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Km freud
Km freud
Km freud
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Km freud

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  • 1. Introduction to Freud Spring 2004 NCLC 130 (Week 4: Identity) Karen Misencik Women’s Studies
  • 2. Background/Context Part I: Biography  Freud: “Father of Psychoanalysis”  Sigmund Freud Born May 6, 1856 in Freiburg (then Moravia, now Czech Republic).  One of 8 children, Jewish family  Age 4, Freud’s father moved family to Vienna, Austria
  • 3. Background/Context Part I: Biography  1873: (Age 17) U. of Vienna med. student  1882: Vienna General Hospital – research on the brain  1885: Begins working with Jean-Martin Charcot (French neurologist). Research into “hysteria”  1886: Sets up private practice as consultant for nervous disorders
  • 4. Background/Context Part I: Biography  1886 marries Martha Bernays. By 1896 the couple has 6 children, including Anna (youngest child) – Freud’s protégé and confident.  Freud’s research interest begins to shift to psychological disorders. Begins working with Joseph Breuer using hypnosis and free-association.
  • 5. Background/Context Part I: Biography  Around turn of century (1900) Freud’s writing takes off – Interpretation of Dreams and Psychopathology of Everyday Life.  Early 1900s begins working with Alfred Adler and develops Vienna Psychoanalytic Society.  Freud still publishing: Case Histories (Wolf Man, Rat Man, Dora, etc.)
  • 6. Background/Context Part I: Biography  1909: Swiss Psychologist, Carl Jung (1875-1961) begins collaborating with Freud.  The two become very close colleagues but split bitterly after several years. Causes end of Vienna Psychoanalytic Society.  1914-1918: World War I: Devastating but Freud still lecturing, writing, etc.
  • 7. Background/Context Part I: Biography  1923: Freud has several malignant tumors removed from mouth – beginning of illness which will eventually kill him.  Between 1926-1930 many more of his famous texts are published: Future of an Illusion, Civilization and Its Discontents, etc.  1933: Hitler comes to power. Later on, Freud’s books publicly burned in Berlin.
  • 8. Background/Context Part I: Biography  1938 Germans invade Austria. Freud moves to London via Paris.  Freud by now very ill from cancer.  1939 Freud’s final book, Moses and Monotheism is published.  September 23, 1939: Freud dies in London.
  • 9. Freud’s Theories Part II: Psychoanalytic Model of Identity  Psychoanalysis: “The Talking Cure” therapy that investigates the workings and interactions between conscious and unconscious mind. (Freud first used the term in 1896.)  Think of: “revealing,” “unearthing” what we have hidden, repressed in order to become healthy.  We can’t make what we don’t want to face “go away” but we can change (suppress) it. If ignored can result in neuroses, psychoses, etc.
  • 10. Freud’s Theories Part II: Psychoanalytic Model of Identity Psychoanalysis depends on understanding how the mind works: Consider an Iceberg Model (it’s what’s underneath that counts!): Disclaimer!: Models are helpful, but also limiting….
  • 11. Freud’s Theories Part II: Psychoanalytic Model of Identity Top of the iceberg: Conscious mind (smallest part – say, 10%). We can access this, we are aware of this part of “us.” We understand it logically.
  • 12. Freud’s Theories Part II: Psychoanalytic Model of Identity  Middle of iceberg: Preconscious (medium size, about 10-15%). Ordinary memory. You don’t keep a lot of information in your conscious mind all the time – why?  If you need to know something (where you parked your car, your sister’s birthday, your 7th grade Stardust Dance, etc.) you can bring it “up” to your Conscious mind.
  • 13. Freud’s Theories Part II: Psychoanalytic Model of Identity  Bottom of iceberg: Unconscious (huge – dwarfs the other two, 75-80% of our mind). “Underwater”  The unconscious: Plays a very large role in how we function as human beings. Most of the work among the Id, Ego, and Superego happens here.
  • 14. Freud’s Theories Part II: Psychoanalytic Model of Identity THE UNCONSCIOUS MIND:  A “dumping ground” for all of our desires, anxieties, urges, especially those which are painful – why?  Nothing in the unconscious goes away. Even if we aren’t aware of it, what is in the unconscious influences us every day in every way.  Can’t directly or easily access the unconscious with conscious mind. “Speaks” a different language (ex. Dreams).
  • 15. Freud’s Theories Part II: Psychoanalytic Model of Identity “Mystic Writing Pad” essay  Mystic Writing Pad (toy): analogous to mind.  Some key passages: (208) “Our mental apparatus….of them” (211) “Thus the Pad…or systems” (211) “We need not be disturbed…are present” (212) choice of words “protective shield” (212) “It is as though…coming from it”
  • 16. Freud’s Theories Part III: Id, Ego, Superego Freud’s theory of Identity is based on a CONFLICT MODEL Important! Radical notion! (Keep in mind that with Freud, identity becomes confusing – hard to use pronouns to describe ourselves. Who am “I”? Is “I” really “We”?)
