and the Spirits; and the Natural Theology seeks answers about the World or the Universe in which we live, and delves into theories of Science and Philosophy. This book uses themes from the Natural Theology to show that the advancement of Science actually confirms the fundamentals of Spiritual- ism. This book also aims to convince the reader that the separation among Science, Religion and Philosophy only creates different fundamentalisms such as religious fun- damentalism and scientific fundamentalism, which act as stumbling blocks both the evolution of Science and the evolution of mankind. evolucao_biologica__ing__emenda__ISAAC ing.indd 7 05/08/2013 15:08:51
  8. 8 Dario Palhares Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Humans are born and will die. The World into which we are born has a past: a history that influences our present. However, we have the capacity to influence our surroundings with our intelligence and our oppos- able thumbs, which gives us the impression that we can modify the present and construct a future. We are always left struggling with questions such as if there is a sense in the World of if it simply ‘Is’; and is the World the way we perceive it or is there something Beyond? The answers to these questions are provided on the basis of the biological sensory mental tools that our spe- cies acquired throughout its evolution and are manifested in three ways: Science, Philosophy and Religion. All three touch the complexity of the World, which is composed of mysteries and phenomena of all orders of magnitude; from small subatomic events to astronomic cataclysms. But what all three have in common is that they all have their own language and paradigm, that they believe there is something beyond what we know at the moment and that there is something beyond the infor- mation our senses can grasp. Pragmatically, Truth is the description of the world that better works to us. Notwithstanding, there is a suc- cessive gradation between the false (or impossible), the possible, the probable and the truth. Truth is philosophi- cally inaccessible, due to the lack of an absolute method of attesting: when we speak about Truth, we speak not about a dogma, but about the result of an ordered and disciplined process of searching. Hence, Truth is the ef- evolucao_biologica__ing__emenda__ISAAC ing.indd 8 05/08/2013 15:08:51
  9. 9BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF SPIRITS Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. fect of an idea. The truth of an idea is not an intrinsic and stagnant property, but is the attribute of a process; only when put into practice can that idea be shown to be true or false. Our thinking does not necessarily give us a perfect picture of the Truth about the natural world, but it guides us into acting in the most effective manner in a world that is constantly changing Humans are living beings and make up part of the natural world. The things that we see, feel and reach ex- ist in our plane, the natural plane. But the natural plane does not exclude the existence of the supernatural plane, which, as the name says, is outside, beyond our reach. Europeans like to broadcast the idea that Science is a recent phenomenon that appeared in a renewed and reborn Europe. But that is not true. Science is a prac- tice that has been present in all human societies. Ancient human groups created a language of symbols and their brains were capable of abstract thinking. Thus the acts of describing, experimenting and symbolically represent- ing were present. Biomedical studies and research about herbs, chemical compounds, geometry, calculus, matri- ces, etc., date back to millennia before the Christian age and occurred in many societies throughout the world. What the Europeans call as modern science could be ref- erence to a professional practice that was financed by the State and whose results, small and fragmented, were rou- tinely registered, published and guarded in periodicals. Subsequent scientists could therefore advance and delve more and more into the search for the Truth of Nature where we are immersed. evolucao_biologica__ing__emenda__ISAAC ing.indd 9 05/08/2013 15:08:51
  10. 10 Dario Palhares Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. The search for Truth is embedded in our desire to control our environment. Since Science works with ma- terial that can be touched and felt, it creates an advanced technology, shows to us as a trademark of high quali- ty. The scientific theories are held as solid truths even though it is not uncommon that later scientific discover- ies can totally debunk old theories and put new ones in their place. In fact, both materialism and spiritualism are transitory aspects of our knowledge. This is concluded by the fact that thoughts of materialism and of spiritualism keep changing and today’s ideas are different from those in older times. In this search for control Religions too have a dual nature, both in their search for Truth and in their desire to control the Beyond. Religious rituals are frequently used to influence ‘destiny’ in such a way that we get the good luck and our enemies are disgraced. Science has re- vealed that humans believe that through rituals, gestures and sacrifices they can bring the hidden forces of Nature to favor them. There is a strong cultural modulation re- garding this, which is exemplified by groups that believe it is possible to appeal to Nature without great efforts; for example, to calm down the Divine Ira by sacrificing animals or innocent people. The greatest difference between Science and Reli- gion is that Scientists, at least formally, admit to ques- tioning their conclusions vis-a-vis other experimental conclusions, whereas Religions are based on dogmas that can never even be questioned. Francis Bacon (XVII century) had said that scientists, philosophers, and reli- evolucao_biologica__ing__emenda__ISAAC ing.indd 10 05/08/2013 15:08:51
  11. 11BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF SPIRITS Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. gious beings create psychological barriers to the free and open minded search for knowledge. These barriers can be termed as idols: the idols of the mind, idols of the tribe, idols of market and idols of theatre. In a world that is constantly changing, these barriers provide some mental- emotional stability to the people. Advances in Science influence Religion and vice-ver- sa. Science, Philosophy and Religion share elemental con- cepts such as life, time, space, amount, etc. These shared concepts make up part of the so-called phenomenologi- cal world, i.e. the perception of the human mind over the world. Quantity, time, space, etc., are not natural and con- crete objects, but perceptions of the human mind. The difference between Science and Religion, as if they were mutually exclusive instead of complimentary methods, was brought to the fore recently in a specific historic-cultural context. In the year 1000, the philosopher and theologist Ibn Bajja defended the compatibility between faith and reason and explained that the path to knowledge and connection with the Divine were related to thinking and acting rationally. At the same time, studying the natural world was considered akin to studying the manifesta- tions of God: the more it was possible to understand the World, the more it was possible to understand God. This idea remains until today. According to Frei Betto (2012), faith and reason are vehicles to the transcendence of the human condition. If Science works with the things we can touch, then Religion calls attention to those events that show us that evolucao_biologica__ing__emenda__ISAAC ing.indd 11 05/08/2013 15:08:51
  12. 12 Dario Palhares Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. there is a nature that we cannot reach. Science under- stands the world by extending the human senses and ap- plying mathematically processed information. Religion seeks to understand a world that is beyond the scope of our senses. The foundation of Religion is tolerance, com- prehension, love, and its purpose is to guide people in their spiritual evolution. This relationship between faith and science was sev- ered by the abusive use of Religion by the creation of States of Terror and Exception. Some people interpreted religion (and unfortunately still do) not for the moral and spiritual evolution of mankind, but as a means of delimiting tribes under a common ideology. ‘Our tribe against the world’ is one of the subliminal messages of these religious fanat- ics who make any peace process impossible; on the other hand, they have no qualms about pushing people to sui- cide. In States where power is mixed with religious dogma- tism, questioning does not represent a search for theTruth, but a simple heresy, for which rivers of blood flowed, and thousands of innocents were killed. Religion has historically been used in a distorted and abusive way to manipulate the ignorant and the poor. It was used by powerful intellectual elites to create both imaginary penalties such as fear of revengeful, cho- leric and temperamental gods and concrete penalties that included death in cruel procedures. This led to a social silence and a spiritual stagnation for masses of people. As a social manifestation, the hierarchical religions, com- promised with power, exploit the natural spirituality of mankind to manipulate people in their favor. evolucao_biologica__ing__emenda__ISAAC ing.indd 12 05/08/2013 15:08:51
  13. 13BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF SPIRITS Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Religious fanaticism considers the existence of sa- cred texts, and deems its interpretations of the same as unquestionable truths. To a large miserable and illiter- ate population, a written text can really seem to appear under complete divine inspiration. Clearly, any person able to read and write would understand that the written texts are human products hence incomplete and subject to failure. Fanaticism does not only exploit the illiterate poor, but its oppression can take the form of sadism. Re- ligious fanaticism extends its reach to include even those who are educated but going through difficult moments of pain and anguish and are therefore vulnerable. The sacred texts that some religions recognize as absolute are really the products of several writers and in- terpreters and translators: those who wrote the texts in ancient languages; those who translated them into dif- ferent languages; and those who copied the texts; those who edited each copy, as by compiling the texts, making changes to the phrases and paragraphs, adding/removal of topics, etc. In other words, consecrating texts is one of many ways by which mankind has self-turned God. In the anx- iety of surviving at any cost, mankind takes itself as the maximal and final measurement of the whole chain of the Universe. The gods are always taken in reference to man, sometimes as animal entities (hence sub-humans), sometimes as living persons, sometimes as super-humans and sometimes as above-humans. But they are always be- ings that are comparable and referenced to man. People create Gods in their own image imbuing evolucao_biologica__ing__emenda__ISAAC ing.indd 13 05/08/2013 15:08:51
  14. 14 Dario Palhares Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. them with all great virtues of mankind. Having created an utopian entity, they get imprisoned to these gods, pre- ferring the dream to the real world. People compare their real self with a group of gods, often forgetting that these gods were invented by people like themselves. In societies where the religious dogma constitutes in one of the columns of States of Terror and Exception, it is natural that the questioning against everything that comes from the religions is equally radical and virulent. If Religion suffocates Science (instead of making a part- nership); if in the name of God it preaches intolerance, disrespect and violence; and if in defense of old human texts new discoveries are ignored then it may be conclud- ed that materialism and atheism curb these abuses. Such as the poles of a magnet, both ends are as strong as the other. The most expected reaction is that Science breaks from Religion and embraces materialism. And this is what happened. The wonderful technologies of Science have delud- ed the thinking and put Religion to secondary planes, where dogmas are considered as farces purposely planted for social domination and subjugation. Science is consid- ered as material, materialist and atheist. To the extremists of science, those who believe in a religion want to be cheated or simply alleviated the suffering of not being able to get obvious responses to the two great existence questions: if Universe has a proposal and if there is some- thing Beyond the material world. The technologies that Science develops are extensions and refinements of the human structures. They create tele- evolucao_biologica__ing__emenda__ISAAC ing.indd 14 05/08/2013 15:08:51
  15. 15BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF SPIRITS Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. scopes and microscopes as extensions of the human eye; robots as more precise and tireless fingers; computers as an extension of the ability of the brain to calculate, etc. When Science gets back to the own man, it starts to lift discovers, doubts, questions, paradoxes whose an- swers can not be given by Science, but by Religions. Sci- ence has shown that humans are very limited. We don´t see the ultraviolet as some insects and birds do, spite the noxious effects that the ultraviolet causes over the skin; we don´t hear the ultrasound as the bats; we don´t smell as the dogs. We don’t even feel radiation, spite its lethal effect. Our taste tends to reject greens spite the innumer- ous benefits of this kind of food. So, the extension of something limited is necessar- ily limited. It can be an expanded limit, but still limited. Deeply, atheism and materialism derive from the same fundament of a human-like God: the one of consider- ing human as the maximal intelligence of the Universe. Materialism is glued to the idea that all our senses catch, expanded by technology, is really Everything. Atheism is based on the argument that it is not possible to know the origin and the finality of things. In part true, but it doesn´t mean that there is no origin or finality, but only that our intelligence, limited and mortal, doesn´t allow us to approach to these questions. So, materialism, in its extreme form, is another man- ifestation of religious fanaticism, a kind of war against Religion. Basic question of the materialist fundamental- ism are: why so many people believe in supernatural enti- ties? Such necessity comes from where? And, commonly, evolucao_biologica__ing__emenda__ISAAC ing.indd 15 05/08/2013 15:08:51
