Ilias Publicistika (3) 2003

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  • 1. Tbilisis ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis socialur da politikur mecnierebaTa fakultetis, Jurnalistikis specialobis mesame kursis studentis Tamar merabiSvilis referati Temaze: “Sinauri mimoxilvebi” ilias publicistikaSi
  • 2. 2009w. Jurnalistika, sakacobrio civilizaciis monapovaria. saqarTveloSi Jurnalistika fexs ikidebs daaxloebiT XVIIIsaukunis miwuruls. “rac Seexeba XIX saukunidan ukve damoukideblobadakargul saqarTvelos,xazgasmiT unda aRiniSnos,rom ruseTis imperiaSi Semaval xalxebs Soris,pirvelad swored TblisSi ganxorcielda pirveli qarTuli oficialuri perioduli organos “saqarTvelos gazeTis gamocema1819-21wlebSi.”(1) 60-nelebis Jurnalistika miyveboda msoflioSi, ruseTSi da Tavad saqarTveloSi momxdar socialur-politikur,ekonomikur gardaqmnebs, da aseve istoriul movlenebs(ruseT-TurqeTis omi1877-1878 aWara-arTvinis mxaris saqarTvelosTan SemoerTeba.) imdroindeli qarTulli Jurnalistika “aZlierebda da kidev ufro maRla swevda mefis ruseTis TviTmpyrobeluri reJimis winaaRmdeg mimarTuli erovnul-ganmanTavisuflebeli moZraobis droSas,medgrad ibrZoda socialuri da erovnuli Cagvris winaaRmdeg,qarTuli enis dacvisa da qarTuli skolebis Sesaqmnelad,rac SeiZleba meti qarTuli wignebis gamosacemad,axali erovnuli dawesebulebebis(qarTuli banki,qarTvelTa Soris wera-kiTxvis gamavrcelebeli sazogadoeba,qarTuli dramatuli sazogadoeba)daarsebis da gaZlierebisTvis,saqarTvelos Rirsebisa da interesebis winaaRmdeg amxedrebuli reaqciuli rusuli da ucxouri presis asalagmavad,didi erovnuli zeimebisa da dResaswaulebis mowyobisa da Rirseulad aRniSvnisTvis.(2).
  • 3. imdroindeli qarTuli Jurnalistika qveynis interesebis damcvelad gvevlineba. saqarTvelosa da qarTuli Jurnalistikis istoriaSi ilia WavWavaZe Sevida rogorc,axali epoqis Semqmneli, qarTveli xalxis mxsneli,adamini, romelmac gaaRviZa qarTuli suli da qarTvelTa erovnuli TviTSegneba. igi iyo aramarto didi mwerali-ganmanaTlebeli, dramaturgi da mkvlevari, aramed kritikuli relizmis,realistikuri kritikisa da publicistikis fuZemdebeli. iliam publicistikasTan erTad saTave daudo XIX saukunis meore naxevris saqarTvelos “azrTa da mimarTulebis winsvlas,warmatebas,gonebis TvalTaxedvis gaganierebas,gandidebas,gaZlierebas”samarTlianebi viqnebiT Tu vityviT,rom iliam daudo safuZveli literaturul-kritikul werilebs,saidanac iwyeba saqarTveloSi sazogadoebrivi azris ganviTareba.Mman qarTvel xalxs publicisturi werilebis mTeli cikli SesTavaza.werda saqarTvelosa da mis farglebs gareT mimdinare movlenebze, Teatrsa da xelovnebaze, mokled yvelasa da yvelaferze rac ki saqarTvelos Seexeboda. Ppublicisturi werilebis erT-erT cikls miekuTvneba “Sinauri mimoxilvebi”.sadac man ZiriTadad saqarTvelos SigniT, mimdinare problemebi aRwera. ilia WavWavaZe publicistur werilebSi:aWaris SemoerTeba,osmalos saqarTvelo,”vis naTessa vmkiT”da Sinauri mimoxilvebi(1879wlis ianvari, Tebervali, ivlisi-agvisto),ZiriTadad saubrobs imdroindel saqarTveloSi arsebul mdgomareobaze, TviT erze da maT daniSnulebaze, adamianebze, romlebic iyvnen da Tan arc iyvnen qarTvelebi, swavla-ganaTlebasa da istoriaze.
  • 4. werilSi, “osmalos saqarTvelo”, ilia uamrav problemaze saubrobs,Tumca mainc gamoyofs erT mniSvnelovan aspeqts,kerZod igi, saqarTvelos istorias gvaxsenebs, vinaidan mas miaCnia, rom yvela adamianma unda icodes sakuTari eris istoria, misi ar codna sircxvili da Ralatia qveynisa,eri, erad ver ivargebs da adamiani adamianad.es aris saunje,risi saSualebiTac ers siamayis grZnoba eufleba,uCndeba survili iyos msgavsi winapris,eTqmodes Tavisi sityva yvelgan da yovelTvis. istoriis saSualebiT eri suldgmulobs.”igi saganZea, saca eri poulobs Tavisi sulis bgeras, Tavis zneobiT da gonebriv aRmatebulebas, Tavis vinaobas.”(3)lias TqmiT adamianma marto imitom unda icodes Tavisi istoria, rom is pirvel rigSi adamiani iyos,gaigos vinaa, ras warmoadgens”visi gorisaa”.arsebobs ori saxis Rone sxeulis da sulis.sxeulis Ronea roca varjiSob, da fizikurad Zlieri xar, es adamians bevr rameSi exmareba, magram sul sxvaa “sulis GRone”-esaa Rone, roca Zlieri ara fizikurad, aramed pirovnulad xdebi,Seudrekeli xar, winaaRmdegobebis ar geSinia,ai “swored sulis Rone sxva araferia Tu ara istoriis codna.” verc saerTo gvariSviloba, sarwmunoeba an ena, ise ver aaxlovebs adamianebs erTmaneTan, rogorc istoria. “eri erTis RvawliT damdebi, erTs istoriul uRelSi bmuli, erTad mebrZoli,erTsa da imave Wirsa da lxinSi gamotarebuli-erTsulobiT, erTgulobiT Zlieria”(4) Mmarto imitom aris istoriis codna saWiro rom mas SeuZlia sxvadasxva da erTi da igive warmoSobis adamianebi erTmaneTTan SeaduRos, Seadnos gaaerTianos, erTsulovani, Zlieri da udreki gaxados.
