Km freud


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Km freud

  1. 1. Introduction to Freud Spring 2004 NCLC 130 (Week 4: Identity) Karen Misencik Women’s Studies
  2. 2. Background/Context Part I: Biography  Freud: “Father of Psychoanalysis”  Sigmund Freud Born May 6, 1856 in Freiburg (then Moravia, now Czech Republic).  One of 8 children, Jewish family  Age 4, Freud’s father moved family to Vienna, Austria
  3. 3. Background/Context Part I: Biography  1873: (Age 17) U. of Vienna med. student  1882: Vienna General Hospital – research on the brain  1885: Begins working with Jean-Martin Charcot (French neurologist). Research into “hysteria”  1886: Sets up private practice as consultant for nervous disorders
  4. 4. Background/Context Part I: Biography  1886 marries Martha Bernays. By 1896 the couple has 6 children, including Anna (youngest child) – Freud’s protégé and confident.  Freud’s research interest begins to shift to psychological disorders. Begins working with Joseph Breuer using hypnosis and free-association.
  5. 5. Background/Context Part I: Biography  Around turn of century (1900) Freud’s writing takes off – Interpretation of Dreams and Psychopathology of Everyday Life.  Early 1900s begins working with Alfred Adler and develops Vienna Psychoanalytic Society.  Freud still publishing: Case Histories (Wolf Man, Rat Man, Dora, etc.)
  6. 6. Background/Context Part I: Biography  1909: Swiss Psychologist, Carl Jung (1875-1961) begins collaborating with Freud.  The two become very close colleagues but split bitterly after several years. Causes end of Vienna Psychoanalytic Society.  1914-1918: World War I: Devastating but Freud still lecturing, writing, etc.
  7. 7. Background/Context Part I: Biography  1923: Freud has several malignant tumors removed from mouth – beginning of illness which will eventually kill him.  Between 1926-1930 many more of his famous texts are published: Future of an Illusion, Civilization and Its Discontents, etc.  1933: Hitler comes to power. Later on, Freud’s books publicly burned in Berlin.
  8. 8. Background/Context Part I: Biography  1938 Germans invade Austria. Freud moves to London via Paris.  Freud by now very ill from cancer.  1939 Freud’s final book, Moses and Monotheism is published.  September 23, 1939: Freud dies in London.
  9. 9. Freud’s Theories Part II: Psychoanalytic Model of Identity  Psychoanalysis: “The Talking Cure” therapy that investigates the workings and interactions between conscious and unconscious mind. (Freud first used the term in 1896.)  Think of: “revealing,” “unearthing” what we have hidden, repressed in order to become healthy.  We can’t make what we don’t want to face “go away” but we can change (suppress) it. If ignored can result in neuroses, psychoses, etc.
  10. 10. Freud’s Theories Part II: Psychoanalytic Model of Identity Psychoanalysis depends on understanding how the mind works: Consider an Iceberg Model (it’s what’s underneath that counts!): Disclaimer!: Models are helpful, but also limiting….
  11. 11. Freud’s Theories Part II: Psychoanalytic Model of Identity Top of the iceberg: Conscious mind (smallest part – say, 10%). We can access this, we are aware of this part of “us.” We understand it logically.
  12. 12. Freud’s Theories Part II: Psychoanalytic Model of Identity  Middle of iceberg: Preconscious (medium size, about 10-15%). Ordinary memory. You don’t keep a lot of information in your conscious mind all the time – why?  If you need to know something (where you parked your car, your sister’s birthday, your 7th grade Stardust Dance, etc.) you can bring it “up” to your Conscious mind.
  13. 13. Freud’s Theories Part II: Psychoanalytic Model of Identity  Bottom of iceberg: Unconscious (huge – dwarfs the other two, 75-80% of our mind). “Underwater”  The unconscious: Plays a very large role in how we function as human beings. Most of the work among the Id, Ego, and Superego happens here.
  14. 14. Freud’s Theories Part II: Psychoanalytic Model of Identity THE UNCONSCIOUS MIND:  A “dumping ground” for all of our desires, anxieties, urges, especially those which are painful – why?  Nothing in the unconscious goes away. Even if we aren’t aware of it, what is in the unconscious influences us every day in every way.  Can’t directly or easily access the unconscious with conscious mind. “Speaks” a different language (ex. Dreams).
  15. 15. Freud’s Theories Part II: Psychoanalytic Model of Identity “Mystic Writing Pad” essay  Mystic Writing Pad (toy): analogous to mind.  Some key passages: (208) “Our mental apparatus….of them” (211) “Thus the Pad…or systems” (211) “We need not be disturbed…are present” (212) choice of words “protective shield” (212) “It is as though…coming from it”
  16. 16. Freud’s Theories Part III: Id, Ego, Superego Freud’s theory of Identity is based on a CONFLICT MODEL Important! Radical notion! (Keep in mind that with Freud, identity becomes confusing – hard to use pronouns to describe ourselves. Who am “I”? Is “I” really “We”?)
