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National Press Foundation - Understanding Vaccines (David Curry, Peg Willingham)
 

National Press Foundation - Understanding Vaccines (David Curry, Peg Willingham)

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    National Press Foundation - Understanding Vaccines (David Curry, Peg Willingham) National Press Foundation - Understanding Vaccines (David Curry, Peg Willingham) Presentation Transcript

    • National Press Foundation Vaccines Webinar Series 15 November 2011 David R. Curry, MS Executive Director Center for Vaccine Ethics and Policy Associate Fellow, Center for Bioethics University of Pennsylvania [email_address]
    • Mission: Contribute to global public health as the leading independent, academically-based center focused on immunization and vaccine ethics and policy www.centerforvaccineethicsandpolicy.org
    • Adapted from: Jason L. Schwartz, MBE, AM, Center for Bioethics; Department of History & Sociology of Science University of Pennsylvania NVAC Health Care Personnel Influenza Vaccination Subgroup 31 May 2011
      • Three Themes
      • Vaccines - fast history…fast forward
      • Vaccine Basics – What, How, Why
      • Vaccines – HPV Discussion: Public
      • Health Deployment
    • Adapted from: Jason L. Schwartz, MBE, AM, Center for Bioethics; Department of History & Sociology of Science University of Pennsylvania NVAC Health Care Personnel Influenza Vaccination Subgroup 31 May 2011
      • Vaccines: Three Minute History
      • ? Chinese employ smallpox inoculation (or variolation) as
      • early as 1000 CE. Spreads to Africa and Turkey as well,
      • before to Europe and the Americas.
      • Edward Jenner successful 1796 use of cowpox material to
      • create immunity to smallpox, quickly widespread
      • Louis Pasteur’s 1885 rabies vaccine
      • Antitoxins and vaccines against diphtheria, tetanus,
      • anthrax, cholera, plague, typhoid, tuberculosis, and
      • more developed through the 1930s.
      • Vaccines for polio in mid-1950s
      • Vaccines for measles, mumps, and rubella follow…
    • Adapted from: Jason L. Schwartz, MBE, AM, Center for Bioethics; Department of History & Sociology of Science University of Pennsylvania NVAC Health Care Personnel Influenza Vaccination Subgroup 31 May 2011 Decade of Vaccines Collaboration Global Vaccine Action Plan draft materials, Nov 2011 Vaccines: What, How, Why
      • Dengue
      • Leishmaniasis
      • Malaria
      • Typhoid
      • Measles
      • Polio
      • Rubella
      • Tuberculosis
      • Yellow Fever
      • Meningitis
      • Pneumococcal
      • Rotavirus
      • Japanese Encephalitis
      • Cholera
      • Diphtheria
      • Tetanus
      • Pertussis
      • Hepatitis B
      • Haemophilus influenza type B
      • HPV
      • Seasonal Influenza
      New vaccines anticipated before 2020 Main currently available vaccines
    • Adapted from: Jason L. Schwartz, MBE, AM, Center for Bioethics; Department of History & Sociology of Science University of Pennsylvania NVAC Health Care Personnel Influenza Vaccination Subgroup 31 May 2011
      • Vaccine Futures
      • Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs)
      • Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs)
      • Therapeutic Vaccines
      • Behavioral Vaccines
    • Adapted from: Jason L. Schwartz, MBE, AM, Center for Bioethics; Department of History & Sociology of Science University of Pennsylvania NVAC Health Care Personnel Influenza Vaccination Subgroup 31 May 2011
      • Vaccine Development, Testing, Regulation
      • First Steps: Laboratory and Animal Studies
      • Exploratory Stage
      • Pre-Clinical Stage
      • IND Application
      • Next Steps: Clinical Studies with Human Subjects
      • Phase I Vaccine Trials
      • Phase II Vaccine Trials
      • Phase III Vaccine Trials
      • Next Steps: Approval and Licensure
      • Licensure (FDA; national authorities)
      • Pre-Qualification (WHO)
      • Schedules/Recommendation (ACIP; national authorities)