  • 5. ilias am yvelafris gaxseneba dasWirda imitom, rom naTlad daexata Tu ra mdgomareobaSi iyo XIXsaukunis, osmalo da danarCeni saqarTvelo. im dros osmalos saqarTvelos uwodebdnen, friad mSvenier da erT dros qristeanul,samefo kuTxes, samcxe-klarjeTs,kuTxes,romelsac udidesi wvlili, saxeli da pativi miuZRvis saqarTvelos istoriaSi.marTlia im periodSi saqarTvelos es nawili sruliad gaucxovebuli iyo,magram xom arsebobda erT dros uwyveti Zafebi.rac ar unda iyos maT da danarCen saqarTvelos erTi istoria aqvT,erT enazec saubrobdnen. saqarTvelo iyo da aris is qveyana,romelsac yoveli mxridan mteri yavs,saukune ar gasula ise,rom qarTvelebs sisixli ar daeRvaroT saTayvanebeli samSoblosTvis. iyo dro,roca saqarTvelos erTdroulad Tavs esxmoda bizantia,sparseTi da osmalo.im dros swored mesxeTi ibrZoda qarTuli enis,sarwmunoebis da ganaTlebis dasacavad. “odes bizantia,sparseTi da osmalo am Cvens mSvenier qveyanas etanebodnen da urTierTs ecilebodnen,maSin is saqarTvelos nawili,romelic dRes osmalos xelSia,medgrad ibrZoda Cvenis sarwmunoebis,ganaTlebis,erT-mTavrobisaTvis da maTda da CvenTa sasaxelod ZleviTac mosil iqmna.”(5) Uudaoa is,rom samcxis mTavrebi metad Wkvianebi iyvnen.amaze faqtebi metyvelebs. maSin roca saqarTvelo dayofili iyo nawil-nawil da erTi nawili sparseTis batonibis qveS iyo, xolo meore ki bizantiis,zemo qarTli anu e.w samcxe-klarjeTi,xan erT dampyrobels miemxroboda xolme,xam meores da ase gaqonda Tavi.aSkaraa,rom Tavadebsa da mmarTvelebs Zalian moqnili politika hqondaT SemuSavebuli,risi saSualebiTac samcxe TiTqmis erTaderTi iyo romelsac eWira “Tavisufali droSa qarTvelTa erTobisa”
  • 6. ilias yovel naTqvams faqtebi moyveba, utyuari. roca ambobs samcxe- klarjeTze, qristeanuli kuTxe iyoo istoriul faqtsac zed urTavs: “pirvelad qristeanobam iq, samcxe-klarjeTSi moikida fexi andria mociqulis moZRvrebiTa, maSin rodesac qarTl-kaxeTSi kerp-msaxureba sufevda.”(6) aseve SegviZlia davamatoT wm.ninos saqarTveloSi Semosvlis detalebi. “wminda nino saqarTveloSi javaxeTidan Camosula aqedan is dedaqalaq mcxeTaSi urbnisis gziT mosula”(7)es faqtic imas mowmobs rom wm.ni ninos jer samxreT saqarTevlo gauqristianebia da Semdgom gadavida mcxeTaSi. ilia am werilSi samcxe-saaTabagos mimoixilavs.aRwers rogor Semovidnen iq monRolebi mahmadianobis gasarceleblad, magram swored axlandeli osmalos saqarTvelos winaparni ibrZodnen bagrationebTan erTad qristeanobis dasacavad. Aamis dasturia dRemde SemorCenili mravali istoriuli Zegli Tu eklesia. “rodesac arabebi saqarTveloSi Semovidnen da mahmadianobis gavrcelebas cdilobdnen,exlandeli osmaleTis saqarTvelo qristonobisTvis iRwvoda”(8) Bbagrationebsa da bizantiel xalxisa Tu keisars Soris damokidebuleba gamoixateboda imiTac,rom:”keisrebi mefeebs Tavis sakariskaco pativs uwyalobebden xolme.bagrationTA sagvareulos mematianis sumbatis Txzuleba mraval cnobebs Seicavs ams Sesaxeb da bizantieli istorikosebic amasve mogviTxroben”(8) ilia werilSi wers Semdeg frazebs: “imave dros samcxe-klarjeTis qarTvelni midiodnen saberZneTs swavlis misaRebad,naswavlni modiodnen ukanve da hfendnen swavlasa saqarTvelos xalxTa Soris.”(9) da yvelaze mTavri, udidesi wvlili miuZRvis samacxe-klarjeTs,saqarTvelos gaerTianebaSi. “bagrationTA gvaris kaci mefe bagratIII gaZlierda imdenad,rom 1014w.
  • 7. suliad saqarTvelo da Cveni qveyana Seiqmna Zlier da saxelovan.exlandelma osmalos saqarTvelom im SeerTebisTvis didi rvawli dasdo Cvens qveyanasa,didi sisxli daanTxia,didi qveloba gaswia.” “daviT kurapalatma qarTliTgan wasvlis winaT Sekriba adgilobrivi aznaurebi da gamoucxada: “ese (bagrat) ars mkvidri taosa,qarTlisa da afxazeTisa, Svili gazrdili Cemi da me var mouravi misi da TanaSemwe,amas daemorCileniT yvelani”(10) sayuradReboa ramdenime detali; is rom iq metad ganaTlebuli xalxi cxovrobda, rac Tavis mxriv kargia, aramarto im kuTxisaTvis, aramed mTlianad saqarTvelosaTvis.meore is rom kargi urTierToba qondaT mezobel bizantiasTan, Tavisuflad SeeZloT misvla-mosvla,rac samwuxarod daaxloebiT 10 saukunis mere XIX saukunis saqarTveloSi ase aRar xdeba,igive principebi dRevandeli saqarTvelosTvis nametnavad ucxoa. DdRes mezobel qveynebTan megobobas gavurbivarT, viukadrisebT, gvexamuSeba,Tu maincdamaic megobrobaze midga saqme, Cven, cota iqiT, okeanes gadaRma gvyavdes “megobari”is gvirCevnia.samwuxaroa es faqti XIX saukuneSi, magram realobaa da versad ver gaveqceviT. sjobs cotaxniT daviviwyoT samwuxaro realobebi dRevandel cxovrebaSi da isev ilias da mis werilebs mivubrundeT. “yvelas gmirobas ver moTxov”-o naTqvamia da marTalicaa.1625 wels samcxis ukanaskneli aTabagi manuCari sakuTarma biZam-beqam mowamla da rjulic Seicvala. aqedan airia samcxeSi yvelaferi vinaidan Tavad-azanaurebi da glexebi ganudgnen mas da qarTlSi gadaixvewnen,zogs beqam ZaldatanebiT miaRebina mahmadianoba,zogs motyuebiT da ase daeca nel- nela samcxis dideba,xalxi umoZRvrod darCa,ganadgurebulni da
