LANGUAGE LEARNING DISORDERS Understanding language difficulties andcurrent evidence-based teaching practice University of Queensland Speech Pathology Presentation 2008 Christine Barrett and Samantha Short (4th year Speech Pathology)
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSDr Lorraine HammondDr Michael O’KeeffeProfessor Gail T. GillonSee References and Resources for listof research evidence…
DEFINITIONSLearning Disorder (LD)•Unexpected difficulty relative to age and otherabilities to learn in school (Listening, reading,mathematics, social skills)Language Learning Disorder (LLD)•Learning difficulty that primarily affectslanguage-based skills such as reading, writing,spellingDyslexia•Specific language-based disorder characterisedby difficulties in single word decoding, usuallyreflecting difficulties in phonological processingabilities(Paul, 2005)
STATISTICS•70 to 80% of children learn how totransform printed symbols into a phoneticcode without much difficulty (Shaywitz,2003) And the remaining 20-30%???
STATISTICS•Around 20 to 30% of children need aspecific reading instruction (Mather, 1992)•Up to 1/3 of the world’s population remainsilliterate (Roselli, 1993)•20-30% of Australian children have difficultylearning to read (Westwood, 2001)•Even when good classroom instruction isdelivered in preschool and kindergarten,approx 20% of children fail to acquireadequate phonological awareness skills(Schuele & Boudreau, 2008).
BASICS OF READINGThere are two major components inthe reading process:Decoding - results in word identificationComprehension - results in derivingmeaning(Shaywitz, 2003)
PA DEVELOPMENT BENCHMARKSSource: Schuele & Boudreau (2008)
THINGS YOU MAY NOTICE IN THE CHILD WITH LLD/DYSLEXIA…• Insensitivity to rhyme• Trouble learning letters/ sounds ofalphabet• Failure to understand that words comeapart• Inability to match letters to sounds• No word attack strategies for unfamiliarwords• Miss chunks of words (eg get first & lastbits but miss middle)• Phonetic errors - look similar, soundvery different (eg gorse & goose)
THINGS YOU MAY NOTICE IN THE CHILD WITH LLD/DYSLEXIA…•Educated guessing of a word(when reading) from the firstletter/sound/syllable•Family history•Good at verbal activities andnot so good at written activities•Avoidance of reading• Terror about reading aloud(O’Keeffe)
AREAS FOR ASSESSMENT OF A CHILD WITH SUSPECTED LLD/DYSLEXIA•Cognition•Speech and language/PA skills•Memory•Visual perceptual skills•Fine motor skills•Case history (family history andchild history)(O’Keeffe)
SUSPECT THEORIES ???•Magnocellular Theory•Scotopic Sensitivity Syndrome•Cerebellar Developmental Delay•There is no doubt that the coreproblem in dyslexia is phonologic(i.e. related to sound awareness andmanipulation)
WHAT WE DO KNOW •fMRI imaging has identified 3 reading pathways in the brain’s left hemisphere •Dorsal parietal-temporal system - word analysis – beginner reader area e.g. ‘dog’ reading by linking sounds to letters •Ventral occipito-temporal system - word form - an automatic pathway used by skilled readers once they have a stable neural representation of the word (spelling, presentation and meaning activated on sight of word) e.g. ‘d-o-g’ – furry animal, pet, barks •Left inferior frontal gyrus - articulation and word analysis – strategy used by skilled readers allowing them to slowly analyse(Shaywitz, 2003) unknown word
BA - Inferior frontal gyrus Parietal-temporalARTICULATION / WORD (Dorsal) regionANALYSIS WORD ANALYSIS Three Regions Occipito-temporal (Ventral) region WORD FORM of Interest
WHAT WE DO KNOWGood readers use these three areas todecode wordsTherefore reading is easier and morefluentPoor readers rely more on the frontand right side of the brain to decodewords as a compensatory mechanism.This system is functional but is notautomatic.Reading is less efficient and therefore lessfluent.(Hammond, 2002)
WHAT WE DO KNOW•fMRI examination shows neural differencesin the structure of the brains of people withdyslexia (reading problems) when comparedto people who do not have dyslexia.•The complexity of the brain and itsdevelopment presents numerousopportunities for faulty wiring to be present.•Different degrees of dyslexia occur withvariations in faulty wiring.•Impaired phonological processing leads to a“hazy” mental representation of a wordwhich interferes with the formation of astable neural model of the word.(Shaywitz, 2003)
WHAT WE DO KNOW•Neurological evidence exists showing thatthere are gender differences in brain activationpatterns when completing phonological tasks:•Females – activate the right and left sides ofthe brain while•Males – only activate the left hemisphere•Neurobiological proof also shows that sameposterior brain disruption seen in children withdyslexia is also seen in adults with dyslexia.This shows that reading problems do not ‘goaway.’(Shaywitz, 2003)