  16. 16 Dario Palhares Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. these questions are answered based on the disdain of a mere instinct genetically inherited… Both scientific materialism and dogmatism of sacred texts take information literally and claim for rights of ab- solute speeches of truth. This, either one or other way, is a manner to keep the minds obliterated, either by eyes closed by the dogmatism, either by eyes dazzled by the technological evolution. Either one or the other, blocking the real search for the Truth and the Spiritual Evolution. The approach of the World by Science has allowed the answer and the domain of many ‘thats’. But the questions about the ‘whys’ viscerally expose the limits of human comprehension. What do we know about the Universe? How do we know it? From where it comes, to where it goes? Was there a beginning? What is the nature of time? Why are we here, from where we came? Can we think in the infinite? Why are the physical laws this way we discover them? Could there it be, is there a region in the Universe where the physical inter-relations are dis- tinct from the ones here? Science explains the facts of its spheres of study, but don´t suppress God, only see Him even more distant and even clearer. In this way, Schopenhauer (XIX century) described that humans have as limit of world the limits of their vision, since the perceptions and the process of information are carried out over the data acquired by our senses, limited. To the sensorial limits, the physic Stephen Hawk- ing affirms, strongly, that Mathematic presents an enor- mous difficulty in working with infinite numbers. As evolucao_biologica__ing__emenda__ISAAC ing.indd 16 05/08/2013 15:08:51
  17. 17BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF SPIRITS Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Wittgenstein described that the limits of the human language are the limits of the possible world; in a simi- lar way the limits of Mathematic (that is not a group of doctrines, but an abstract image of the world) are the limits of the scientific comprehension. Mathematic says what is possible and what will remain away from the human comprehension. If Mathematic represents the maximal limits of the sciences, then beyond the limits of our senses, we pres- ent limits in the own abstract thinking, by hitting the difficulty of the Infinite which is not a surprise if we re- member the words from 2600 years ago of Lao Tse, in- terpreted by Humberto Rohden: ‘any finite point facing the Infinite is always in an infinite distance. No finite mind can understand the mind of the Infinite’. In other words, by the pathway of the Reason and of the materialist approach of the World, Science points out what the Religions have said since the beginning of mankind: that beyond this touchable world there are evidences of other things, untouchable and unreachable, that our senses and in consequence our mind can not even imagine. But the small amount of human reason, of temporal and finite nature, allows the appearance of intuition and deduction over the Infinite. The own notion of God evolves according the sci- entific comprehension about Nature. As Louis Pasteur (XIX century) said, ‘a few of science takes us away from God; too much, re-approaches us’. The history of the origin of almost all the ancient peoples is confused with the respective religions, since evolucao_biologica__ing__emenda__ISAAC ing.indd 17 05/08/2013 15:08:51
  18. 18 Dario Palhares Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. the first books were religious. The first sacred books were at the same time the first books of sciences and technol- ogy and the code of the civil laws. In the primordial eras, as the means of observation were limited to the human senses, the first theories about the world were based on these data. There was a greater difficulty in the interpre- tation of the World by these human groups of the past, which makes them to relate and consider the forces of Nature as being the Divine. At this moment, the first totems appear: life beings or stuff considered sacred, both for a concrete representation of the forces responsible for the creation, maintenance and evolution of the World and for a trial to have the Sacred close to the hands to adore him and get some desirable influence. As mankind got deeper in knowledge, the thinking immerged into the mysteries of the World and corrected the ideas about the origin of things. If nowadays the accu- mulated knowledge refuses many of these observations, it is still needed to be recognized that these millenary texts still bring and guard great and beautiful ideas. In the evo- lution of knowledge, not necessarily everything that was discovered thousands of years ago became invalid, but rather that there were additions and refinements of the ancient knowledge. Seeing the Sun appear in one side of the sky and disappearing in the other, and also being capable of only short trips, rarely beyond the tribe or the valley, we don´t feel that Earth is moving; hence the immedi- ate conclusion of men of thousands of years ago that was the Sun that spins around the Earth. The sky, in a evolucao_biologica__ing__emenda__ISAAC ing.indd 18 05/08/2013 15:08:51
  19. 19BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF SPIRITS Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. format of a dome, with its small stars at the night led to the conclusion that Earth was the center of Universe and, in accordance to intuition, mankind was the focus of Earth, being the center of the center of the Universe. And with such prerogatives, the basement of the reli- gious beliefs was constructed. In other words, since old times, the knowledge of what nowadays we call Astronomy has been the basis for the interpretation of the idea of God. In ancient times, God (or gods) were superpowerful men and women who lived in the highest mountains and who frequently came down to Earth. They were warrior gods, guiding the pro- tected peoples in the battles, only favoring the enemy when angry or frustrated with their pupils. And what happened? The persons could climb these high mountains and didn´t find any super-human, any divine home. So, these gods remained only in the mytho- logical-cultural register of a moment of human existence. God, then, became a great ethereal man, that one day got tired of nothing and created everything. And this everything was the Earth, the sky and the hot lavas of the terrestrial nucleus, the Hell. In the most external sky, there was Him, God: a big, powerful man made of ethereal stuff, who knew everything about humans and whose great preoccupation was the thinking and the so- cial behavior of the persons. But even then, the systematic observation and the detailed registers of the sky evidenced the cyclic move- ment of the asters. As early as in 600 bC, Thales from Miletus described that Earth was a sphere. In 500 bC, evolucao_biologica__ing__emenda__ISAAC ing.indd 19 05/08/2013 15:08:51
  20. 20 Dario Palhares Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Pythagoras described the rotation of Earth around the Sun. In 270 bC, Aristarchus of Samos confirmed that Earth moved around the Sun. Epicurus in 300 bC af- firmed that ‘in the same way the atoms are infinite in number, also the number of worlds can be perfectly in- finite’. Hiparco in 160 bC could foresee lunar eclipses as he invented the astrolabe. In 140 of the Christian Era, Ptolemy described a mixed model of the solar system, that was kept for 15 centuries. In this model, Earth is an ethereal sphere involved by 11 skies, and this idea of multiple skies also lasted very long. Seventh was the most elevated sky and Saint Paul had reached the third one. Only in the XVI century Copernicus revised the data and re-described the solar system, being burned in the stake of inquisition due to heresy. Galileo invented the telescope 60 years after the death of Copernicus and confirmed the data and was also almost burned. Astronomy, given the instrumental and the math- ematical basis and due to the easier circulation of ideas, didn´t stop to evolve. After all, Science is a collective product of centuries and of a large amount of people who brings, each one, their own observations the ones who come after. As Mankind evolves, the things get taught slowly by the Spirits, and such lessons come gradually. In the same way it is impossible – and useless– to teach nu- clear physics to a five year old child, in the beginning of mankind, information could not (and were not) revealed at once; evolution is carried out slowly and continuously. If it wasn´t like that, it would be an explosion. That´s why Spiritism never condemns or mocks that evolucao_biologica__ing__emenda__ISAAC ing.indd 20 05/08/2013 15:08:51
  21. 21BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF SPIRITS Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. the ancient had imagined God as a superman. Such step was essential to the growth of mankind in a period before of ours. Each interpretation of God is related to a cul- tural moment of a society, with models that come from the simple human-like forms to a metaphysical God. Science and Religions converge to a point and mu- tually influence regarding God. The more Science dis- closures the dimensions of Universe and the position of Earth in this Universe, the more it can get clarified to the Religions about God. Even the modern Astronomy could not answer defi- nitely a basic question about the Universe. Saint Thomas Aquinas (XII century) registered that the opinions were divided between those who say that the Universe always existed (such as Aristotle) hence is eternal and those who believe that the Universe had a beginning, appearing af- ter the Nothing (such as John Filopono, VI century). Both positions open fundamental philosophical questions: if Universe is eternal, how can it have a past, a history? To be eternal, shouldn´t the Universe is im- mutable? And if the Universe is immutable, so why the life beings are born and die? In other side, if the Universe had really a beginning, why this beginning occurred in a particular moment, not in other? Since at least the XVI century, with the observations of the catholic monk Giordano Bruno, the Universe is taken as being infinite, with an infinite number of solar systems from which our is only one among other innu- merable ones that has forms of life beings. In the most conservative hypothesis, the Universe presents 1020 solar evolucao_biologica__ing__emenda__ISAAC ing.indd 21 05/08/2013 15:08:51
  22. 22 Dario Palhares Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. systems, where at least two millions of planets can host life beings, since the condition similar to the Earth. So, facing something that was only a few layers of sky recovering Earth, the Universe in reality is even more fantastic and more wonderful than any other previous conception. Being so common, the Wonderful loses its divine enchantment, when it should be the other way around. If all effect has a cause, whatever had caused the Universe is even more Wonderful and Fantastic. It was needed Science to evolve so that much to conclude what had been said thousands of years ago: that, deeply, the scientists try to immerge into the mind of God. Stephen Hawking states that the observable Uni- verse has a ray of 1 septillion of kilometers and that the observations of Hubble telescope showed that the far away galaxies are getting away from us in a speed that gets faster and faster. Such data, imprecise, are also limited: the informa- tion we get reach us in the speed of light, therefore, what we know about the Universe are not up to date informa- tion, but signs of events that occurred many BILLIONS of years ago. But even we accepted that the Universe had ‘only’ one septillion of kilometers, if we reached the bor- der of this Universe, what would be there? It would be there the Nothing. By axiomatic definition, space is the distance that separate two material bodies. Time is another axiomatic category that refers to the successive events. There are no limits for the dimensions of space or for time, such a way they are infinite. Even if the Universe simply Was, there evolucao_biologica__ing__emenda__ISAAC ing.indd 22 05/08/2013 15:08:52
  23. 23BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF SPIRITS Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. would be a frontier between the Universe and Nothing, this one being infinite and dimensionless, such a way the group Nothing + Universe would be equally infinite. Per- haps Nothing even doesn´t physically exist, since in the border between Nothing and the Universe, any particle that enters into Nothing immediately transforms it into Universe. Anyway, if matter attracts matter, could there be a Nothing creating a vacuum and giving origin to the acceleration of the separation of the galaxies? As the galaxies run away quicker, so, by a logical- inductive thinking, they were close to ours, which gave rise to the theory and astronomic confirmation of the Big Bang. Big Bang says us that the matter of Universe was concentrated in a point and that suddenly there was an explosion that started the History of Universe. In this model of Big Bang, some aspects need to be considerated: first, as Stephen Hawking says, it is not that previously to Big Bang there was no Time, but only that the events before the Big Bang would not influence our present. “We can not determine what would have hap- pened before this explosion; to our knowledge, the events that occurred before could not have any consequence and however should not take part of a scientific model of the Universe”. Astronomy, this way, does not deny the existence of an infinite Time neither of a past anterior to Big Bang, but constructs a simplified model based on results and measurements carried out until now. Precisely, Astrono- my can affirm, with certainty, that there was a Big Bang in this region of the Universe we can observe. An episte- mological gap is exactly the one to consider that the ob- evolucao_biologica__ing__emenda__ISAAC ing.indd 23 05/08/2013 15:08:52
  24. 24 Dario Palhares Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. servable Universe is really Everything. In this point, it is exactly the vision of the Religions regarding an Infinite God that can guide the interpretation of the scientific data in a more precise way: what we observe is only part of an Infinite and Time that were not exactly started with Big Bang, which was an event related to this region of the Universe we live and that needs to be better clarified. When scientists are asked about if they believe in God, it is needed first to define what concept of God they have: if God is an ethereal person flying over the world, it is highly probable that few will believe in it; if this be- ing created the human species as the supreme maximal of phylogenetic perfection then Darwin really killed God, as some scientific fundamentalist atheists want. As the period of State of Terror and Exception against which modern Science had to fight has passed, the physic Marcelo Gleiser states, precisely, that Science can not prove the existence or not of God hence atheism is not exactly a scientific posture; the scientifically neutral postures would be agnosticism. Anyway, the question about God has not totally come over from the field of Science. Mário Lívio (2011) questions if God and Mathematic are mixed and Leon- ard Mlodinow (2012) recognizes that people are too sen- sitive to anything that attacks God; to him, God is the subquantum origin of matter. So, what Philosophy, what Spiritism says about God? The Philosophy of Tao does not mention the word God, but the Natural Order of the things. Since the XII century of the Christian age, Maimonides concluded that evolucao_biologica__ing__emenda__ISAAC ing.indd 24 05/08/2013 15:08:52