  • 8. sasowarkveTilni.iqidan moyolebuli gawyda Zafebi,iqaur mosaxleobasTan, gaucxovdnen. Mmagram istoria xom darCa,sanukvari da saTayvanebeli. yvelaferi rom daviviwyoT erTi genialuri poeti gvyavs,erTi rusTaveli,erTi siamaye, romelic sworedac rom mesxeTis rusTavidan iyo da am mxaris Svili iyo. swored samcxe-saaTabago iyo is adgili, saidanac kultura, ganaTleba,modioda, sadac erT dros yvaoda yvelaferi, Cveni yofili cxovreba iq ayvavebula Cvens cxovrebas iq uCqefnia, Cveni sulis Zlierebas iq aRumarTavs Tavisi saxelganTqmuli droSa, TiTqmis igia Cveni sulis aRmatebulebis akvani da igivea samarecCvenis yofilis adamianobisa.swavla,ganaTleba,mamulisTvis Tavgametebuli siyvaruli,TiTqmis iqidan efineboda Cvens qveyanasa erT dros.”(11)gver samwuxarod uqmad Caiara bagratis,Tamaris,daviTis Rvawlma, erTiani saqarTvelosTvis da qristeanobisaTvis. ilia werilis dasasruls imeds ar kargavs rom isev saqarTvelos nawili iqneba diadi samcxe.marTalia sarwmunoebaTa sxvadasxvaobaa,magram qristenebi yovelTvis didi pativiscemiT epyrobian sxva sarwmunoebis xalxs, da amitom ilias sarwmunoebis sxva-da-sxvaobis SiSi ar aqvs vinaidan saqarTvelos istoriSi ar yofila SemTxveva,rom qarTvels vinmes sarwmunoeba daeCagros an ganedevnos. “ar gvaSinebs meTqi is garemoeba,rom Cvens Zmebs osmalos saqarTveloSi mcxovrebTa,dRes mahmadianis sarwmunoeba uWiravT,oRond movides kvlav is bednieri dRe,rom Cven erTmaneTs kidev SevuerTdeT,erTmaneTi viZmoT da qarTveli Cvenda sasiqdulod,kvlav daumtkicebs qveyanas,rom igi ar erCis adamianis sisndiss da didi xnis ganSorebul Zmasa Zmuradve SeiTvisebs,Tvis patiosan da lmobiers gulzed Zma Zmuradve miiyrdens TvalSi creml-moreuli qarTveli.”(12)
  • 9. ilia imaSic darwmunebulia,rom Tuki samxreT saqarTvelos SemoerTebas sisxlisRvra daWirda qarTvelebi ukan ar daixeven da daubruneben saqarTvelos im ZirZvel kuTxes,romelic ager ori saukunea saqarTvelos SemadgenlobaSi aRar Sedis. Apublicisturi werilis “osmalos saqarTvelos gamoqveynebidan, 2wlis Semdeg ilia beWdavs, Semdeg publicistur werils, saTauriT“Sinauri mimoxilva”(ianvari). werilebi erTmaneTs Zalian gavs, jer marto imitom rom mxolod saqarTvelos Sina sakiTxebze msjelobs ilia da amasTanave, orivegan TiTqmis erTsa da imave problemebze _gamahmadianebul qarTvelebze, maT warsulsa da awmyoze saubrobs. marTalia werils Sinauri momixilva qvia,Tumca ilia qveynis farglebs gareT momxdari ambebiT iwyebs Txrobas,vinaidan gare samyaro mniSvnelovnad gansazRvravs qveynis SigniT arsebul viTarebas. Dda marTlac “berlinis xelSekrulebam Cven erTi didi sikeTe SegvZina da am mxriT .SarSandeli weliwadi CvenTvis friad Rirs-saxsoTvaria; Cveni Zmebi, Cveni sisxlxorci,CvenTan erTad “mebrZoli Savi bedisa” Cveni gmirebis bude, Cvenis uwindelis ganaTlebis da swavlis akvani, Cveni Zveli saqarTvelo, -dRes Cven SemogvierTda da Tu kargad moeqcevian- vis xelTac aw imaTi bedia, CvenTan iqneba kidec samudamod.”(13)wers ilia. ilia samSoblosaTvis Tavdadebul gmirebs mimarTavs Semdegi sityvebiT”Tqven, saca Wiri iyo, pirvelni iyaviT nebiT Tu uneblieT da saca lxini iyo ukanasknelni”es ufro im gmirebs ekuTvnodaT romlebic samcxe-javaxeTisa da aWaris mkvidri iyvnen da bolomde maTi saTayvanebeli samSoblos erTgulni darCnen. ilia gansakuTrbiT xazs usvams imas,rom yvelaze ufro metad aWarlebi Cavardenen cud mdgomareobaSi.vinaidan aqeT rusebi da iqiT
  • 10. osmalebi teritoriis misakuTrebas cdilobdnen da radagnac aravin icoda Tu vis xelSi Cavardeboda teritoria,amitom,xalxi arcerTs adardebda.arc rusebi ufrTxildebodnen da arc TaTrebi. imdenad cud dReSi iyo kintriSis mazra, rom mTavrobam saqveynod gamoacxada,”nametnavad kintriSis mazraa Turme saSinel yofaSi da gaWirvebaSi da rom marTla igi yofa da gaWirveba saSinelia,marto is amtkicebs, rom TiTon mTavrobas saWirod daunaxavs imisi gamocxadeba saWirod”(14) ilia qarTvelbs mouwodebs daxmareba gauwion aWarlebs-sakuTar debsa da Zmebs, xalxs romlebic isev da isev qarTvelebis gamo iyvnen gadakargulni,mouwodebs yvelas, daexmaros ise, rogorc SeuZliaT, zogi fuliT, saWmliT, da zogic tansacmliT. Ees erTgvari movaleobaa TiToeuli qarTvelisaTvis. “amas iTxovs yvelasgan sazogadod kacTmoyvareoba da CvenTvis ki sakuTrad zneobiTi movaleobac Zmisa Zmis winaSe”. igi isev qarTvelebs mimarTavs da eubneba, rom am yovelives gakeTeba sworedac aucilebelia vinaidan yvelam dainaxos, rom ZmaTA siyvaruli qarTvelebs SeuZliaT,rom WirSi gverdiT dadgoma maTvis upirvelesi amocanaa da erTurToba,Zmoba yvelaze mniSvnelovania qarTvelebisaTvis. ilia ise mimarTavs am werilSi qarTvelebs, rom TiTqos maTi imedi aqvs da icis rom qarTvelebi aseT saqmeSi uRalatoebi arin Tumca mainc axsnebs mama- papisgan datovebul andrZs. Zma ZmisTvisa da Savi dRisTvisao” qarTvelebis mTavari amocana maSin, ilias azriT iyo is, rom axlaxan SemoerTebuli aWaris mosaxleobas qarTuli ena Seeswavla da ganaTleba mieRo es iyo uebari wamali imisa, rom aWarlebsa da danarCeni saqarTvelos mosaxleobas Soris damyarebuliyo harmoniuli urTierToba.