INTERVENTIONA good program:Identifies→Weakness in getting to the sounds of words→Strengths in thinking and reasoningProvides→Early help for the weakness→Accommodations to help access strengths•Overall, focuses on both strengths andweaknesses!!!(Shaywitz, 2003)
INTERVENTIONBasic ingredients of a good program(from what we do know): •Early intervention •Over-learning •Individualised •Systematic and explicit instructions •Consistency (in teacher/aide) •High intensity •Teacher knowledge and experience(National Institute of Child Health and Human Development)www.nichd.nih.gov/publications/nrp/smallbook.cfm
INTERVENTION•fMRI studies have shown that with early,effective intervention: •Children can develop into accurate and fluent readers. •Can be trained to use the automatic reading pathway at the back of their brain. •So intervention with these children is effective and makes lifelong changes to a child’s academic success (Shaywitz, 2003)
INTERVENTION Specific ingredients of a good speech/language program: •Oral reading with feedback •Accommodation for student needs •Strengthen student strengths •Specific and explicit instructions in phonics phonemic awareness decoding rote learning vocab expansion reading comprehension strategies written composition training(National Institute of Child Health and Human Development)www.nichd.nih.gov/publications/nrp/smallbook.cfm
SPEECH PATHOLOGY – TEACHER COLLABORATION •Teachers are rarely able to provide such appropriately focused and sufficiently intensive instruction within the constraints of their classroom. •Speech pathologists have the benefit of working intensively with individual children. They can implement specific strategies designed to target individual needs. (Speech Pathology Australia, National Inquiry into the Teaching of Literacy, 2005)
LANGUAGE DISORDER INTERVENTION •A challenge for everyone providing PA intervention is that there is a lot of information on WHAT to teach and not much on HOW to teach it. •As a starting point, refer to your ‘Beyond the Basics’ handout which includes: •Example instructional dialogues •Steps for teaching PA skills •Types of modelling strategies •Instructional sequences for PA intervention •Tips for responding to errors •Scaffolding tips •These basic strategies can be applied to working with anyone with reading difficulties(Scheule & Boudreau, 2008)
LANGUAGE DISORDER INTERVENTION SOME TIPS:•Teach, don’t test: Demonstrate repeatedlythe process by which one “solves”phonological awareness tasks.•Plan strategic instruction: Carefully orderinstructional activities within each step ofthe instructional sequence (and instructionalstimuli within activities)•Scaffold children’s success: Respondstrategically to children’s errors and correctresponses. Consider also that accurateresponses or answers may not always reflectsuccessful learning.(Scheule & Boudreau, 2008)
RECOMMENDED RESOURCES AND REFERENCES Castles, A. & Coltheart, M. (2004). Is there a causal link from phonological awareness to success in reading? Cognition, 91, 77-111. Cirrin, F.M., Gillam, R.B. (2008). Language intervention practices for school- age children with spoken language disorders: A systematic review. Language, speech and hearing services in schools. 39, 1, s110-s137. Gillon, G.T. & McNeill, B.C. (2007). Integrated Phonological Awareness: An intervention program for preschool children with speech-language impairment. Canterbury: University of Canterbury. O’Shaughnessy, T.E. & Lee Swanson, H. (2000). A Comparison of Reading Interventions for Children with Reading Disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, v33, 3, 257-277. Schuele, C.M. & Boudreau, D. (2008). Phonological Awareness Intervention: Beyond the basics. Language, speech and hearing services in schools, v39, 3-20. Shaywitz, S. (2003). Overcoming dyslexia. New York: Random House Inc. Speech Pathology Australia. (2005). Literacy Teaching Based on Evidence; What roles can SLPs play? Melbourne: Speech Pathology Australia. SPELD – Specific Learning Disability Association (Queensland) www.speld.org.au
RECOMMENDED RESOURCES AND REFERENCES cont’d•www.progressivephonics.com•www.brainconnections.com – Dr Barbara Foreman•Marcia L Tate – Reading and Language Arts worksheets•www.texasreading.org•www.letterland.com•http://education.qld.gov.au/students/procedure/program/reading-recovery•www.jollylearning.co.uk•http://www.elr.com.au•www.greatbookstoreadaould.co.uk
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