  25. 25BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF SPIRITS Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. God was not exactly human. Man was the responsible on having created God at his image and similarity, not the other way around. The philosopher clarified that God have no attributes. We can not say that God is good or powerful not only because these are mere human projec- tions but also because an attribute limits the Infinitude of God. To him, we can say things about God, but they have to be understood as acts, manifestations and not to the being, not to the essence of God. Jalal Rumi (XII century) defined that Universe and everything inside it are an infinite flux, in which God is an eternal presence; past and present are not a cycle, but the progression of one form to another. At the same time everything stops existing, it changes to another form. Nicholas of Cushan (XV century) said that God is different from anything that human mind is capable to learn; God is beyond-being. And such absence of a body was not entirely comprehensible by human mind. After all, if God is Infinite, what kind of Infinite is this that fits into the limitation of human mind? Spinosa (XVII century) describes God as the cause of everything and that everything is inside God. Allan Kardec describes God as the Primary Cause of every- thing, since there is no effect without a cause. If Universe exists, it has a cause: to believe in God, it is enough to observe the World. In the Spiritualist point of view, the material world exists together with the spiritual world. God doesn´t appear easily, being only revealed by Nature. It is not given to mankind to touch the intimate nature evolucao_biologica__ing__emenda__ISAAC ing.indd 25 05/08/2013 15:08:52
  26. 26 Dario Palhares Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. of God, because to understand him the proper sense is lacking. But by means of thinking, man can reach the necessary attributes: God is the Supreme Intelligence, is Eternal, Unchangeable, Immaterial and Omnipo- tent. God is not an image or a touchable thing, but the lovely Spirit. A logical conclusion is that if God is Infinite then the Universe and everything inside it (us included) are parts of God. This conclusion leads to two concepts: Pantheism and Panentheism. Pantheism is simply athe- ism with another name: Pantheism says that God is the Universe and the Universe is God, considering, thus, only the concrete matter. Panentheism is accepted even by the Christian theologist Frei Betto, who says that God is at the same time in everything, but is even more than everything gathered together. Such complexity of being and beyond-being has support in the sphere of Science? The Theory of the Systems answers yes, and that it is very natural. The Theory of the Systems The Theory of the Systems is a field of Mathematic that studies the working of systems and has many appli- cations in Biology and Cybernetics. A system is a group of functionally integrated elements, and the following aspects should be highlighted: a) Everything that is in the parts is also in the whole (obvious) evolucao_biologica__ing__emenda__ISAAC ing.indd 26 05/08/2013 15:08:52
  27. 27BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF SPIRITS Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. b) The parts may present hidden relationships and can also present distant relations c) When the systems are structured, they generate im- material properties that transcend to the own system d) Therefore, the whole is more than the mere sum of the parts e) The systems can be classified in crescent or- ders of complexity; at each step of complexity ‘above’, the properties of the systems also pres- ent increase in complexity. Just to exemplify these aspects of the systems, let´s take information from scientific knowledge. Let´s take a molecule of water. Water is composed by two atoms of hydrogen and one of oxygen, being a simple and very common molecule of the Universe. Water is a very versa- tile substance: it can freeze, stand liquid, turn into vapor. It can solve substances. It stocks a considerable amount of heat, and so son. These properties are not seen nei- ther in the atom of oxygen neither of hydrogen, if taken isolated. But when these three atoms link together and when many molecules of water group together, we see a very complex system. Another example of the Theory of the Systems comes from the following phrase of Tao philosophy: ‘a house is defined not by the walls that compose it, but by the empty space they delimit; in other words, the things (or sys- tems) are and are not at the same time, and everything that the things (or systems) are not defines what the things are’. Obviously, one of the exaggerations of the Theory evolucao_biologica__ing__emenda__ISAAC ing.indd 27 05/08/2013 15:08:52
  28. 28 Dario Palhares Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. of the Systems is to consider that everything is related with everything, without any distinction: although there are hidden relationships among the elements of a system, definitely the shake of wings of a butterfly in China does not kill any person in the American continent… The systems don´t exist isolated and one system is always in relationship with other systems. A system is al- ways subsequent to a previous one and is always previous to another one; in this aspect, this field of Mathematic concluded the same that the philosophy of the XII cen- tury had mentioned. The Theory of the Systems explain what Anaxago- ras (V bC century) and the philosopher José Ortega y Gasset said: that it doesn´t make sense for us to see our- selves separated from the world; that our separation from Universe is essentially an illusion and that everything in the world is composed by a small part of all the Universe; if it was in the opposite way, it would be impossible for Earth to exist. The Theory of the Systems allows us to go further: to the question ‘is there intelligence in Universe’, the answer comes at least, based on the property that ‘what is in the part is in the whole’. Concretely, intelligence as we define is the result of electrochemical circuits walking inside the human brain. Biology has shown us that intelligence, in the terres- trial biodiversity is not unique nor exclusive to humans, but it appears each more time more complex throughout the phylogenetic scale until in the human species, with its ar- ticulated language and precise manipulation, it acquires the most developed face in the biomes of Earth. evolucao_biologica__ing__emenda__ISAAC ing.indd 28 05/08/2013 15:08:52
  29. 29BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF SPIRITS Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. That is there is intelligence in the Universe. And it is highly probable that, if a small system inside this Universe – human species, in the small point represented by the Earth Planet – has intelligence, other systems may present Intelligence in even higher and more complex degrees. If us, human species, simple biological systems, are capable to make questions about the Universe, why would there not be other systems, even more complex, capable of unimaginable things? If in the human brain tissue, intelligence is electrochemical circuits, then, for example, may the fluxes of mass among galaxies be inte- grated circuits of a Greater Intelligence? With the Theory of Systems, we can scientifically move from agnosticism to the definite conclusion about the Existence of God. If each time we increase a degree in the complexity of a system it occurs immaterial properties each time more complex, so, what immaterial properties would be present in this Infinite System that is the Universe? God. It must be clear that God is not ‘defined’ as being a mere system, even the Infinite System. It must be clear that it is simply shown that Science, even the agnostic or atheist Science, reveals the existence of God. The attri- butes that the religions have revealed since thousands of years ago are now being also revealed under the vision of Science. Being material and immaterial at the same time. Being everything and much more. Being part of a greater divinity does not improve us, but in the contrary, enhances our responsibility. We are part of a family, of a city, of a country, of a Planet. Being evolucao_biologica__ing__emenda__ISAAC ing.indd 29 05/08/2013 15:08:52
  30. 30 Dario Palhares Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. part of Earth only turns bigger the human responsibility on the Planet. Being a minuscule part of God turns heavi- er and bigger about the choices we carry out in our lives. Man tries to get comparable to God when defining gods in human forms or when considers himself as the apex of a creation or of a biological evolution. The hu- man species is only one among innumerable other ones that exist in Earth or in the Universe. And, as any life form, is in constant biological evolution. evolucao_biologica__ing__emenda__ISAAC ing.indd 30 05/08/2013 15:08:52
  31. 31BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF SPIRITS Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Chapter 2 – The Spirits If going towards the Infinite Big, Science clarifies and confirms what the religions say about God, going towards the Infinite Small – the Quantum Physics, Science, in a symmetrical way, clarifies about the Spirits. The Spirits present the following aspects: a) They are present in everything: gases, minerals, life beings… b) They are placed in the border between material and immaterial c) The immaterial is related to the material as being distinct planes of the same world d) They accumulate information e) They evolve f) They are eternal The studies about the subatomic world show a bor- der between the material and the immaterial. Even so, evolucao_biologica__ing__emenda__ISAAC ing.indd 31 05/08/2013 15:08:52
  32. 32 Dario Palhares Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. according to León Denis, matter is gross compared to the Spirits. The Spirits are even more subtle than the most ethereal of the subatomic particles, but to evolve they need the hard concrete things. Matter can exist in many different states and the infinite variety of the bodies can be explained by a common essence, and if matter can´t be destroyed, the soul is even more perennial. In the quantum world, some phenomena are differ- ent from those of our macroscopic world. An electron is always moving. We can see a motionless object on a table, but the particles that compose it will always be moving. In the quantum level, energy is never zero. The model of the atom and the sub-atomic parti- cles is a coherent group of formulas that explain phys- ic-chemical experiments carried out under controlled conditions. A common image of an atom is a nucleus made of small balls (protons and neutrons) surrounded by electrons, but the ‘shape’ of the atom (if there is really a shape of an atom) is surely not the same of the solar system: the orbits of the electrons are not exactly orbits, but orbitals (regions where the probability of finding the electron is high – whatever the electron is: a particle, a wave, something… but certainly a mathematical equa- tion that foresee some results of laboratory experiments) that has nothing to do with the Sun or the planets that gravitates around. Revealing a sub-atomic particle is more accessible to us than understanding the secrets of the Universe because we are made by protons and electrons, but we are a very small part of the Universe. evolucao_biologica__ing__emenda__ISAAC ing.indd 32 05/08/2013 15:08:52
  33. 33BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF SPIRITS Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Stephen Hawking summarizes precisely and bril- liantly the discoveries about the sub-atomic particles: protons and neutrons are made of smaller particles, the quarks. There are six flavors of quarks, each one present- ing three colors, performing 18 quarks. The nomencla- ture of flavors and colors were alternatives that the physic researchers found to give modern names to the findings, avoiding the tedious use of Greek letters. In relation to the particles, an important property is the spin, which is related to the axis of symmetry. There are the spins 0, 0.5, 1 and 2. The particles with spin 0.5 make the matter while the others originate the forces among the material particles. One can not exist without the other; where there is matter there is obligatorily force (energy) and vice-versa. That is, force and matter are inseparable. These particles are, from a strict concrete point of view, mathematical equations created with results of chemical reactions in high sensitive photographic films. The sub-atomic world is not a fruit exactly from a extension of the human senses, but rather the result of the mathematical processing of information. Con- cretely, there are only scratches and scribbling oh pho- tographic films. If the humans didn´t have ability to mathematically think, such visual extension would not bring further information. A fantastic experiment is the destruction of a par- ticle by an anti-particle. Making a collision between an electron and a positron, only ‘energy’ lasts. To each one of the sub-atomic particles, it was identified an antipar- ticle. When they collide, only energy lasts. The formal evolucao_biologica__ing__emenda__ISAAC ing.indd 33 05/08/2013 15:08:52
  34. 34 Dario Palhares Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. definition of energy is ‘an abstract value that measures the balancing of phenomena’. Therefore, the collision of two antagonist parts generates ‘something’. That can not even be defined. In other words, when the physics of the particles goes deep inside the nature of the matter, it puts into evi- dence that there is ‘something’ more that interacts with and makes part of the matter, but that is not material. The material is always followed by the immaterial. It is found in the infinitely small those things that Spiritism had said since a long time ago: that deep inside of the matter there is something that interact with it, but that is not exactly material. That is the Spirit. Another property of the sub-atomic components is that they exchange information. The sub-atomic particles have information. The spin of an electron in a same or- bital, when altered, immediately modifies the spin of the other electron, and such speech in exchanging information has been used to the construction of quantum computers. But the most interesting property of matter in its sub-atomic structure is the absence of the property of Time. The Theory of Relativity decreed the end of the concept of absolute time. In the quantum world, time equals to the distance walked by light, which created the concept of space-time, experimentally confirmed as valid to the sub-atomic particles. To a sub-atomic particle, time doesn´t exist. From the point of view of a quark or of a ray of light, there is no ‘before’ and ‘after’, simply it exists. When the speed of light is taken as a physical unbreakable constant, time, in evolucao_biologica__ing__emenda__ISAAC ing.indd 34 05/08/2013 15:08:52