  • 11. “akaki wereTelma sTqva da Cvenc vityviT rom amisTvis erTi uebari saxsaria:swavla, codna da mecniereba”.ai wamwymedeli yovlisa uTanxmoebisa,damadginebeli yovlis keTildReobis momfeni RonisZieba!swavla,codna, mecniereba_Ronea imisTana romelsac dRes win veraferi ver aRudgeba:verc muSti,verc xmali, verc jarTa simravle. codna uZleveli faria arsebobisTvis,basri xmalia mogeriebisTvis”(15) ilia yvela publicistur werilsi atarebs im azrs rom adaminisaTis yvelaze mniSvnelovani codna da ganaTlebaa. saWirod CavTvale aq gagvexsenebina daviT guramiSvilis ukvdavi frazebi:Wkua uxmar ars briyvTaTvis Wkva codniT moixmarebis...” “. . . mudam SenTana myofeli,mas gecilebis veravin ar aris gasayofeli”. Yvelaze ufro metad ilia codnis raobas aRwers publicistur werilSi “ra giTxraT? riT gagaxaroT?”igi pirdapir gveubneba,rom omi mZvinvarebs,ogond ara xmliani omi ara, dres xmlebi aRaravis swirdeba,isini Taroze arian Semodebuli da TavianTvis wynarad ganisveneben,omia usisxlo, mSvidobiani, wynari,magram omia da iciT ra qvia am oms?oflis Rvris omi, codnis omi, omi romelmac ar icis buki da naRara.es omi patiosani omia vinaidan Sromis omia da igi patiosani da namusiania.”ubuk-naRarod sTes, ubuk-naRarod mkis.kokisebur Sxapuna niaRvars ki ar gavs, rom mTa da bari Tan waiRos,moRaros da mogragnos,”mdumare wvimisaebr nayofis gamomcemelia”arc rbeva icis,arc Zarcva.es imis bunebaSi ar sweria, Tu TiTon adamianma gesli ulmobeli sixarbisa Sig ar CaawveTa,buneba ar mouwamla,ar mouSxama.”(16) Mmxolod codnisa da ganaTlebis wyalobiT SegviZlia mters gavuwioT winaaRmdegoba, davicvaT sakuTari qveyana da misi saxeli.Tu qarTvelebma
  • 12. es ar SevigneT da gaviTaviseT maSin saqarTvelos “upatrono saydariviT sxvebi daepatronebian”. ianvris Sinaur mimoxilvaSi ilia ZiriTad aqcents swavlasa da codnaze akeTebs, “codna uZleveli faria arsebobisTvis,basri xmalia mogeriebisTvis”.gvaswavlis Tu ra aris codna realurad risi qmna SeuZlia, misi azriT qveynis erTaderTi xsnaa,mcodne da ganaTlebuli eris aRzrda. Tumca svams kiTxvas Tu rogor da ra gziT SeiZleba mcodne mamuliSvilebis aRzrda da am kiTxvas pasuxs Tavad scems, Tumca manmade im droindel viTarebas gvamcnobs Tu ra situacia iyo zogadad saqarTvelos skolebSi. Yyvelaze pirvelad imas usvams xazs, rom mxolod saSualo skolebi arsebobs da ara umaRlesi saswavleblebi.Tumca saSualo saswavleblebic aris molod imaTTvis, vinc SeZlebulia, anu Tavad-aznaurebisTvis. Mmagram Tavad- aznaurebi mxolod mcire nawili iyo qveynis. Qqveynis Zalas da Rones Seadgendnen ubralo adamianebi,romlebsac aranairi saSualeba ar eZleodaT mieRoT ganaTleba.ilia fiqrobs,rom es udidesi Secdomaa mTavrobis mxridan, Tumca sabednierod es Secdoma yvelam dainaxa da aRiara rom es Secdomaa. “marto am ukanasknel dros-yvelam,Tu ar scna,cnobili mainc aRiara,rom eseTi gansakuTrebuli mzrunveloba marto erTis wodebisTvis didi Secdomaa winaSe saerTod xalxis ganaTlebis moTxovnilebisa;rom swavla da ganaTleba ufesvoa iq saca udidesi nawili xalxisa kardaxSulia,moklebulia xalxis saxsarsa.”(17) erTi sasixarulo ambavi is iyo, rom Tavad xalxi fiqrobda skola daemTavrebinaT,xalxi cdilobda TavianTi Tavi gaetanaT, aq rom vaxsene xalxi fiqrobda Tqo,ugulisyurod ar unda Caiaros am sityvebma, vinaidan xalxi-
  • 13. fiqrobda es raTaqmaunda didi progresi iyo,adamianebma bevr rameze daiwyes fiqri da rac yvelae mTavaria isini fiqrobdnen swavla-ganTlebaze.ilias axarebs is faqti rom skolebis gaxsna-daarsebas sistematuri saxe eZleoda. samwuxarod igive ar xdeboda axlad SemoerTebul saqarTvelSi.ilia eWvobda rom SesaZloa Tavad mosaxleobis survili ar iqneboda,skolebi daearsebinaT da meore faqtori iyo is rom,isini sarwmunoebiT mahmadianebi iyvnen.marTalia es religia ar uSlis xels swavlisa da codnis miRebas,magram aris sxva ramec,kerZod:swavlis xalmZrvanelebi Tbilisis guberniaSic xalxi,amitom isini rusebis swavlas “sxva TvaliT” uyurebdnen.sxva TvaliT yurebaSi ilia gulisxmobda imas,rom SesaZloa maT ifiqron an afiqrebinon,rom skolebis saSualebiT Seecdebian “zneobiTi da gonebiTi mxedveloba Secvalon rjulis arsebis SeryvnisTvis” marTalia es sakmaod didi problemaa Tumca ilia,gamosavals iseve rogorc bevr sakiTxSi, aqac xedavs.kerZod mas miaCnia,rom Tuki aWaraSi gaixsneba skolebi,direqtorebad aucileblad unda iyvnen miwveulni qarTuli enis mcodneni,es TbiliSi xom aucilebelia da aWaraSi miT ufro. saWiroa aseve ar daiviwyon,rom dawyebiT saswavleblebSi unda aswavlon bavSvebs is,ris gareSec SeuZlebeli iqneba Semdgomi ganTleba-ganviTareba. “ai amaSia suli da guli pirveldawyebiTi Skolisa... –am-rigad,pirveldawyebiT SkolaSic ki SesaZloa ixeiros yovel im mozardma nergma kacis bunebisam,romelic erTad gamoitans xolme nayofs kaikacobisas,adamianobisas.”(18) qarTulma enam SeZlebisdagvarad isev moikida fexi skolebSi am udides Rvawls ki ilia ukavSirebs gazeT “droebas” da тифлисский вестиик“-s.