  17. 17. Freud’s Theories Part III: Id, Ego, Superego  Conflict Model: The self is NOT UNIFIED; it is not a coherent, singular entity. Not entirely rational, not entirely in control of yourself.  There are competing elements within ourselves.  No way to resolve competing elements – only way to stay healthy is to not let any one of them “get the upper hand” or sickness (i.e. neurosis or psychosis) can occur.
  18. 18. Freud’s Theories Part III: ID, EGO, SUPEREGO Freud’s conflict model is based on the idea of the Id, the Ego, and the Superego. These are the components of the self. First:  THE ID: The oldest part of our mind – most primal, most fundamental, most primitive.  The Id precedes culture! And is universal.
  19. 19. Freud’s Theories Part III: ID, EGO, SUPEREGO “Id” does NOT stand for “Identity.” Rather, it means “It” – WOW! It is irrational, emotional, demanding…and STRONG
  20. 20. Freud’s Theories Part III: ID, EGO, SUPEREGO  The ID: The source for libido (psychic energy, not just sexual in meaning like today’s connotation)  Psychic energy fuels our thoughts, memories, sexual desires, perceptions, etc.  Psychic energy – fixed amount (like theory of “matter” – can neither be created nor destroyed)
  21. 21. Freud’s Theories Part III: ID, EGO, SUPEREGO The Id is ruled by The Pleasure Principle: (I WANT, I WANT, I WANT, I WANT!!!!!)  Pleasure Principle: Cares only about immediate self-gratification; does not care about deferring, doesn’t care about others.
  22. 22. Freud’s Theories Part III: ID, EGO, SUPEREGO  A new baby is all Id. Not born fully human (controversial) – must successfully navigate the treacherous path to adulthood.  A new baby only wants to eat, sleep, urinate, defecate, be comfortable, and gain sexual pleasure and wants it all now.  (Yes, Freud believes we are all born sexual, “polymorphous perverse” – all areas of body to an infant are pleasurable BUT: “sexual” is understood as “sensual”).
  23. 23. Freud’s Theories Part III: ID, EGO, SUPEREGO  The Ego: “I”  Functions with the rational part of the mind. The Ego develops in the child by about age 3.  Child learns that it is often unwise and there are consequences if s/he cannot learn to delay her/his gratification.
  24. 24. Freud’s Theories Part III: ID, EGO, SUPEREGO  The Ego is ruled by The Reality Principle, the Ego is pragmatic. “You can’t always get what you want.”  The Ego mediates between the Id and the world. The Ego develops strategies to help the Id make it until the urge can be satisfied.  It takes a tremendous amount of psychic energy to help suppress the Id’s urges.
  25. 25. Freud’s Theories Part III: ID, EGO, SUPEREGO  The Ego is in service to the Id, yet it uses some of the Id’s psychic energy to control the Id by reasonably satisfying the Id.  Over time, the Ego becomes pretty good at this and develops a large repertoire of KSAs to keep the Id gratified.  This causes the Ego to become aware of itself as an entity – now the individual experiences him/herself as a “self”, not just a big ball of urges.
  26. 26. Freud’s Theories Part III: ID, EGO, SUPEREGO  The Superego: “Over-I”  Last part of the mind to develop (by about age 5).  The moral part of the mind (because the Ego is not necessarily moral).  Represents societal and parental values. “Steps In” when Mom or the Cops aren’t around.
  27. 27. Freud’s Theories Part III: ID, EGO, SUPEREGO  Two components to Superego: Ego Ideal and Conscience. (Don’t confuse with “conscious”)  Ego Ideal: The rules or standards for what constitutes good or appropriate behavior.  Conscience: The rules or standards for what constitutes bad, immoral, embarrassing behavior.
  28. 28. Freud’s Theories Part III: ID, EGO, SUPEREGO  If, as an adult, your Id is too dominant? (very self-absorbed, don’t care about others, only out for yourself)  If, as an adult, your Ego is too dominant? (distant, rational, efficient, unemotional, cold)  If, as an adult, your Superego is too dominant? (guilt-ridden or sanctimonious).
  30. 30. SOURCES Freud, Sigmund. A Note upon the “Mystic Writing-Pad,” General Psychological Theory. New York: Simon & Schuster, Inc., 1991. _______. The Ego and the Id. (Trans. Joan Riviere.) New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1960. Lecture Notes, Professor Debra Bergoffen, Department of Philosophy and Religious Studies, George Mason University, 1994.
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