  35. 35BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF SPIRITS Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. atomic experiments, presents as fluid and flexible, which in scientific fiction would allow the construction of time machines. The physic researcher Marcelo Gleiser affirms: “time starts to randomly float such as the electron in its zig- zag. Time, instead of flowing like a river – which is our experience here – in the case of the initial moment has not this aspect anymore: time can go forward, can come back, can eventually not go, can go slower, the concept of time itself does not make any sense”. This apparent contradiction of the World to be composed by eternal particles but show a History can be understood, once more, by the Theory of the Systems, in its fundamental aspect that the systems present crescent orders of complexity. In this sense, the property of Time appears above a certain degree of complexity of the system. To a sub- atomic particle, time simply doesn´t exist, it is not a property. Time, defined as being a before and an after, starts to appear above the level of complexity ‘atom’ of the chain of complexities of the Universe. If an atom loses an electron, there was a before and an after; but it is a reversible before and after: the atom can receive a new electron and go back to what it was before. However, to bigger atoms, there is an irreversible time arrow, which is the radioactive decay. If an unstable atom decays, there was an irreversible before and after, hence a time arrow before -> after. Similar property is seen in a system with one more degree of complexity of atom: the molecule. To a small molecule, such as water, time also doesn´t exist. A wa- evolucao_biologica__ing__emenda__ISAAC ing.indd 35 05/08/2013 15:08:52
  36. 36 Dario Palhares Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. ter molecule is a water molecule, end point. Water can freeze, evaporate, solve ions, mix to other substances, but the molecule of water will always be water. To it, time is not a property. However, to a macromolecule, for example, a mol- ecule with six carbons such as benzene or the common and familiar sugar, Time is present. A big molecule ap- peared, was somehow born, was constructed via a se- quence of chemical reactions. In this point, the ‘future’ of a big molecule is more diversified than the future of a big atom. A big atom either stands the way it is or decay in restrict and foreseeable ways. But a big molecule can suffer many different events; to each event that happens to it, the way of History is distinct. Therefore, the property Time and the existence of History as a consequence of Time, inside of the Theory of the Systems and inside of the complexity of the Uni- verse, appear inexorably to all systems with a higher de- gree of complexity than ‘big molecule’. Time is a gradual property, appearing in a reversible way to small atoms, in an irreversible way to big atoms, being again inexistent to simple molecules and at the end firming as intrinsic property of macromolecules and so on. Since the mol- ecules present the property of Time, everything in supe- rior degrees also present it. It is not a contradiction of God to be eternal and to present a Time and a History. Universe is eternal be- cause, in the last instance, it is composed by sub-atom- ic particles to whom Time doesn´t exist. And present a History because supermolecular systems present the evolucao_biologica__ing__emenda__ISAAC ing.indd 36 05/08/2013 15:08:52
  37. 37BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF SPIRITS Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. property of passing through different events, each one with different results. This aspect brilliantly illustrates that the evolution of Science confirmed what Spiritism had said: that there is this world, material and temporal, from which we make part; but there is also an immate- rial and timeless world. This can be a reason why physics succeeded in uni- fying the laws of electromagnetism but has not been able to unify the Law of Gravitation: because electromagne- tism occurs in systems with similar degrees of complexity, while Gravitation occurs in systems with higher degrees of complexity, when mass gets concentrated in heavenly bodies from a determined amount. Notwithstanding, Fritjof Capra says, regargind Physicis, that the property of Time separates the Classical Mechanics from Quan- tum Physics: the systems studied under the quantum ap- proach don´t present Time as a property, contrary to the systems of significant mass, studied under the methods of the Newtonian Physics. Therefore, Time is not, to systems higher than mol- ecules, a dimension where it is possible to travel. The his- toric event, the word says, is past. Because it has gone. Because it passed. And the future doesn´t exist ‘ready’ in a place of time-space: the future will come, is in the fu- ture. As in the supramolecular systems the Laws of Ther- modynamics apply, which points a future as a constant enhancement of entropy: is there a limit in the Universe to this enhancement? Are there cycles of enhancement and reduction of entropy in the Universe? In the connection among Science, Philosophy and evolucao_biologica__ing__emenda__ISAAC ing.indd 37 05/08/2013 15:08:52
  38. 38 Dario Palhares Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Religion, the absence of one of these elements disturbs the real comprehension of the others. If Science de- scribed Big-Bang, it is too much arrogance to say that this was the ‘initial moment’ or the ‘moment of creation’ of the Universe. Big-Bang was an event in this region of the known Universe, but it wasn´t ‘the’ beginning. We can´t even imagine what was and what it will be the history of this small portion of the Universe where we are immersed. The notion of Eternity of God allows a clearer vision about Big Bang. Some scientists use the argument of Big Bang to say that God doesn´t exist, while others relate the Big Bang as the moment of creation of the Universe. Well, from the point of view of the notion that God is eternal because time doesn´t exist to the sub-atomic par- ticles, we can look at Big Bang with more precise eyes. We can say, with all the scientific rigor, that part of the known Universe was originated in the Big Bang. But we must not say that all Universe got origin at Big Bang and that the septillion of kilometers from where we can have some information is really Everything. It is very weird to us, who are finite, imagine some- thing that never ends because it has never begun. Big Bang is only a chapter of an eternal History. Eternity is like that because it has never started hence it never ends. And that is evolving all the time, in the format of waves, of continuous cycles, of continuous evolution, in the process of Perfection that is not a finished object, but the process itself. evolucao_biologica__ing__emenda__ISAAC ing.indd 38 05/08/2013 15:08:52
  39. 39BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF SPIRITS Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Chapter 3 – the evolutio- nary cycles of universe If God was not unlimited, there would be a limit to the evolution of the Spirits. But, if there was a limit, then God could never Be, because of a limit. One of the human fantasies is the existence of a paradise, of an absolute perfection. The true Perfection, however, is more likely a Search than a final destiny. If there was a Final Destiny, the Universe would be finite. Since God is Infinite, so, Evolution is also infinite. Evolution is continuous and tireless. The functioning of Nature, mirror of Divine Perfection, shows that nothing is finished. There is no Perfection as a finished thing; but yet the endless process of Continuous Search. So, the evolution through the Spirits and the Uni- verse pass is an eternal search. It is the search for evolution, it is the perpetual movement. If matter in its sub-atomic nature is intrinsically continuous movement, if the atom is made of unstable particles that get stable by means of evolucao_biologica__ing__emenda__ISAAC ing.indd 39 05/08/2013 15:08:52
  40. 40 Dario Palhares Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. a complex group of forces, then going towards the supe- rior levels of all the systems, the Universe is not static, but evolves continuously. The Mathematics of Chaos comes to illustrate how harmony is born from chaos and how the random chances generate order and regularity. Nature is force and equilibri- um, chaos and harmony, therefore, unstable with a constant behavior. In evolution. Since there is no absolute inertia, to progress is the normal condition of the spiritual beings. One of the apparent contradictions is that every- thing passes, but God doesn´t pass. Actually, it is not exact that ‘everything passes’, everything ends. In fact, everything EVOLVES. Evolution is the concept through which everything passes. Nothing stands like it is, or like we know it at the moment, because nothing is eternally static. Everything is evolution. Even the stars and the galaxies present cycles of birth, expansion and transmutation (death). The stars are formed in regions of great nebulas, last some time then either explode or collapse. Nature is manifested cyclically. The natural phe- nomena follow an oscillatory model where it can be seen a beginning, an apogee and a decline, and this decline represents a new beginning. There is a permanent peri- odic renewal of the natural phenomena. Eternal in the Universe is the cycle. So, the waves are eternal. Light, being a wave, is eternal. Until it inter- acts with matter and it evolves to other forms of energy. The sub-atomic particles present some aspects of waves, hence they are equally eternal. evolucao_biologica__ing__emenda__ISAAC ing.indd 40 05/08/2013 15:08:52
  41. 41BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF SPIRITS Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. The waves are eternal because they represent the continuous evolution. Take any point in the Universe. If there a wave pass- es, the wave, at that moment, represents to the point a birth, an apogee and a decline. The point has birth and dies. So the following point has birth and dies. So that with successive and endless cycles of birth and death, the wave persists. A wave can be absorbed, reflected or hav- ing the direction changed. The wave is eternal. Looking systemically, the point can not be eternal. Because an eternal point would interrupt the spread of the wave. If the point doesn´t decay, the wave stops. Ev- erything stops. With the idea of the wave, eternal, we can under- stand why everything in the Universe passes. Because everything has its cycle, while the Whole stands eternal. evolucao_biologica__ing__emenda__ISAAC ing.indd 41 05/08/2013 15:08:52
  42. 42 Dario Palhares Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Chapter 4 – life Immersed in Earth and highly probable in other planets, there is Life. Among the cycles of Uni- verse, Life is distinct because of spontaneity and ability of self-replication. If galaxies get birth and after explode, at the present moment it was not seen a galaxy or a planet creating cub-bodies that after grow and divide. The life beings are made of the same powder of the stars, being composed by the same universal matter: wa- ter, carbon, metals. Therefore, we are part of the Cosmos: we are inside the Cosmos and the Cosmos is inside us. The life being is fragile. But Life, as being born and replicating itself, shows to be extremely resilient. Since the first live cell in Earth, 3.2 billions of years ago, Life took the Planet. Where there is liquid water, there are life beings. From the point of view of philosophical fundament, a great question of Biology is exactly to define what life is. There is no difficulty in recognizing life beings, but Science has been able only to define Life in its operation- al terms, not in its essential terms. Life is a force that acts evolucao_biologica__ing__emenda__ISAAC ing.indd 42 05/08/2013 15:08:52
  43. 43BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF SPIRITS Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. endlessly, that is known by its effects, but whose intimate nature is always a mystery. One of the greatest mysteries is the autotrophic be- ings: the ones who convert the minerals in themselves, That is, convert raw matter in living matter: how could they get formed? Science reduces Life to a material fact, and one can even imagine that life is merely one of the many properties of water when it is present in liquid stage in planetary masses, but what is (or was) this initial event, this we can not understand, even less reproduce in laboratory. Life is the spirit who doesn´t die. We know that all life beings are replicated from cells, which are the most elemental self-reproductive vital unity. Also, we know that where there is liquid water, there is a rich ecosystem. But there is a vital principle, untouchable, imponderable, whose presence is noticed by the effects it manifests. Spite all the chemical synthesis of organic compounds, of the assembly of DNA sequenc- es, etc., up to now the Vital Principle could never be re- peated in laboratory. How, exactly, from brute minerals, organize a life being? We know that the cell membrane is made of phospholipids and that the self-reproductive code is inside the nucleic acids. But was there any other vital organization, less efficient, that was substituted by this one that is dominant in Earth? Anyway, beyond we see and are, there is a vital el- ement away from our touch. Life is much more than controlled chemical reactions inside of a cell. The au- tomatism of life beings is impressive! It has been proven that electric discharges can create complex organic com- evolucao_biologica__ing__emenda__ISAAC ing.indd 43 05/08/2013 15:08:52