  • 14. “eg patara gazeTi “droeba”exlandel naRmis mimtans patara gems magonebs,,romelic exlaxan moigones da romelmac imdeni vai-vaglaxi daayara zorba xomaldebs warsul omebSi”(19) rogorc Cans 1878wels gamarTula soflis skolebis maswavlebelTa kreba,sadac erTxmad aRiares,rom qarTuli ena iqneboda Ziri, fesvi dawyebiT klasebSi da rom yvela sagans,romelsac gaivlidnen moswavleebi pirvelidan meoTxe klasamde,iswavlidnen qarTul enaze. ra Tqma unda moswavleebi iswavlidnen rusul enasc,magram is iqneboda ara rogorc saxsari yvelafrisa, aramded rogorc erTi Cveulebrivi sagani,romelis swavlac mxolod mesame klasidan iqneboda SesaZlebeli.skolebSi moswavleebi iswavlidnen aseve religias,ariTmetikas,istorias,geografias. ra Tqma unda patar-patara xarvezebi arsebobda,magram am xarvezebs advilad moereodnen,mTavaria WeSmariti survili yofiliyo ganaTlebis dauflebisa. am werilis gamoqveynebodan erTi Tvis Semdeg ilia axal werils aqveynebs, igive saTauriT “Sinauri mimoxiva” da raoden samwuxaroc ar unda iyos,TiTqmis igive problemebiT.ianvris werilisgan gansxvavebiT aq ufro dawvrilebiTaa ganxiluli aWaris problemebi. “aWara da qobuleTi-kintriSis mazra gaWirvebulia.-Svela Cveni zneobiTi movaleobaa.-aWarlebis gadasaxlebis xma.-raT?da risTvis?-rogor unda moevloT da rogor mouares-mTavrobas riT icnobs xalxxi- administracia.-arsebiTi nakli administraciisa.-uenoba da siyrue-ar icnobs da ara icnoben.- cxovreba, kanoni da Sua carielia.-kanonmdebloba oTx kedels Sua.-vneba amis gamo.- kidev qarTuli da aqauri enebi.-qarTuli scena.-ra aris scena sazogadod da ra unda iyos CvenTvis sakuTriv.”(20)rogorc vxedavT iliam werilis dasawyisSive warmoaCina
  • 15. problema. Uuenoba da siyrue.. ueonobis gamo gamowveulia Sesabamisad siyruec.Zalian Znelia iyos qveynis nawili is kuTxe,romelsac ar esmis Seni da Sesabamisad arc Sen gesmis misi. aWaris kuTxesa da sxva saqarTvelos Soris didi xidi iyo gadebuli,didi ufskruli moCanda da male unda amoevsoT es ufskruli, Torem saqme gaTavebuli iqneboda da faqtiurad sul davkargavT im xalxs,romelic didi gaWirvebis da Semdeg kvlav CvenTan arian, amitom qarTvelebi valdebuli iyvnen yvelanairi piroba SeeqmnaT maTTvis rom Tavi srulyofil qarTvelad da saqarTvelos moqalaqed egrZnod. erTi wuTiT ar unda miscen qarTvelebma imis fiqri, rom adgnen miatovon TavianTi mamul- dedulebi da sxvagan gadaixvewon. im SsemTxvevaSi toveben adaminebi yvelafers rac maTTvis Zalian Zvirfasia, rac Zalian uyvarT, risTvisac amden tanjvas uZleben, roca arCevanis winaSe dgebian an sikvdili an iq soicocxleo. Aamgvar saqciels unda avaridoT aWarlebi. ilia erT umniSvnelovanes detals usvams xazs, romelic damafiqrebeli iyo maSinac, damafiqrebelia dResac da momavalSic. “Rirseba da sikeTe romelime mTavrobisa, xalxisgan cnobili da aRiarebuli,sTesavs xalxSi im siyvaruls Tesls, romelic metad sanatreli unda iyos cnobierad momarTul da mimarTul saxelmwifosaTvis. Da marto es siyvarulia saTaved yovel imisa, rac ki Seadgens saxelmwifos Zalasa da Rones, imitom, rom marto siyvaruliT aRsavse xalxia saimedo yovels gansacdelSi, rac ki saxelmwifos istoriis gzazed SeemTxveva xolme, marto siyvaruliT gulgamTbar xalxs SeuZlian sicocxlisa da qonebis gawirva saxelmwifo keTildReobisTvis.”(21)Teber. am sityvebze unda izrdebodnen qarTvelebi aw da maradis. vinaidan dRes XXI saukuneSi qarTvelebs yvelaze ufro samSoblos siyvaruli akliaT, yvela
  • 16. sakuTar Tavze fiqrobs da aravis ki azrad ar mosdis, rom mxolod sakuTar Tavze fiqriT qveyana ar aSendeba, da rom maTviisac Zalze saziano iqneba. ilias azriT,roca saxelmwifos moxeleebi im erovnebisa ar arian romeli erovnebac unda marTon, an is ena ar ician romelic im qveynis erovnuli enaa,aseT SemTxvevaSi verc xalxi gaugebs moxeelebs da verc isini gaugeben xalxs. aWaris mimoxilvis dros igi saWirod miiCnevs aRniSnos is faqti, Tu ra mdgomareobaSia zogadad saqarTvelo im mxriv, rom yvelaze utyuri makavSirebeli xalxTan-ena, qarTuli ena moispo, da nel-nela sxva enebi anacvleben mas. ilia moxeleTA amorCevaSi pirvel adgils enis codnas miakuTvnebs imitom rom uamisod amaoa mTavrobis cda xalxis gulis mosagebad.igi iSveliebs evropuli qveynebis kanonsac, sadac weria, rom Tu moxelem im qveynis ena ar icis, romlis marTvac surs, arafris didebiT ar miscemen uflebas qveynis marTvisa.saqarTveloSi ki sul sxva situaciaa, moxeleebma arc ician qarTuli, arc survili aqvT swavlis da mTel rig RonisZiebebs atareben,rom qarTuli ena Zir-fesvianad amoZirkvon. qveynis mmarTvels, enis codnasTan erTad unda axasiaTebdes “Wkuisa da zneobis simaRle” unda icnobdes da esmodes xalxis, maTi tkivilisa da gaWirvebis,sixarulisa da Cveulebebis.moxele marto mcveli da daraji ki ara mwvrTnelic unda iyos. Samwuxarod ase ar xdeboda maSindel saqarTveloSi da eWvi maq vinmem daitrabaxos aseTi moxeleebi gvyavso dRevandel saqarTveloSi.XIX saukunis saqarTvelos moxeleebi “im juridan amorCeulni arian,romelic sruliad ucnobia xalxisa,misi cxovrebisa,sruliad ucodinari enisa,-amas aucileblad is mosdevs,rom maT xalxisa raferi gaegebaT ra da xalxs