      • Post-Licensure Monitoring (VAERS+)
      • Phase IV Trials
    • Adapted from: Jason L. Schwartz, MBE, AM, Center for Bioethics; Department of History & Sociology of Science University of Pennsylvania NVAC Health Care Personnel Influenza Vaccination Subgroup 31 May 2011 Vaccines: How They Work [Live Attenuated] History of Vaccines website: http://www.historyofvaccines.org/content/types-vaccines
    • Adapted from: Jason L. Schwartz, MBE, AM, Center for Bioethics; Department of History & Sociology of Science University of Pennsylvania NVAC Health Care Personnel Influenza Vaccination Subgroup 31 May 2011 Vaccines: How They Work [Inactivated] History of Vaccines website: http://www.historyofvaccines.org/content/types-vaccines
    • Adapted from: Jason L. Schwartz, MBE, AM, Center for Bioethics; Department of History & Sociology of Science University of Pennsylvania NVAC Health Care Personnel Influenza Vaccination Subgroup 31 May 2011 Vaccines: How They Work [Subunit/Conjugate] History of Vaccines website: http://www.historyofvaccines.org/content/types-vaccines
    • Adapted from: Jason L. Schwartz, MBE, AM, Center for Bioethics; Department of History & Sociology of Science University of Pennsylvania NVAC Health Care Personnel Influenza Vaccination Subgroup 31 May 2011 Formulating Immunization Recommendations for New Vaccines: Can – and How – Should ‘Values’ be Added to the Process? Glen Nowak, Ph.D., Senior Advisor, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases. Washington, D.C., May 25, 2011.
    • Adapted from: Jason L. Schwartz, MBE, AM, Center for Bioethics; Department of History & Sociology of Science University of Pennsylvania NVAC Health Care Personnel Influenza Vaccination Subgroup 31 May 2011 Formulating Immunization Recommendations for New Vaccines: Can – and How – Should ‘Values’ be Added to the Process? Glen Nowak, Ph.D., Senior Advisor, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases. Washington, D.C., May 25, 2011.
    • Adapted from: Jason L. Schwartz, MBE, AM, Center for Bioethics; Department of History & Sociology of Science University of Pennsylvania NVAC Health Care Personnel Influenza Vaccination Subgroup 31 May 2011
      • HPV Types 6 and 11 cause about 90% of genital warts cases in
      • females and males.
      • HPV Types 16 and 18 cause about 75% of cervical cancer cases
      • in females.
      • HPV Types 16 and 18 also cause about 70% of vaginal cancer
      • cases and up to 50% of vulvar cancer cases in females.
      • All HPV types that affect the genital area can cause abnormal
      • Pap tests in females.
      • Every year, about 12,000 women are diagnosed with cervical
      • cancer and 4,000 women die from this disease in the U.S.
      Electron micrograph of human papillomavirus (HPV). Courtesy of NCI. 1986. HPV & HPV Vaccines
    • Adapted from: Jason L. Schwartz, MBE, AM, Center for Bioethics; Department of History & Sociology of Science University of Pennsylvania NVAC Health Care Personnel Influenza Vaccination Subgroup 31 May 2011
    • Adapted from: Jason L. Schwartz, MBE, AM, Center for Bioethics; Department of History & Sociology of Science University of Pennsylvania NVAC Health Care Personnel Influenza Vaccination Subgroup 31 May 2011 http://www.gardasil.com/hpv/hpv-types/hpv-transmission/ http://www.cervarix.com/ How do HPV vaccines work? The HPV vaccines work like other immunizations that guard against viral infections. The investigators hypothesized that the unique surface components of HPV might create an antibody response that is capable of protecting the body against infection, and that these components could be used to form the basis of a vaccine. The HPV surface components can interact with one another to form virus-like particles (VLP) that are not infectious, because they lack DNA. However, these VLPs can attach to cells and stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies that can prevent the complete papillomavirus, in future encounters, from infecting cells.