  44. 44 Dario Palhares Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. pounds and that sources of energy and organic matter come from volcanos, geysers, etc. But all the trials to obtain spontaneity to a substance failed. The maximal that was achieved was to transfer a stripe of DNA to a cell whose nucleus had been removed. So, what principle is that, what assembly was that so the first cell appeared here in Earth and from which all we come from? The biologic law that ‘alive only comes from alive’ is a maxim that was never broken. Life is more similar to a verb than to a noun. To define Life is impossible, we only list attributes and char- acteristics such as birth, reproduction and death, but without defining its essence. Life is an axiom of Biology. Intuitively, there is no difficult, even by a child, in defin- ing if something is a life being or not… If microbes and plants are nourished purely from mineral world, so, at least for some time, there was a blurred frontier between living and non-living processes, such a way that the cell life as we know nowadays is one side of a spectrum of continuous patterns of organiza- tion. So, how were the primitive patterns like, if Life ap- peared spontaneously at Earth? If Life came from other planets, then, how were these patterns like and what planets were those? The Theory of the Systems confirms that Life is not a mere physical attribute, but something transcendental to the physical dimension of the life being. The struc- ture of a life being can be preserved for an undefined pe- riod of time immersed in liquid nitrogen, liquid helium, formaldehyde, in many other means. But even in these evolucao_biologica__ing__emenda__ISAAC ing.indd 44 05/08/2013 15:08:52
  45. 45BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF SPIRITS Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. situations, Life is something ‘over’ such structure, and not merely the structure. So, if Life is an attribute tran- scendent to the physical structure, so, this attribute exist- ed previously, in forms of potential energy, to such vital organization. More precisely, the simple fact that the life beings exist show that even before the first cell appeared on Earth, there was a meta-system and an Intelligence associated or consequent to this system and capable to generate such complex organization. This way, Spiritism once more confirms that, yes, beyond this material world that we can catch with our senses, there is an Intelligence transcendent to everything here: God. When Darwin published the Origin of Species, he never killed God. He once more illuminated that God is not a human form, is not a big ethereal man in the seventh sky taking care of gossips, but that is still more beautiful, powerful and infinite. The Biological Evolution is part of the essence of Nature, of a continuous evolutionary process, of a Search. Evolution is not a pre-molded project made by some external and finite intelligence, but the result of a continuous process of search. We can eventually imag- ine the pathways of Evolution in a near future, but the Mathematic of Chaos comes to say that the ways and the results that will occur in a more distant future are totally unpredictable. From the spiritual point of view, the scale of life be- ings is the explicit of soul in their progressive degrees of evolution. In Life, for example, the self-consciousness that exists in the human species exists in other species, evolucao_biologica__ing__emenda__ISAAC ing.indd 45 05/08/2013 15:08:52
  46. 46 Dario Palhares Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. in a degree of development throughout the phylogenetic scale. Chico Xavier told us that reflex is a basis where instinct is developed and that reason has as basis on a refinement of both instinct and reflex. The Spirits don´t evolve in jumps, but live degree by degree, in a continu- ous way like in a slope. The Biological Evolution is part of this Eternal Search for Perfection, from where we are one of infinitely possible degrees. The Biological Evolu- tion is inseparable from the Evolution of the Spirits. And the Laws of Natural Selection, operating in the ecological level of the chain of complexity of the systems, is essen- tial to this Evolution. In the plane of the life being, life is a daily fight, where many die too early. But at each cycle that goes on, each generation that goes on, Life always generate more life. Here in Earth, the first life being, the first cell, was the only living mass here. Nowadays, even being a small layer in the crust of the Earth, Life represents a consider- able mass that can mold the Planet. The Earth is alive. At each vital cycle, the populations of life beings un- dergo evolution slowly and slowly, in their fight for sur- vival and maintenance of progeny. This is a reflex of the evolution of the Spirits, who evolve slowly, in a time scale of billions and billions of years. The life being is born and dies. But Life persists. The birth and the death of each living individual can be compared to the birth and death of a point throughout which a wave passes. If there was an immortal living being, Life as whole would stop. Because life would stop evolving. Each liv- ing being is a point that received Life from the Spirits evolucao_biologica__ing__emenda__ISAAC ing.indd 46 05/08/2013 15:08:52
  47. 47BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF SPIRITS Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. and that has to generate more Life in its progeny. Life is so eternal and so perennial as the Wave. The wave passes point to point. A point is born and dies. The Wave per- sists. A living being is born and dies. Life persists. God will never allow Life to be extincted. A species can be extinguished. Life, never. Not only because of the cycles of self-replication, but Life presents very complex behaviors. Inside of the biological limits of each one of the living species, the behavior of the living being, individual and with some margin for the free self determination, allows the Spirits different experiences of Evolution. Life represents a superior stage to the raw matter because it shows spontaneity, even though inside of the biological limits inherent to the species. In the evolution of the Spirits, the living phase is a phase of intense experi- ences that are transcendent to the merely sensorial. The biological evolution of the living beings reflects the continuous search for evolution of the Spirits. The appearance of species in Earth is a reflex of what is passed in the spiritual plane. We could imagine that since the Universe is Infinite, what is passed here in Earth doesn´t care. It is not like this. The Theory of Systems clarifies that everything is a question of scale. We are inside a in- finitesimal point of the Universe, but inside our scale, we are Spirits in their long journey of Evolution. As Chuang Tzu said more than 2500 years ago, ‘the smallest thing has no shape and the biggest one can not be measured (which the modern Science has confirmed both to the atom and to the Universe) ‘if from the point of view of the smallest evolucao_biologica__ing__emenda__ISAAC ing.indd 47 05/08/2013 15:08:52
  48. 48 Dario Palhares Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. we look to the biggest, we will never see the end. If from the point of view of the big we look to the small we will never distinguish it clearly. A beam or a pillar can destroy the walls of a city, but it can never slap a small crack in a dam’. Microorganisms as the start and the end of the ecological cycle. Since 3.2 billions of years, here in Earth, the ecosys- tems are begun and ended in the microorganisms. The first living being was a microorganism that was the phy- logenetic seed of all the existent biodiversity. The first liv- ing cell, it is not known how it was nourished. Certainly, it ingested particles of the environment and transformed them into food to itself and to the following generations. When they absorb the inanimate matter, the mi- crobes transform the inanimate in themselves, therefore, they transform the inanimate in Life. The ecological cycle is a cycle because the sub- product, the excretion of a living being is as basis to other living being. In the last point of the chain, the sub-product of a living being is energy to microorgan- isms, which re-start the cycle. So, if man think about colonizing or visiting or cre- ating basis in other planets, it is mandatory that there are well established microbes, as they are the beginning and the endo f the cycle of the ecosystems. There is a scien- tific myth that man stepped in Moon and came back. It a highly questionable history, as this adventure was never repeated by other research groups. NASA itself never evolucao_biologica__ing__emenda__ISAAC ing.indd 48 05/08/2013 15:08:53
  49. 49BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF SPIRITS Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. dared to repeat the experiment in our XXI century, with all the technological evolution of the last decades. The major problem would not be man step in the Moon, but come back from Moon. Leading a rocket with fuel, land in Moon and after that light the fuel again and go back to Earth… It would be too fantastic to simply be forgot- ten and never repeated anymore. But anyway if mankind wants to colonize other planets, it is necessary that be- fore man´s visit, microbes get established, so the ecologic cycle can be present. The plants are angels in the ecosystems The comparison with angles should be taken figu- ratively regarding the Spiritualist Doctrine of the an- gles. The Angels are Pure Spirits that are found in a high evolutionary degree, and the Guardian Angels are Protective Spirits that guide the beings in their evolu- tion in their earthly step. More important, they work silently and hidden. The angels purify the environment, do good and protect. The figure of the Angel appears in Catholicism, Buddhism, Hinduism and in ancient Religions. In some of them the angels are armies against the evil spirits, fre- quently presenting a hierarchy of powers. In these con- ceptions, the angels are immortal, unless they are hit by an external agent. In this sense, the plants purify the environment where they occur. They transform the sun light, the carbon dioxide and the ions of the soil in living matter. evolucao_biologica__ing__emenda__ISAAC ing.indd 49 05/08/2013 15:08:53
  50. 50 Dario Palhares Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. They stabilize the soils and so on. In the current ecosys- tems, beside the microbial life, there is the plant life that transforms the inanimate matter in itself, that is, give life to matter. And sustains all the life cycle of Earth. In general, plants don´t die. At least not spontane- ously. A tree, a perennial shrub, whey they germinate, they present an undefined period of life. The death of a plant is more likely an ecological attribute than a period of validity they present. So, we can find trees living for more than a thousand years, and it has been identified redwood trees that germinated 5 thousand years ago! These are or are not common aspects to the angels? From inanimate matter there is a step until living matter, and only plants and microbes are capable to climb this step. As being eaten, they sustain the animal life, which presents emotion and rationality. The degree between inanimate matter and Life is much higher than the degree between the purely sensitive forms of life and the forms that have reason. However, the animal life has a period of validity. The animal is born with a determined and finite life expectancy. Tao says to us that ‘everything that is born brings in itself the germen of the self-destruction’. This is true for the animal life, as the plants don´t kill them- selves: they are born eternal, renewing all the time by means of their meristematic tissues. The death of a plant is an ecologic event: fire, drought, cold, attack of fungus and insects, etc. Not only there are plants that germinated more than 5 thousand years ago and are still healthy, but also there are seeds of wheat found in the Egyptian evolucao_biologica__ing__emenda__ISAAC ing.indd 50 05/08/2013 15:08:53
  51. 51BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF SPIRITS Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. pyramids that germinated after more than two thousand years. Such plants clearly represent highly evolve spiri- tual incarnations, of spirits that have been all this time reflecting, meditating, feeling and purifying the sur- rounding environment. There are, of course, plant species genetically pro- grammed to die after some period. Some plants, the an- nual plants, live for only one year, the time of flowering and fruiting. Other ones live for decades, and when they flower, they free their seeds and die. In the immortality of the plants, there is a positive and a negative aspect. The positive one is to give the Spir- its the chance of a long period of sensitivity, of purifying the environment. But, in the other way around, if all the plants never died, it would be impossible for new plants to be born. So, there are the perennial species that allow a certain spiritual experience, while the annual or short-life cycle plants allow a greater amount of Spirits an experi- ence in plant life. Obviously, evolution of annual or short-life species is related to the principles of the natural selection, to the ecobiological processes inherent to all species. It is said here about the correspondence to the Spirits of the importance of the plants, both of perennial cycle and short cycle. Life needs to get spread out At the end of the XIX century, the physicist Arrhe- nius suggested the theory of panspermia: that Life is one out of many phenomena of Universe and that is spread evolucao_biologica__ing__emenda__ISAAC ing.indd 51 05/08/2013 15:08:53
  52. 52 Dario Palhares Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. out from planet to planet by means of collision with comets, asteroids and the like and that brings living be- ings throughout Space. Anyway, two great questions of Biology are if Life appeared in Earth (theory of spontane- ous generation) or if the life beings are originated from the Outer Space. This hypothesis is sufficient to originate a research project that at the same time proves a hypothesis and make real the paper of Mankind related to the Universe. If mankind sends extremophile microbes to the neigh- boring planets that have liquid water and if one of these microbes effectively gets established, the theory of Pan- spermia is confirmed. If a living being comes only from another living be- ing, then Life must spread from planet to planet before they are swallowed by their respective suns. Life, there- fore, shows to be a force, something beyond our reach, present in the Universe, capable to transform the inor- ganic into organic and, in the evolutionary fight for sur- vival, to transform a whole planet in an ecosystem each more time deeper and more complex. All the living beings of Earth have something in common: they depend on liquid water and they are or- ganized in cells. Our form of life is essentially water and carbon, extracting energy from oxidation of oxygen, sulphur or metals. Without water or carbon, would there be other living systems (self-replicating) based in other chemical elements? Extremophile microbes, cells as any other living be- ing, present biochemical mechanisms very different to evolucao_biologica__ing__emenda__ISAAC ing.indd 52 05/08/2013 15:08:53