  • 17. kidev amaTi.”(22Teber) imis magivrad rom moxeleebs ecadaT da eswavlaT qarTuli,piriqiT moiqcnen, cdilobdnen ZirfesvianaT amoeZirkvaT da moespoT igi. amitomPpirveli rac maT gaakeTes, saswavleblebSi akrZales qarTuli ena, amasac ar dasjerdenen da sasuliero Tu saostato skolebSic SeaRwies da gandevnes qarTuli ena. TviT qarTvelebs ar qondaT sxva gza enis Seswavlisa da moxeleze xom laparaki zedmeti iyo. “saWiro dros saWiro kaci gamoCndebao”da marTlac swored 1879wels dim,yifianis,ilia WavWavaZis,iakob gogoebaSvilis da niko cxvedaZis TaosnobiTa da iniciativiT gaCnda da amoqmedda idea “qarTvelTa Soris wera-kiTxvis gamavrcelebeli sazogadoebis”.swored es organizacia iqceva qarTuli progresuli Zalebis semkreb da damrazvel organizaciad reaqciis Zalebis Semotevisgan erovnuli kulturis dasacavad.(22) Tebervlis Sinaur mimoxlivaSi ilia kidev erT mniSvnelovan problemas Seexo.kerZod imas,rom qarTuli enis ar codna mxolod moxeleebis problema ar iyo, uaresic xdboda saqarTveloSi,samwuxarod e.w. qarTuli inteligencia Takilobda qarTulad esaubraT.aRar ismis qarTuli darbaisuli laparaki, is simdidre,romelic qarTul sityvierebas axasiaTebs. “gadagvaviwyda yovelive,rac enis Svenebas Seadgens,radganac Cveni azri, Cvenis eniT aRar moZraobs,Cveni guli Cvenis eniT aRar Tbeba.”(23)81g aseT savalalo da samarcxvino mdgomareobaSi erTaderTi mxsneli scena aRmoCnda,adgili sadac SeeZloT Tavisuflad elaparakaT qarTulad. Aaxda didi survili rom samudamo qarTuli da somxuri scena gaimarTos.somxebi didi
  • 18. gulmodginebiT ekidebodnen am saqmes, scenis momzadebisTvis maT aTasi Tumanic ki mougrovebiT da kidev agrovbdnen.qarTvelebsac ar qondaT gul- xeli dakrefili,droebaSi gamoqveynebula,rom erT-erT qarTvels 300Tumani Seuwiravs qarTuli scenisTvis.ilia imeds ar kargavs,rom yvela Seecdeba SeZlebisdagvarad daexmaros qarTul scenas. Teatri aucilebellia qarTvelebis ganaaTlebisa da ganviTarebisTvis. “amas garda scena igive Skolaa,romelic cxovelis suraTebiT elaparakeba kacis gulsa da Wkuasa, igi am Tavis TvisebebiT kacis gunebazed ufro magrad moqmedebs,vidre sxva rame.am mxriT aris igi kacis grznobisa da Wkuis gamafaqizebeli, gamwmedeli.scena xalxis gamzrdeli unda iyos da amasTan imisTana Semaqcevaric aris,rom ukeTesi mxares adamianisas fexs aadgmevinebs,frTas aSllevinebs.”82gv(24) ilia scenis daniSnulebad or rames miiCnevs:pirveli is rom scena unda iyos Wkua-gonebis ganmanaTlebeli da mwvrTneli da meore is unda iyo adgili sadac SesaZlebeli iqneba Cvenma saTayvanebelma qarTulma enam frTa gaSalos da fexze wamodges. qarTul scenas meTaurobda dauRalavi qarTveli moRvawe dimitri yifiani.ilias azriT masze ukeTesad veravin gauZRveboda am saqmes. “man Zalian kargad icis, ra Zvirfasi ram aris xalxisTvis scena,roca igi am or zemoaRniSnul sagans emsaxureba.TviTon im TxzulbaTA amorCeva,romelTAc d.yifiani stargmnis xolme,cxadad gvimtkicebs,rom mas scena miaCnia im did Skolad saca ostatad mowveulni unda iyvnen, imisTana saxelovani kacni,rogorc Seqspiri da molieri da sxva mravali maTi mimdevari gamoCenili mwerali.”(82gv.25) “80-wlebSi qarTuli Teatri gadaiqca erovnul tribunad.Cveni inteligenciis korifeebi erT-erT dasayrdens erovnuli kulturis dacvisTvis brZolaSi saTeatro muSaobas xedavdnen.amiT
  • 19. aixsneba TviT ilia WavWavaZisa da akaki wereTlis moRvaweoba qarTul TeatrSi.isini Taosnobdnen qarTul dramatul sazogadoebas,magram Teatris arseboba da misi warmateba mxolod scenis ostatebs SeeZloT uzrunvelyoT.80-iani wlebis dasawyisSi gamoCndnen scenis ubadlo ostatebi- vaso abaSiZe, lado mesxiSvili,val.gunia, nato gabunia, mako safarova-abaSiZe,romlebmac Seqmnes namdvili qarTuli Teatri.”(351gv.26) sayuradReboa is faqtic rom kapitalisturi urTierToba,saqalaqo cxovreba gamoxatulebas poulobs am dros qarTul scenaze. TeatrSi ZiriTadi aqcentebi keTdeboda iseT nawarmoebebze, sadac gamoxatuli iqneboda saqarTvelos istoriuli warsuli. 1882 wels,zamTris sezonSi, TbilisSi qarTul TeatrSi kote yifianis,kote mesxisa da el.mesxiSvilis monawileobiT daidga daviT eristavis piesa “samSoblo”,romelic exeba brZolas dampyroblis Sah-abasis winaaRmdeg,samSoblos Tavisuflebisa da politikuri damoukideblobisaTvis. roca scenaze aRimarTa erovnuli droSa,romlis winaSe Tavdadebul brZolas gmirebi ficiT aRTqvamdnen,mTeli Teatri fexze wamodga, aRtacebuli xalxi taSs ukravda erovnuli Tavisuflebis simbolos.aqa iq qviTini gaisma(352gv.27.klde) Tuki gadavxedavT 1871 wels Jurnal mnaTobSi dabeWdil Sinaur mimoxilvas,romlis avtoricaa kuxeli, davinaxavT,rom 80ian wlebSi bevrad ufro aqtiuri da Tavisufalia Teatri vidre 70-ian wlebSi. sazogadoebas naklebad aRelvebda Teatris bedi,isini ar fiqrobdnen Tu raoden didi roli akisria Teatrs adamianebis cxovrebaSi.amas isic emateboda rom voroncovis gardacvalebis Semdeg qalebi eridebodnen scenaze gamosvlas amitom msaxiobebi iZulebulebi iyvnen somexi artistebi eqiravebinaT. “Cveni Teatris mdgomareoba,rogorc uwyi