  • 17. Freud’s Theories Part III: Id, Ego, Superego  Conflict Model: The self is NOT UNIFIED; it is not a coherent, singular entity. Not entirely rational, not entirely in control of yourself.  There are competing elements within ourselves.  No way to resolve competing elements – only way to stay healthy is to not let any one of them “get the upper hand” or sickness (i.e. neurosis or psychosis) can occur.
  • 18. Freud’s Theories Part III: ID, EGO, SUPEREGO Freud’s conflict model is based on the idea of the Id, the Ego, and the Superego. These are the components of the self. First:  THE ID: The oldest part of our mind – most primal, most fundamental, most primitive.  The Id precedes culture! And is universal.
  • 19. Freud’s Theories Part III: ID, EGO, SUPEREGO “Id” does NOT stand for “Identity.” Rather, it means “It” – WOW! It is irrational, emotional, demanding…and STRONG
  • 20. Freud’s Theories Part III: ID, EGO, SUPEREGO  The ID: The source for libido (psychic energy, not just sexual in meaning like today’s connotation)  Psychic energy fuels our thoughts, memories, sexual desires, perceptions, etc.  Psychic energy – fixed amount (like theory of “matter” – can neither be created nor destroyed)
  • 21. Freud’s Theories Part III: ID, EGO, SUPEREGO The Id is ruled by The Pleasure Principle: (I WANT, I WANT, I WANT, I WANT!!!!!)  Pleasure Principle: Cares only about immediate self-gratification; does not care about deferring, doesn’t care about others.
  • 22. Freud’s Theories Part III: ID, EGO, SUPEREGO  A new baby is all Id. Not born fully human (controversial) – must successfully navigate the treacherous path to adulthood.  A new baby only wants to eat, sleep, urinate, defecate, be comfortable, and gain sexual pleasure and wants it all now.  (Yes, Freud believes we are all born sexual, “polymorphous perverse” – all areas of body to an infant are pleasurable BUT: “sexual” is understood as “sensual”).
  • 23. Freud’s Theories Part III: ID, EGO, SUPEREGO  The Ego: “I”  Functions with the rational part of the mind. The Ego develops in the child by about age 3.  Child learns that it is often unwise and there are consequences if s/he cannot learn to delay her/his gratification.
  • 24. Freud’s Theories Part III: ID, EGO, SUPEREGO  The Ego is ruled by The Reality Principle, the Ego is pragmatic. “You can’t always get what you want.”  The Ego mediates between the Id and the world. The Ego develops strategies to help the Id make it until the urge can be satisfied.  It takes a tremendous amount of psychic energy to help suppress the Id’s urges.
  • 25. Freud’s Theories Part III: ID, EGO, SUPEREGO  The Ego is in service to the Id, yet it uses some of the Id’s psychic energy to control the Id by reasonably satisfying the Id.  Over time, the Ego becomes pretty good at this and develops a large repertoire of KSAs to keep the Id gratified.  This causes the Ego to become aware of itself as an entity – now the individual experiences him/herself as a “self”, not just a big ball of urges.
  • 26. Freud’s Theories Part III: ID, EGO, SUPEREGO  The Superego: “Over-I”  Last part of the mind to develop (by about age 5).  The moral part of the mind (because the Ego is not necessarily moral).  Represents societal and parental values. “Steps In” when Mom or the Cops aren’t around.
  • 27. Freud’s Theories Part III: ID, EGO, SUPEREGO  Two components to Superego: Ego Ideal and Conscience. (Don’t confuse with “conscious”)  Ego Ideal: The rules or standards for what constitutes good or appropriate behavior.  Conscience: The rules or standards for what constitutes bad, immoral, embarrassing behavior.
  • 28. Freud’s Theories Part III: ID, EGO, SUPEREGO  If, as an adult, your Id is too dominant? (very self-absorbed, don’t care about others, only out for yourself)  If, as an adult, your Ego is too dominant? (distant, rational, efficient, unemotional, cold)  If, as an adult, your Superego is too dominant? (guilt-ridden or sanctimonious).
  • 29. THE END THANK YOU! QUESTIONS?
  • 30. SOURCES Freud, Sigmund. A Note upon the “Mystic Writing-Pad,” General Psychological Theory. New York: Simon & Schuster, Inc., 1991. _______. The Ego and the Id. (Trans. Joan Riviere.) New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1960. Lecture Notes, Professor Debra Bergoffen, Department of Philosophy and Religious Studies, George Mason University, 1994.

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