  53. 53BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF SPIRITS Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. ours: sometimes they live in the total absence of light; in the total absence of oxygen; under extremely high pres- sures; metabolize sulphur… There are microbes prolif- erating under more than 1.5 km of the ocean layer! A recent and polemic research revealed bacteria in Mono Lake, rich in arsenic: these bacteria survived and mul- tiplied with only traces of phosphorus in the medium of culture. If here in Earth there are such exotic beings, what wouldn´t there be in other planets? Our idea of oxygen as essential to life is a limited idea. Oxygen is a poisonous and aggressive gas that harms the cells. It was necessary years of evolution that selected the cells that extracted energy from oxygen, but still nowadays there are organisms that die with the mere exposition to the oxygen of air. Also, a criticism of Franklin Rumjanek is that light is so important to human life that made humans to cre- ate a plaque containing mathematical phrases that was sent to Outer Space, which shows the human difficulty to even imagine what would other forms of life be in other planets: why would other intelligent beings be ca- pable to see as we see? The bacteria that live in arsenic would find similar places in Mars. The far away Titan moon has a tempera- ture of – 160 0 C and methane rain, but even so there is here in Earth an ecological niche with similar aspects, the natural reservoir of asphalt of Pitch Lake, Trindade. Since the decade of 1970 it has been cultivated or- ganisms that are freeze-dried and kept in liquid helium (temperature outside Earth) for an indefinite time, but evolucao_biologica__ing__emenda__ISAAC ing.indd 53 05/08/2013 15:08:53
  54. 54 Dario Palhares Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. that when put in water in room temperature they return to multiply. It is not impossible, then, that vital seeds go out of a planet and colonize others. Colonizing other planets is not so that simple. See a common example in our planet: the peoples of tropical regions were selected to present a dark skin to protect against the Sun rays, while the peoples of the cold re- gions were selected such a way to present a clearer skin to produce the maximum of D vitamin from the weak insolation. With the modern navigation of the recent centuries, peoples get back to mix, but even so the per- sons of clear skin suffer in the tropical environment, eventually dying due to strong sunburns, having to use glasses, hats, sunblocks, etc. That is, if inside our planet, the familiar Sun is a factor of both life and death, what would it be said about other planets with different light and temperature regimens, atmosphere of different composition, etc. If the Theory of Panspermia is correct, it is even possible that extraterrestrial microbes hit Earth with some fre- quency, but these life forms would face strong difficul- ties in resisting to the toxicity of oxygen, to the stressful climate, but, foremost, to compete with other life forms already established here. If in anyone of our neighboring planets there was life, or at least life with the same period that we have here in Earth (around 4 billion years), the living beings would have already developed a cover in these planets, occupy- ing earth, depths, atmosphere. After all, Life, being one of the Wonders of Universe, when establishes in a planet, evolucao_biologica__ing__emenda__ISAAC ing.indd 54 05/08/2013 15:08:53
  55. 55BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF SPIRITS Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. evolves such a way to take the maximally possible area of the planet. The living being appears and dies, but after each replicating cycle, the living biomass of the planet continuously increases. Life could not go out from Earth, or at least is not present in the neighboring planets because there is no continuity among Earth and the other planets. Another possible explanation to Panspermia would be that the rationality of the human beings is a trial of Life to go out from one planet to another, from one solar system to another. Each planet has a finite period of existence. Here, around 4 billion years have passed between the first living cell and the current megabio- diversity. Life has approximately more 5 billion years to colonize other planet-sun systems before this Sun explodes and brings away the Earth and all the biodi- versity that eventually exists. The Theory of the Systems allows us to see Earth as a great living being (Gaia). An external observatory to Earth that could visualize the spacecrafts that the spatial agencies send would conclude that Earth is a living planet sending seeds throughout Universe, in the same way that a living tree periodically sends seeds on the wind. Life can evolve such a way to acquire rationality. Even an extremophile microbe has no way to survive the direct solar irradiation in the Space, but it can survive in- side a metallic capsule that travels throughout Universe. In the same way Mankind has sent satellites and spacecrafts, it is needed to send seeds of living beings un- evolucao_biologica__ing__emenda__ISAAC ing.indd 55 05/08/2013 15:08:53
  56. 56 Dario Palhares Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. til a microbe is established in other planet and then start a new Natural History. The scientists have called atten- tion that Reason and Science must be at the service of preserving the Planet. More than this, they must also be at the service of spreading out Life in the Universe. After a first microbe survives in a new planet, a new Natural History begins, with a long process of Evolution of the species, until Life is capable of expanding from that planet towards other planets, while the respective solar system doesn´t explode, inside of the natural cycles of the Universe. Biosphere has always changed Earth. In general, to better. To allow the continuous expansion of Life. There is fear from the spatial agencies of ‘not pro- voking damages’ in other planets with propagules present here in Earth. Such fear is a great baloney. If Life really started here in Earth, so, it is mandatory that it is brought to other planets. If it came from outside and found in Earth the possibility of getting established, then, the proper dynamics of Life is to go from planet to planet, colonizing them. The fear of an ecological invasion that is seen here in Earth, when an invading species alters the dynamics of an ecosystem is not feasible in the Space, be- cause a microorganism would never be able to overcome an ecosystem in a foreign planet. Notwithstanding, Life was still not detected in the neighboring planets. A scientific certain is that one day the Sun will ex- plode and Earth with all the living beings will be de- stroyed. Hence, Life needs to spread out from planet to planet, reaching and colonizing other solar systems, be- fore they end their astronomic cycles. evolucao_biologica__ing__emenda__ISAAC ing.indd 56 05/08/2013 15:08:53
  57. 57BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF SPIRITS Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. The extinction of the dinosaurs under the spiritualist view. From a spiritual point of view, why the dinosaurs, which dominated Earth for millions of years, were extin- guished in a geologically very short period? There are evidences that the extinction of the di- nosaurs was a fortuitous event, caused by a collision of a giant meteor against Earth. Combined with their (unknown) inabilities to overcome the new stressful environment, they disappeared quickly. However, the biological evolution shows us that, in the same way the appearance of species is a continuous process, the extinc- tion is also continuous. Life forms too fragile or with too much restrict requirements tend to evolve to extinction. The extinction of a species doesn´t necessarily mean in- terruption in an evolutionary chain. For example, the cetaceans present the nose up in the head. But there are fossils showing that the nose of similar animals thou- sands of years ago was in the halfway. That is, the species with a nose halfway got extinguished, but the evolution- ary chain persisted. Hence, the dinosaurs didn’t die all of them from one day to another, but in a geologically short period, maybe of a few centuries. When they dominated Earth, in fact, they were blocking the biological evolution. With their giant size and their strong structure, there was a few spe- cies capable to find food and continue evolving. Life realized that with the dinosaurs it would nev- er go outside Earth. The dinosaurs evolved towards the evolucao_biologica__ing__emenda__ISAAC ing.indd 57 05/08/2013 15:08:53
  58. 58 Dario Palhares Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. point of emotion, perhaps some initial rationality. But they would never construct a metallic capsule and send propagules of microorganisms to other planets. Then, Life took the decision to extinguish the dino- saurs and restart the search for a form that would have reason and that would be capable to continue the expan- sion of Life throughout Universe. evolucao_biologica__ing__emenda__ISAAC ing.indd 58 05/08/2013 15:08:53
  59. 59BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF SPIRITS Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Chapter 5 – the human existence Mankind is one of the many forms of life that can occur in the Universe. The hu- mans never accept the inexorable of the death and always question themselves why they were born, if the end of all is decrepitude and death. If there is something deeply humiliating to mankind is that, spite all arts, science and technology, the human beings simply will die like any other animal. Such refusal is culturally expressed in many forms of self-affirmation: either by atheism, either by the creationist dogma, either by the idea of intelli- gent principle, humans are always pretending they are the masterpiece of creation, in a continuous trial of self deification. It is not a wonder that some religions preach that there is a more important world in a far away place, accessible only tragically, after death. These are myths that blocks to live intensely now, this world. It is not de- valuing the world that one climbs a rung to the Beyond. We think we´ve got life, but it is the other way around: evolucao_biologica__ing__emenda__ISAAC ing.indd 59 05/08/2013 15:08:53
  60. 60 Dario Palhares Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Life is who has us. As there is a Beyond, a first step is exactly to evolve the maximal as possible in this life and in the successive terrestrial lives. The Biological Evolution not only reflects the Evo- lution of the Spirits but also shows that Mankind, such as we know, is not eternal. Our species appeared after many others and will evolve either to a spiritually supe- rior species or will be extinguished, if Life feels that our species is an obstacle to continue evolving in this planet and colonize other planets. The idea of finitude of the solar system can lead to the false impression that we can devote us to materialism and to destruction of the Earth. This is a decoy. God is much more giant than the gossips of the human quotidian, but the Theory of the Systems calls attention to the question of the scale of the systems. The Spirits who embody a mi- crobe are in a scale of evolution different of ours, as well as the Spirits who embody and govern the more complex systems of the Universe are in a greater scale. Considering only the phylogenetic scale inside of Earth, the human Reason is the most developed, but it doesn´t mean that we have the maximal of possible Reason nor that reason, emotion and instinct are con- tradictory. Mário Lívio asks if God and Mathematics can be confounded. Since Mathematics works with ab- stract ideas and is the limit of Science, it may have con- fusion between one and the other. Reason, Matehmatic allow a greater clarity about God and the Spirits, but alone they say nothing and alone they don´t communi- cate with the Spirits. evolucao_biologica__ing__emenda__ISAAC ing.indd 60 05/08/2013 15:08:53
  61. 61BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF SPIRITS Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Reason, emotion and instinct are complimentary regarding the level of abstraction and of necessity. The basic elements are the same, but the consequences are endless. In the same way that computers are made of metals and silicon, but the processing of information is giant, reason, emotion and instinct are manifestations of electrical circuits in a nervous system (or other electrical conducting tissue). Sensitivity, emotion and reason are manners that the living beings have to catch and process the information from the environment, in this crescent order of complex- ity. Reason is not a perfect and full form of intelligence: intelligence is almost a twin brother of intuition. All living beings have sensitivity. All interact with the environment, processing information. Here in Earth, emotion is seen when the living beings start to present a structure of neurons that catch, process and store infor- mation and memories of the environment. Emotion is more complex than sensitivity. It gets and works better with the information of environment. Throughout the phylogenetic scale, there is a gradual transi- tion between exclusive sensitivity, diverse degrees of emo- tion and finally diverse degrees of rationality. Rationality is not exclusively a human attribute; there is a gradation in the degree of complexity of rational processing throughout the phylogenetic scale. In general, rationality appears in the vertebrates and particularly in the social mammals in a more intense way. Dogs, dolphins and primates are capable of presenting very complex behaviors that sometimes translate abstract values such as morality, solidarity among others. evolucao_biologica__ing__emenda__ISAAC ing.indd 61 05/08/2013 15:08:53
  62. 62 Dario Palhares Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Rationality, however, does not prescind emotion nor sensitivity. Rationality allows to develop high technologies. But the communication with the spir- its is carried out by sensitivity, which is much closer to emotion. Emotion is closer to sensitivity than the rationality is close to the emotion. That is, to under- stand the world, rationality is a great tool, but the communication with the Spirits and the Beyond is done by emotion and sensitivity. In the human species, rationality is followed by an articulated, symbolic and complex language. Hu- man beings present an opposable thumb. This com- bination of rationality, symbolic language and pre- cise manipulation has allowed Mankind innumerable changes in the environment. The human species, producer of spatial sounds and spacecrafts, has the mission of colonizing other planets with living beings. Biologically complex be- ings such us will hardly, if ever, migrate to other plan- ets, but the sounds can send microscopic beings that will start new natural histories. A human migration to another planet would be the arrival to a totally differ- ent atmosphere, unbreathable, that would kill in sec- onds. If it is not the atmosphere, it will be the lack of food. We, human beings, are irreversibly stuck in this our Planet Earth. There are still doubts if man really stepped in the Moon or if everything was Cold War propaganda. There are arguments that corroborate that man never stepped in the Moon: a)Scienceis,atmost,reproducibility.Nooneelsecould evolucao_biologica__ing__emenda__ISAAC ing.indd 62 05/08/2013 15:08:53