    • Adapted from: Jason L. Schwartz, MBE, AM, Center for Bioethics; Department of History & Sociology of Science University of Pennsylvania NVAC Health Care Personnel Influenza Vaccination Subgroup 31 May 2011 David R. Curry, MS Executive Director Center for Vaccine Ethics and Policy Associate Fellow, Center for Bioethics University of Pennsylvania [email_address] Vaccines: Public Health Deployment (U.S.)
    • Adapted from: Jason L. Schwartz, MBE, AM, Center for Bioethics; Department of History & Sociology of Science University of Pennsylvania NVAC Health Care Personnel Influenza Vaccination Subgroup 31 May 2011
          • 2. Human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV). (Minimum age: 9 years)
            • • Quadrivalent HPV vaccine (HPV4) or bivalent HPV vaccine (HPV2) is recommended for the prevention of cervical precancers and cancers in females.
            • • HPV4 is recommended for prevention of cervical precancers, cancers, and genital warts in females.
            • • HPV4 may be administered in a 3-dose series to males aged 9 through 18 years to reduce their likelihood of genital warts.
      • • Administer the second dose 1 to 2 months after the first dose and the third dose 6 months after the first dose (at least 24 weeks after the first dose).
    • Adapted from: Jason L. Schwartz, MBE, AM, Center for Bioethics; Department of History & Sociology of Science University of Pennsylvania NVAC Health Care Personnel Influenza Vaccination Subgroup 31 May 2011
      • Human Papillomavirus Vaccine (HPV)
      • Introduction   Dr. J Bocchini
      • Safety of Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus (HPV4) Vaccine  
      • Ms. J Gee
      • Post-licensure Safety Study of Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus Vaccine among 189,629 Females     Dr. C Velicer
      • HPV Vaccine for Males Background and Review of Data    
      • Dr. L Markowitz
      • HPV Vaccine Considerations for Males     Dr. E Dunne
      • VFC Resolution Update: HPV Vaccines     Dr. J Santoli
    • Adapted from: Jason L. Schwartz, MBE, AM, Center for Bioethics; Department of History & Sociology of Science University of Pennsylvania NVAC Health Care Personnel Influenza Vaccination Subgroup 31 May 2011
    • Adapted from: Jason L. Schwartz, MBE, AM, Center for Bioethics; Department of History & Sociology of Science University of Pennsylvania NVAC Health Care Personnel Influenza Vaccination Subgroup 31 May 2011
    • Adapted from: Jason L. Schwartz, MBE, AM, Center for Bioethics; Department of History & Sociology of Science University of Pennsylvania NVAC Health Care Personnel Influenza Vaccination Subgroup 31 May 2011
    • Adapted from: Jason L. Schwartz, MBE, AM, Center for Bioethics; Department of History & Sociology of Science University of Pennsylvania NVAC Health Care Personnel Influenza Vaccination Subgroup 31 May 2011
    • Adapted from: Jason L. Schwartz, MBE, AM, Center for Bioethics; Department of History & Sociology of Science University of Pennsylvania NVAC Health Care Personnel Influenza Vaccination Subgroup 31 May 2011
    • Adapted from: Jason L. Schwartz, MBE, AM, Center for Bioethics; Department of History & Sociology of Science University of Pennsylvania NVAC Health Care Personnel Influenza Vaccination Subgroup 31 May 2011
    • Adapted from: Jason L. Schwartz, MBE, AM, Center for Bioethics; Department of History & Sociology of Science University of Pennsylvania NVAC Health Care Personnel Influenza Vaccination Subgroup 31 May 2011 David R. Curry, MS Executive Director Center for Vaccine Ethics and Policy Associate Fellow, Center for Bioethics University of Pennsylvania [email_address] Vaccines: Public Health Deployment (U.S.)
    • Adapted from: Jason L. Schwartz, MBE, AM, Center for Bioethics; Department of History & Sociology of Science University of Pennsylvania NVAC Health Care Personnel Influenza Vaccination Subgroup 31 May 2011 Questions/Discussion