  • 20. mkiTxvelo, sazogadod Zalian uxeiroa. .. es garemoeba imias amtkicebs, rom Cvens sazogadoebas friad mcire yuradReba aqvs mipyrobili Tavis Teatrzed.(29gv28) Aam scenis moyvareebma am ukanasknel erT weliwadSi rva Sinauri qarTuli warmodgena moaxdines moTamaSeT da mayurebelT erTmaneTSi fsonis gamoRebiT.amgvari scena aris scena mcire wlovaneba, siyrme da amitom ar SeiZleba ar gvakvirvebdes da gvaocebdes is garemoeba rom Cveni Teatri,uwindel dros gadarbaisleburi da sazogado saxalxod gamosuli,sazogdoebis samoZRvreblad da Sesaqcevad, am Jamad, imis naclad,rom ufro warmatebaSi Sesuliyo,ise dapataravda dadamcirda,rom Tavis simciris gamo Signi-Sigan imaleba, matantalobs da aqa-iq samadlod afarebs Tavs.(29gvkuxeli29) “Sinauri mimoxilvis” Tebervlis werilis ilia optimisturad amTavrebs vinaidan erTi sasixarulo ambavi qarTuli Teatris amoqmedeba da winsvla daiwyo. rac Seexeba ivlisi-agvistos Sinaur mimoxilvebs aq ilia axal problemze saubrobs,kerZod Jurnalistebze,romelTac mza-mzareuli uyvarT yvelaferi da ar undaT tvinis ganZreva,yvela imaze fiqrobs Tu rogor da visgan gadaiweros raime.Sinaur saqmeSi ki gadawera da sxvisi azrebis misakuTreba aravis gamouva,vinaidan es iseTi sakiTxia,rom aucilebelia mxolod sakuTari azris qona. “Sinauri saqme iseTi sagania,romlisTvisac jer xeli aravis uxlia,romelzedac araviTArs msjelobas,araviTars mosazrebas,aravitars daskvnas sxva qveynebis literaturaSi ver inaxulebT pirdapir da moWriT.romelzedac maSasadame gindaT Tu ara Tqveni azri unda iqonioT da romelic Tqvenis sakuTari zomiT unda gazomoT,Tqvenis sakuTaris WkuiT unda gaanaToT”(ivlisi ag30) ilia Seqspiris sityvebs iSveliebs “araraisgan ar iqnebis araraica” da ganmartavs,rom Tuki tvini dabadebidanve ar aris SeCveuli msjelobas verafers ityvis,sakutari azri ar eqneba da yovelTvis sxvaze damokidebuli
  • 21. iqneba.SeiZleba im momentSi aseTi adamiani sasowarkveTas mieces magram samwuxarod ara didi xniT,maleve daiviwyebs am ambavs da ar Seecdeba,rom raime gamoasworos.saocrad aRwera iliam adamianis tvini da goneba “tvinis sadgurSi erTi mivardnili kunWulia,saca erTi brma niWi adaminisa binadrobs.is niWi tvirTTa-mzidvel saxedariviT yovelTvis morCilia,qvevris Tviseba aqvs:rac erTxel CagiZaxia imas yovelTvis amoiZaxebs da saxelad qvian mexsiereba”(31) Tumca ilia Sesandobrad Tvlis “Jurnalistebis siRaribes” vinaidan iseT qveyanaSi cxovroben sadac qveyana “xavs mokidebul gubes gavs” ilia cxovrebas zurg-gadaRletil da davardnil pirutyvs adarebs,romelic kuTxeSi gdia da imiT irCens sicocxles,rom mxolod icoxneba.”Tu droTa brunva wixls daaWers, maSin moZraobasac iCens,magram mxolod miT,rom erTi yrud daibRavlebs,erTi gverdidam meoreze fxanviT gadabrundeba da isev uwindebulad TvlemiT da arxeinaT coxnas moyveba,miTam araferi arc etkinao arc ezianao”(84gv.32)ilia am sitvebiT xalxs mimarTavda da gamofxizlebisaken mouwodebda.isini ki ar cxovrobdnen, armed arsebobdnen, maT ar SeeZloT daefiqsirebinaT sakuTari azri,gamoexataT sakuTari protesti,ar qondaT winaaRmdegobis gawevis unari.aseT sazogadoebaSi bunebrivia gauWirdebaT Jurnalistebs muSaoba.es iyo cocxal-mkvdari qveyana da dadumebuli myinvarwveri. Semdegi problema romelzec ilia am werilSi saubrobs,momaval Taobas da maT swavla-ganaTlebas. Aagvistos Tvis miwuruls saganmanaTleblo saswavleblebis karebTan 1500-ze meti ymawvili idga,maTgan mxolod orasma Sedga codnis taZarSi fexi. ilia ar uSvebs im azrs,rom yovelwliurad amdeni ymawvili darCes saswavleblis
  • 22. miRma. samxedro gimnaziaSi abarebda ufro meti raodenobis bavSvi,magram samwuxarod iqidanac mravli dabrunda saxlSi xelmocaruli,vinaidan vakansiebi ar yofila. “kavkasiis mxedrobisaA mimarT gancxadebSi#48 moxseniebulia,rom saxelmwifo xarjiT wels unda miRebuliyvnen ocni, ded-mamis xarjiT xuTni,da ise Sinidam mosiaruled cxra,-sul ocdaToTxmeti ymawvili.am saxiT gamodis,rom samxedro gimnaziis pansiomSi darComilia eqvsi vakansia,sami saxelmwifos xarjzed da sami ded-mamis xarjzed da danarCen ocdarva vakansiidam cameti Cveneburebs dauWeriaT da xuTmeti rusebs”(33)aqdan gamomdinare darCenili iyo eqvsi vakansia,romelsac vin Seavsebda aravin icoda.ra Tqma unda eqvsi vakansia zRvaSi wveTia,imasTan SedarebiT ramdeni Cabarebis msurvelic aris,magram sainteresoa vis Seunaxes es eqvsi adgili.amasTanave unda aRiniSnos isic,rom ruseTis samxedro gimnaziaSi qarTvelebs aRar iRebdnen,radgan saqarTveloSi arsebobda.saboloo jamSi bevris mdomel qarTvelebs cotac ki daekargaT. Amitomac ilia mouwodebs qarTvelebs Tavad daarson saswavleblebi, es ki SesaZlebeli iqneba Tuki qarTvelebi erTmaneTs mxarSi amoudgebian,erTad gaiReben Rvawlsa da Sromas. “Tu Tqvenis SvilebisTvis marTla sikeTe gindaT,-Tu gindaT rom Tqvenma qveyanam Tqveni saxeli locviT da kurTxeviT moixsenios,am azris aRsasruleblad nuras dazogavT,nuras daiSurebT.nu SeuSindebiT imas,rom gimnazias didi gaZRola unda ese igi didi fuli da xarji.TviToeulma rom cot-cota gamoviRoT,yvelasgan erTad sakmarisi fuli Sedgeba,natqvamia;zRvac wveTisgan Sedgebao”(85gv34)marto am sityvebiT rom vmsjeloT iliaze,davinaxavT ra didebuli adaminia,rogori patrioti sakuTari qveynis,rogori mosiyvarule sakuTari momavlis.naTlad Cans am sityvebSi wadili saswavleblis daarsebis da momavlis gadarCenis.