  63. 63BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF SPIRITS Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. reproduce a human trip to the Moon, hence from this strict scientific canon, this is a false affirmation b) Modern Science has always expanded: boats, ships, airplanes that even under risk of life united the peo- ples of the Planet. Up to now, the Spatial Station is in orbit, receiving astronauts from all over the over and serving to diverse experiments c) The discovery of a route to Moon would be too precious to Science to be simply ignored. To send astronauts to create experiments, observatories, etc. would never be something to be disdained d) The most difficult problem would not to go to the Moon: missiles, sounds have been sent many times. The problem would be reach the Moon and still have fuel to a new departure back to Earth. Mankind must not keep blocking the progress of Life in this planet. Besides the maintenance of ecosys- tems and of self existence, we have the moral obligation to send Life to other planets so that new Natural Histo- ries take part. If Mankind keeps blocking the progress of Life in the planet Earth, if doesn´t show to be capable to colonize with Life other planets, Mankind will be ex- tinguished when Life considers convenient. The human beings have done too many things here in this planet. Already destroyed ecosystems, extinguished thousands of species and even created a continent made of plastic, the Garbage-Island of the Pacific Ocean. With the few rationality we have, together with the developed Science, Mankind will have to make choices evolucao_biologica__ing__emenda__ISAAC ing.indd 63 05/08/2013 15:08:53
  64. 64 Dario Palhares Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. regarding the paradigms and necessities and evolve to- wards a superior species or walk to extinction. In other words, the human responsibility is transcendent to Earth and reach the closest planets. In the same way we guide a child to give something to posterity (a kid, a tree, a book…), Mankind can and must leave something to pos- terity: the vital colonization of the neighboring planets. Up to now, the vision of world of the human cul- tures has always gone back exclusively to the human self-realization: in some cultures and in some periods, the human salvation would be done by the divine adora- tion, and making God happy (whatever it meant) would be the glorious. With the creation of modern technol- ogy, the cultural happiness is in accumulating material goods, each time more expensive, more inaccessible and paradoxically more useless. But Science, in this case the astrobiology, gives a direction for a new mode of human realization: not only the maintenance of the terrestrial ecosystems (which requires a high degree of social jus- tice), but also the creation and the scattering of ecosys- tems in other planets from the Outer Space. Weaknesses of human life: points to evolution The little rationality that human beings possess in- duces the false sensation that the human species presents free will. In fact, when thinking about individual behav- iors, too much variable and influenced by education, cul- ture, environment, etc., one can imagine that the human evolucao_biologica__ing__emenda__ISAAC ing.indd 64 05/08/2013 15:08:53
  65. 65BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF SPIRITS Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. beings are capable to choose their behavior freely and broadly. But it is not like that. Human rationality is still incipient and allows some free will that is not absolute nor totally free. Rationality is an evolution: sensitivity is the most basic vital perception, followed by emotion and at the end rationality. Rationality does not exist without emo- tion and without sensitivity. With the rationality, we can canalize emotion and sensitivity to Good, but it is with sensitivity and emotion that we communicate with the Spirits. Sensitivity is not exactly inferior, but is the beginning and the support of emotion and rationality. It is exactly ethics and love that create a bridge between the rich knowledge and the poor knowledge. There is a specific logic of human heart that is different from the logic of the brain. It is much easier to see human nature as marked by emotions and feelings, marked by the animal pulses of Eros and Thanatos, but guided by intellect and molded and improved by the social environment. We have condi- tions to move forward because we have some intelligence, consciousness and ability of discernment. To understand the others´ mistakes, however painful it is, means to see our own mistakes that are projected in the others. There have been always people that employed ra- tionality to the Good, to generate science, technology, to ethically reflect about the construction of the societies. In all times, the elevated thoughts and the heavy thoughts were present in all Planet. At no single moment God privileged this or that social group: Spirits of Light are evolucao_biologica__ing__emenda__ISAAC ing.indd 65 05/08/2013 15:08:53
  66. 66 Dario Palhares Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. present ubiquitously as an element of the evolution that the Spirits undergo. But we also see people gifted with much intelligence employing rationality to Evil, to destruction, to submis- sion, to war, to humiliation, to death. In this sense, the phenomenon of psychopathy illustrates very well how the human rationality is incipient: the psychopath presents a rationality so exacerbated that it leads to egoism and self- satisfaction, without the others´ suffering is important to them and without any degree of empathy is possible. From the isolated individual and analyzing the hu- man societies, it is possible to see that humans have a lot to evolve in this Planet. We make psychopath societies; we live inside a generalized social psychopahty. There is no way to accept and explain all the misery, all the pol- lution, all the poverty that characterize our world with- out understanding the long way that the human societies have to walk in their evolution. Looking back to History, we can perceive that, yes, in these millennia of human civilization, the societies have evolved. The knowledge and the spiritual and moral de- velopment of Mankind follows gradually as, step by step, Mankind reaches to more advanced stages of development. The States, before totalitarian, gave place, in some societ- ies, to States of Law, which, if are not perfect nor ubiqui- tous, show that human societies try and evolve slowly. Wars still exist, but we never have been so pacific. The global economy is so intricate that wars would mean global losses to everyone. The human pacification started exactly when State took to itself the monopoly of weap- evolucao_biologica__ing__emenda__ISAAC ing.indd 66 05/08/2013 15:08:53
  67. 67BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF SPIRITS Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. ons. We are nowadays more diplomatic than in the past; at least we morally reject murder, misery, poverty, slavery as effects of a social animalism that we want to eradicate. But not at all times these values were present in mankind: in not so that far eras, the murder was a circus spectacle, slavery was a normal event in the society and so on. Spiritualism is an intrinsic aspect of human consti- tution. The religions are the cultural expression of the societies developing the individual spirituality. In the duality of the human life between the biological and the social, the duality spirituality and religion shows as systems that largely overlap, but the fanaticism and the religious radicalism bring an atrophy, a spiritual suffoca- tion. Even Dalai Lama affirms that for one to be spiri- tualized, one doesn´t need to follow any religion; it is enough to have a good heart. In our willing for the best of Mankind, we imag- ine these qualities in their higher possible degree and give them status of goodness or holiness. The Theory of the Systems, with the aspect of scale of the system, scale of evolution, points out that we must focus in the human justice: the people who live here and now de- serve our attention, not an imaginary world accessible only after disembodiment. In the system ‘human society’, there is a large het- erogeneity of rational evolutions. The human rational- ity that developed all this impressive technology, capable of spreading out propagules of Life in the Universe was based in a restrict number of persons, who go groping and seeking new ways, posteriorly followed by the masses. evolucao_biologica__ing__emenda__ISAAC ing.indd 67 05/08/2013 15:08:53
  68. 68 Dario Palhares Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Studying Psychology, the Human Ethology, we can deduce and understand History. Deeply, Psychology is superior and anterior to human history. The historical happenings are very repetitive, varying in the mask, but not in essence. The animal life presents the basic pulses, the id, that works as a biological motor. The great question is not to annihilate id, but to use rationality to canalize id to Good. In the same way in the individual plane there is an id, in the social plane there is also an id that moves the societies. And since man is another animal in the phylo- genetic scale, the human social id is related to the social id of other animals. Social animals that are able to accumulate products of their creation develop an id that we can call as Capital. Capital is the force that moves the social animals that produce storable products. This force is so powerful that it molds the individual life of the animals, devoted to production and expansion of Capital. Capital is seen in inferior beings of phylogenetic scale, such as bees, ants and termites. The life of a bee is to collect pollen and nectar and produce and store more pollen and more honey indefinitely and to die for pol- len and honey. Also, ants and termites have as the only individual goal of life to produce and collect the material for the cultivation of the fungus they eat and for the un- defined growth of the mounds where they live. In these insects, the power of Capital is so strong that the indi- viduals are born without any capacity of reproduction, evolucao_biologica__ing__emenda__ISAAC ing.indd 68 05/08/2013 15:08:53
  69. 69BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF SPIRITS Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. which is a privilege of some biological castes. The indi- viduals are sterile, practically born as automatons with the only finality of expanding the social Capital and to protect the colony. In the human animal, Capital appears as the force that moves the societies. Only a vision too idyllic and too superficial would say that the human societies get united to guarantee the survival of the individuals. It is not exactly like that. If the mere survival was the goal, the societies would not be so unfair and so un- equal and health assistance would not be a problem in any part of the world. Deeply, men unite in societies to guarantee the ex- pansion of the Capital. Not the personal life (although, of course, it is highly influenced by the social life), since there are people who reach an equilibrium among in- come, work and self-improvement, but the human soci- ety has the only goal to expand Capital. The human free will is an imaginary supposition when we face the human creativity. If from an individual point of view there is considerable variation in the character of people, when we analyze history and the collective behavior, we see that mankind runs after only one thing: accumulation of Capital, so that Capital is a super-system entity that governs the territorial occupation, the conflicts between human groups and the social conflicts inside each one of the States. Ants run after sugar even if it is poisoned. Hu- mans search money greedily even if the Planet is dying. The economical growth is originated from the search of personal satisfaction of greed. evolucao_biologica__ing__emenda__ISAAC ing.indd 69 05/08/2013 15:08:53
  70. 70 Dario Palhares Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Let´s take the example of fishery. Since immemorial times, human beings fish to feed themselves. So, idylli- cally, fishery would be a process to remedy hunger. How- ever, it is not what is seen in the fishery industry. When the fishermen throw the webs in seas or rivers, much fish is harvested. But tons and tons of harvested fish are sum- marily returned dead to waters. The human being is the only animal that after killing a potential prey doesn´t eat it. The tons of small fish that daily lose their lives show the extremes that Capital can reach regarding exploita- tion of natural resources. The human societies think it is very natural that tons of fish die without their meat being used. And it is not about, let´s say, of poisonous or uned- ible fish. Tons of fish are killed and despised because they are not ‘salable’. Or because they are of ‘inferior palatable quality’. Because they don´t generate profits. Because they don´t serve to expand Capital. And spite all the expansion of the Capital and all the fishing technology developed, billions of human beings starve. If fishery was simply a question of remedying human hunger, it would be an unacceptable practice the fishing industry to daily kill tons of fish, throw back the flesh into sea and still so billions of humans starve. Humans are definitely not the masterpiece of Evo- lution. There are lots and lots to improve. And what ac- celerates the human evolution? Education. To recognize that human beings are a small portion of the Whole that is God. The trial not only for individual evolution, but of participation, even if only with ideas, in the social evo- lution. The stage of ignorance is not itself a bad thing, evolucao_biologica__ing__emenda__ISAAC ing.indd 70 05/08/2013 15:08:53
  71. 71BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF SPIRITS Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. but one of the many necessary forms for the Law of Evo- lution. The manifestations of the so-called Evil – pain, mistake, probation, shame, failure, etc. – are necessary conditions so that Evolution follows its infinite march. Jean Piaget showed that the thought of adults is more complex of the children. Today, we know that a child, even if stimulated a lot, has no conditions to de- velop reasoning equal to the adult. But we also know that if the reason, the thoughts of children is not stimulated since childhood, they will never reach the adult age with the thoughts and reasoning mature and well formed. It is from reasoning that the human actions come. That is, misappropriating education to children or to pretend to teach children are cruel tactics of developing masses of adults incapable of fully thinking, of understanding the World, of requiring from State its obligations, of seeing the necessity of cooperation, of knowing that the actions of Evil and Good are transcendent to here and now and present unimaginable and distant effects. One thing is sure: human populations are grow- ing too fast. And together, the necessity of expanding Capital. Capital is the motor force of science, society, technology. But an unbridled Capital is the destructive face of Tao. It excessively motives the mineral, aquat- ic exploitation so that at the first time of the Planet´s Natural History, a single species has been capable of cli- matic changes. Of creating islands of carbon polymers (plastic) in mid Ocean. The degree of rationality of humans is insufficient to stop the fury of Capital (in a social context). But there evolucao_biologica__ing__emenda__ISAAC ing.indd 71 05/08/2013 15:08:53
  72. 72 Dario Palhares Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. are people clarified enough to not accept the massive de- struction of the Planet. Life continues. But life in the hu- man form is transitory. Either towards evolution to a su- perior species, either towards extinction. We can choose the ways to the next generations. Science and Spiritism are here to help regarding the best choices. The science fiction shows one of the fears of Man- kind is to be extinguished by kind of catastrophe, such as meteor hitting or something like that. Such as Tao says, ‘everything that is born brings inside itself the germen of the self-destruction’. Mankind is part of nature, not separated from it. This vision must be very clear if we intend to avoid the ecological catastrophe. We must find our place in Nature, recognizing the intrinsic value of all the elements of the world we live in. Mankind doesn´t need external punishments to be extinct: pollution, glob- al warming, island of plastic in Pacific, everything is hu- man products that, degrading Earth, can turn human life impracticable. It will not be a collision of a meteor that will bring a prolonged winter; an atomic war is enough. When, for example, the infectious diseases seemed to be under control with vaccines and antibiotics, behold appears the virus of Aids, lethal and incurable. Nature possesses subtle and powerful mechanisms of forcing a species to evolve. If a virus such as of Aids was more con- tagious, and if it was from respiratory contagion, in a few years the human population would get reduced in less than one third of the current size. Humans and their civilizations are destined to evo- lution. It is not feasible that in the next millions of years evolucao_biologica__ing__emenda__ISAAC ing.indd 72 05/08/2013 15:08:54
  73. 73BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF SPIRITS Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. the human species won´t suffer changes of any nature. We are making choices: if Rationality canalizes Capital to Good, if it succeeds in cleaning, stop pollution, if it spreads out Life in the Universe, then we will evolve to a superior species. But if the societies succumb to the cruelty of our animal nature, consuming the Planet to expand Capital, we have already the germens of our self-destruction: the atomic bomb. Misery, overpopu- lation, the exhaustion of natural reservoirs will slowly generate crescent social instabilities, until atomic war is happened and all the scientific and technologic treasure gets lost. But even if an astronomic catastrophe can oc- cur, the atomic bomb can be the tool of salvation de- veloped by Life in its human form: a massive bombing against an asteroid that changes it orbit and prevents it to collide against Earth… The symbology of Jesus Christ Jesus Christ was one of the most noticeable Spirits that embodied in this Planet, in the human form. His Message is still a fountain of inspiration for the Evolution of the human societies, which, somehow, have evolved a lot. When Christ came to the world, men considered normal the murder-spectacle represented at the Roma- nian circus. Seeing people killing live and becoming food to famine lions and tigers was socially accepted. Today, scenes like these would be unimaginable. But they were reality. They are unimaginable because, slowly, societies and Mankind evolved. When Christ came to the world, Mankind believed evolucao_biologica__ing__emenda__ISAAC ing.indd 73 05/08/2013 15:08:54
  74. 74 Dario Palhares Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. in human gods, to whom the tribal wars and the gos- sips of neighbors were the real interest of God. In an era when the microbes as causative agents of diseases were an inconceivable idea, the sexually transmitted diseases were seen as divine punishments for the sin of enjoyment and of fornication. A biological event was seen as the divine center of attention. Christ came with so many messages, in so broad and multiple meanings, that he was murdered. Christ didn´t ‘die to save us’, as many people want. The cruel murder of Christ was a strong slap in the face of Humanity. In- stead of welcome a highly evolved Spirit, a Humanity immerged in darkness tortured and killed the embodied man. The message of peace, social justice and fraternity went against the social id of war, of total concentration of capital, of mutual distrust. Luckily, light attracts light, and the Great Illumi- nated Spirit inspired other embodied Spirits of Light who continued his Masterpiece. The Masterpiece of Christ must never be confounded with any church. The Churches are patio of political disputes, to meanness, to the unbridled quest for Capital. The Masterpiece of Christ is transcendent to any Church and survives to any dogma that the inferior Spirits try to inculcate as absolute truth. The self-responsibility of poverty Until the XX century, starvation came in epidemio- logic packages, derived from extreme climatic events, at- tacks of plagues, etc. and was commonly explained as di- evolucao_biologica__ing__emenda__ISAAC ing.indd 74 05/08/2013 15:08:54
  75. 75BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF SPIRITS Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. vine punishment. Starvation was caused by the absolute shortage of food. But with the technology developed in the last centuries, there is a great production of food. Not only there is a super-production of food but also there is a lot of waste. But even with such waste, starvation in the world hits one billion persons. Less than one sixth of humanity, it is true. In a proportion smaller than one century ago. But still too many people. Malthus nailed it about a problem that Econony ignores in its rage for Capital: that the limit of production is the limit of the ecosystems. According to Abramovay (2010), from the 24 services done by the ecosystems, 15 are degraded or exploited in an unsustainable way. The paradox is that starvation today is concentrated in food producing areas: the rural areas of underdevel- oped countries, where agriculture is one of the few ac- tivities that can generate income. The poor persons, spite of physically present in earth, don´t have the most im- portant: the product of the human genius accumulated throughout millennia, or at least accumulated in these last two century: knowledge. Notwithstanding, behind the epidemics in obesity, there is a system of production and consumption devoted explicitly so that consump- tion is done rampantly and viciously, so that caloric intake is much higher than necessities. The worldwide total number of obese people is higher than of starving people. Livestock and fishery are emblematic examples of the distance between satisfying human needs and merely sponsoring the expansion of Capital. A superior mind dominates an inferior one. More evolucao_biologica__ing__emenda__ISAAC ing.indd 75 05/08/2013 15:08:54
  76. 76 Dario Palhares Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. precisely, a superior mind dominates the puppy of an in- ferior mind. Mankind can domesticate animals because it is capable of nourish, protect and breed other animal´s puppies. But no other animal species is capable of nour- ish and breed the complex human baby. One person hardly can control and train the mind of other person, since they are equivalent intelligences. One person can not train another in the same way it is done with a dog or a circus animal, for example. But talking about collectivities, there are, yes, techniques capable of handling crowds. The great dictators don´t achieve admiration of all, but achieve to be idolized by a majority blind with their image. The professionals of propaganda can´t make all persons to consume a deter- mined product, but they achieve an expressive improve- ment in the sales. The human freedom is restricted. In the individual level, there is a margin for decisions, which is a too nar- row window facing the animal basis that guarantees our survival. In the individual plane, the margin of deci- sions allows spiritual Evolution to go on, slowly and continuously. Rationality is not uniformly dispersed in Mankind. The great majority is glued to the mere instincts of satisfaction and consumption and it is ex- pressed, in the democracies, in the political leaderships that the human crowds elect: no vanguard leadership; all with bland, amorphous speeches wildly fighting to perpetrate in power. The phenomenon of poverty and misery reflects the restricted human freedom. Poverty follows the hu- evolucao_biologica__ing__emenda__ISAAC ing.indd 76 05/08/2013 15:08:54
  77. 77BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF SPIRITS Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. man societies since millenary times and its symbology has varied enormously. All the symbols related to poverty co-exist, but either one or other excels. The poor people was humiliated and considered as loser, as if their poverty was not derived from social injustice. Poverty was seen as humility, purity and kindness, so that many religions preach the material poverty as a bridge to spiritual rich- ness. With the quick growth of the populations in the industrial period, poverty started to be seen as an odious scourge so that the poor people started to be persecuted by police-states that humiliated them more and more. Therefore, the approach of the States regarding pov- erty varies among the almost total contempt, the sancti- fication of poverty or the effective fight against poverty. Poverty is fruit of elite that dominates and massacres the collectivity. The transcendence of the brute animalism present in man depends on Education. The Education of children is the true patrimony for the evolution of Mankind. But Education is purposely withheld by the governments worldwide. Few islands of excellence float in a sea of illiteracy, futility, superficiality. Not only Edu- cation is withheld but also it is not a natural search of the young human beings, but in the other way around: for children and teenagers, the intellectual work done at the school is useless, as it doesn’t satisfy the immediate desires of obtaining Capital at any cost and besides it is a mentally distressful and laborious work. But, taken as a collective, are the poor people to- tally free of liability? Is there kind of primitive pulse that makes poverty to perpetuate itself? The States of evolucao_biologica__ing__emenda__ISAAC ing.indd 77 05/08/2013 15:08:54
  78. 78 Dario Palhares Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Exception that still exist in this XXI century are char- acterized by large crowds of miserable and excluded. It would be expected, as a consequence, that if the poor people got free from their obvious and concrete oppres- sor, they would immediately require the overcome of their poverty. But in many regimens of elections secret and free of frauds, the poor people, being the majority of the human societies, would choose those governors who would meet their needs. But poverty is worse than a purely material state. Poverty is an irreversible situation of a mental, spir- itual and behavioral condition. The poor adult presents a reduced ability to think collectively, by the reason that the collective is an abstract entity. It is the opposite, the freedom conquered in the democratic regimens high- lights the content of the crowds, and this content is far away from rationality. There are two typical botanical experiments to il- lustrate poverty. In the first example, take a flowering plant, such as a rose. If since seedling it hasn´t been carefully treated, it will never produce high quality flowers, even if in the flowering phase it starts to receive adequate treatment. Another interesting ex- periment is carried out in plants that require and like strong sun light. If a bud is kept under shade, the de- veloped leaf will never stand with plentiful sunlight. That is, even if the plant likes sun, if their leaves are grown under the shade, they will never stand with the strong sunlight. This is poverty. If the children don´t receive high evolucao_biologica__ing__emenda__ISAAC ing.indd 78 05/08/2013 15:08:54
  79. 79BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF SPIRITS Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. quality education, they will be forever stuck into the purely animalistic thoughts from the brain and will present reduced ability of abstraction and consid- eration to the Collective. In the democracies of the poor countries, the poor crowd, when choosing the politicians who will guide the State, carries out spuri- ous exchanges. They don´t ask for a better minimum salary for all, but votes in those who promise a high- er benefit from the government. They don´t ask for urban planning, but for popular houses. Schools pass away. School is a place of boring and arrogant teachers who humiliate children due to their laziness in doing homework. Environment is only bush full of mosqui- toes that is more valuable when is turn into a concrete jungle. The electoral money is guided by a crude and ruthless individualism. As a group, poverty is an entity that doesn´t self- overcome, but rather that self-replicate, even in a po- litical-administrative system theoretically based on free will and on alternation of power. In a first glimpse, the poor majority elects and re-elects corrupts of all sorts by a blindness cultivated by years of non-schooling or by an intrinsic innocence easy to be manipulated. Diffuse and abstract crimes to uninformed brains such as money deviation, money laundry, environmental crimes would be too fictitious to be summarily rejected. But the cor- ruption of the electorate is not resumed into that. They elect murders, traffickers, enslavers, land invaders, people without any civic respect. The complex situation of poverty and misery that evolucao_biologica__ing__emenda__ISAAC ing.indd 79 05/08/2013 15:08:54
  80. 80 Dario Palhares Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. Cópia do autor. Proibida a reprodução. spreads out the world and that is fruit of both oppres- sive elite and the collective decisions taken by the poor crowd illustrates the long way the human societies have to evolve. Not only poverty is fruit of the social psychop- athy we live but also is an entity that self-replicates, even when free will is legally offered. evolucao_biologica__ing__emenda__ISAAC ing.indd 80 05/08/2013 15:08:54

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