  • 23. im periodSi Sedga e.w komisia ymawvilebis aRzrda-ganaTlebasTan dakavSirebiT, romelTac daevalaT saswavleblis wesdebis Sedgena.Tumca rogorc ilia ambobs “saqme imiT gaTavda riTac SCedrinisa ar iyos-yovelive saqme Tavdeba xolme ruseTSi ese igi amoirCies komisia da miandes aramc Tu marto wesdebis Sedgena,aramed Cvenis survilis saganic gansazRvreTo Cveulebisamebr-Cveuleba xom rjulze umtkicesia,rogorc mogexsenebaT komisiis kalTaSi CaiZinebs es saqme “Rrma ZiliT” ase rom zarbazniTac rom miadgeT bolos iqneba verc ki gamoaRviZoT.”(35) ilias Zalian Sestkiva guli imis Taobaze,rom iseTi saqme rogric upatrono axalgazrdebis swavla-ganaTlebaa ugulisyurod datoves da saqme bolomde ar miiyvanes. Ffaqtiurad masxrad igdebs xalxs mTavroba da arafris gakeTebis saSualebas ar aZlevs. Aamrigad ilia publicisturi werilebis am ciklSi saubrobs yvela im problemaze,rac ki arsebobda im droindel saqarTveloSi. osmalos saqarTvelosa da aWaraSi mimdinare movlenebze,enis ar codnasa da saswavleblebis uqonlobaze, xelisuflebaze maT TviTnebobaze, yvelaferze rac ki xdeboda saqarTvelos SigniT. marTali ilia1886 wels “iveriaSi’ werda, “Cvens gazeTSi Sinauri saqmeebis Sesaxeb mimoxilva ar ibeWdeba, imitom rom unda swero muxas vaSli asxiao rac arc saweradaa sasiamovno da arc sasmenad, mTel agebulebas TiTqos sidable damarTia” “iveria”1886weli #15. Mmagram miuxedavad amisa ilia SeZlebisdagvarad mainc werda rac awuxebda,cdilobda sakuTari xalxisTvis xma miewvdina gazeTis furclebidan,sul imis cdaSi iyo xalxi gamoefxizlebina.
  • 24. Ddasasruls, SeuZlebelia gverdi avuaroT wrils “vis naTessa vmkiT” vinaidan es werili faqtobrivad jamia zemoT xsenebuli sami werilisa(Sinauri mimoxilvebi-ianvari,Tebervali,ivlisi-agvisto).ilias mxolod werilebi ki ar unda wavikiTxoT erTxel da orjer aramed misi TiToeuli sityva,arsi striqonebs Sua unda veZeboT,vinaidan masSi didi filosofiaa Caqsovili. “ai moswyda kidev erTi weliwadi awmyosa da mierTo im veSapsa,romelsac warsuls eZaxian da romelsac amodena dro da Jami gadauylapavs da mounelebia.wavida Zveli weliwadi da movida axali.romeli erTi mogilocoT mkiTxvelo Zvelis wasvla Tu axlis mosvla? adamianTa cxovreba sazogadod da Cveni sakuTriv,rom rigianad agebuli iyos, da TavisTavad mimavali, Zvels unda raime sikeTe daeTesa,rom axals exeirebina,radganac wesierad mowyobil cxovrebaSi dRevandeli dRe Svilia guSindeis da dedaa xvalisa.”(vis naTessa mkis820gv.36) Aai kidev ratom vfiqrob rom es werili aris winamdebare samis analizi. “Tumca ase gagvicrua guliaTasma magaliTebma,bevrma unayofod Cavlilma da movlenilma weliwadma,magram simarTle gvaiZulebs vTqvaT,rom es ukanaskneli oTxi-xuTi weliwadi rogorRac cotad Tu bevrad sanugeSo iyvnen.nametnavad es Zveli1879mweli RirsSesaniSnavi weliwadi iyo CvenTvis da qarTvelma mematianem rom am weliwads mxari auqcios,ar unda epativos. Aam weliwadma cxadis magaliTebiT dagvimtkica,rom qarTvelobam aqamdis erTmaneTzed daSorebulma,aqamdis cal-calke moarulma,igrZno,rom egret yofna mwvadsac wvavs da Samfursaca,TviToeuls kacsac avnebs sa mTel sazogadoebasac.igrZno es tkivili da malamoc upova.igrZno.rom Rone erTobaSia,erT Tav-moyraSi,erTad sarTo uRelis wevaSi,erTmaneTis mxaris micemaSi.”( sami umniSvnelovanesi faqti moxda 1879 wels:gaixsna TbilisSi qarTuli skola,sadac aswavlidnen iakob gogebaSvilis deda-enas, daarsda wera- kiTxvis gamavrcelebeli sazogadoeba da mesame Sesdga qarTuli Teatris dasi.
  • 25. Dda sabolood minda vTqva,rom iliasTvis marTlac umniSvnelovanesia misi ukvdavi fraza “mamuli, ena, sarwmunoeba”. Mmisi dawerili publicisturi werilebi Zalian ergeba dRevandel realobas, TiTqmis igive problemebia dResac, rac erTi saukunis win iyo. saWiroa qarTvelebi skolis periodSi swavlobdnen ilias aramarto nawarmoebebs aramed werilebsac, vinaidan iswavlon fiqri, Semdeg am fiqris saSualebiT cxovrebazec ifiqron,gaigon ra aris codna da Sromis,usisxlo omi,icodnen sakuTari qveynis istoria,rom Semdeg srulyofil pirovnebebad Camoyalibdnen. samwuxaroa,rom ilias ase Tu ise, SedarebiT ukeT sxvebisgan,is axalgazrdebi icnoben,romelTac spaecialobad Jurnalistika aqvT amorCeuli, arada ilia da mis nawarmoebebi xom yvelasia, marto qarTvelis ki ara, igi mTeli msofliosia. da bolos mindoda gansxvavebebi mepovna dRevandelsa da ilias droindel saqarTvelos Soris da samwuxarod saukunuze meti gavida da TiTqmis isev im doneze varT,isev myinvars vxedav dRevandelobaSi, umoZraobas,sicives. vai rom aravin gvyavs ilianairi dRes, rom dagvarigos,gvanugeSos gviSvelos,xalxi gamoafxizlos. D Ddid xans vfiqrobdi sad damesva wertili Cem referatze, mere imas vfiqrobdi wertili unda damesva Tu Zaxilis niSani ,magram wina or abzacs,rom gadavxede, mivxvdi rom unda “gameZarcva” ilia da meTqva TqvenTvis aba sxva “ra giTxraT?riT gagaxaroT?
  • 26. Ggamoyenebuli literatura: 1.saqarTvelos istoria(XIX saukene).abel kikviZe,gamomcemloba Tbilisi1954.gverdebi(351,352,353)
  • 27. 2.ekaterine gabaSvilis mogoneba “klde”#7 1913w. 3.qarTuli emigrantuli Jurnalistikis istoria tomi pirveli. guram SaraZe.gamomc.Tbilisi 2001.(gverdebi IX;XI) 4.ilia WavWavaZe Txzulebani gamomcemloba sabWoTa saqarTvelo 1780w.(viis naTessa vmkiT? gverdebi 821,822,823) 5.ilia WavWavaZe tomiIV publicisturi werilebi,gamomc.sabWoTa saqarTvelo Tbilisi 1987w. (“osmalos saqarTvelo”, “ra giTxraT?riT gaagaxaroT?gv.176-177) 6.iv.javaxiSvili tomi. 1. II saqarTvelos gaerTianeba, gamomc.mecniereba,Tbilisi 1983weli.(gverdi124); 2.saqarTvelos mdgomareobaVIII-Xss.(gverdi 111) 3.saqarTvelos cxovreba da Tavgadasavali Isaukunidan (gverdi 218) 7.qarTveli publicistebi 1. Sinaauri mimoxilva(ianvari-gv.75-78. Tebervaligv.78-82.ivlisi- agvisto.gv.83-87) 2.Sinauri mimoxilva-kuxeli(25-32)