The Goal of thisPresentation is toProvide a Tool to Explain theScientific Method
Scientific Method1. Statement of Purpose or Question: [What do you want to know?]2. Hypothesis: [What do you predict, in the form of an If…, thenstatement]
Scientific Method (cont.)3. Variables: A. Independent Variable [Factor being manipulated] B. Dependent Variable [Factor Which Responds - the one you measure] C. Constants or Controls [Factors that are held constant]
Scientific Method (cont.)4. Standards of Comparison: [Experimental Control]5. Materials and Procedure: A. Materials: [List everything used to complete the experiment] B. Procedures [Step by step Directions - number each step like a recipe]
Scientific Method (cont.)6. Qualitative Observations & Results: [List things that could have been done incorrectly, and write them down during the experimentation.]7. Quantitative Results: A. Raw Data [Record in a table] B. Results [Display data using graphs. Averages or Line of Best-Fit]
Scientific Method (cont.)8. Analysis & Interpretation of Results: [Describe in words the results]9. Possible Experimental Errors: [Give an explanation for each factor noted in step 6 that could have had an affect on the experiment]10. Conclusion: [Include why your results did, or did not, support the Hypothesis]11. Recommendations for further experimentation based on your data & practical applications:
Teaching ExamplesOf the Scientific Method
The Paper Towel withGreat Holding Power1. Statement of Purpose or Question: Which paper towel will hold the most water?2. Hypothesis: When Brawny, Scott and a store brand are tested for absorbency, then … will be proven to hold the mostwater.
3. Variables: A. Independent Variable Brand of paper towel B. Dependent Variable Brand of paper towel C. Constants or Controls Amounts of water added to paper towel Size of the paper towel Process of determining amount of water left Time water is on paper towel Test all three brands around the same time and on the same day
4. Standards of Comparison: Color and size of each brand of paper towel5. Materials and Procedure : A. Materials roll of Brawny, Scott & store brand water Graduated cylinder scissors calculator pan extra paper towels ruler
B. Procedures: 1. Get all materials. 2. Review my directions for experiment. 3. Cut paper towels into 4 cm x 4 cm squares. 4. Lay one square of Bounty paper towel in the e pan. 5. Measure out 10 ml of water and add to paper towel in pan. 6. Let it set for one for one minute. 7. Pick up paper towel with forceps and let the extra water drip out of paper towel until the drops are at least five seconds apart. 8. Pour water in cake pan back into the graduated cylinder and calculate the amount of water the square of paper to held. 9. Repeat steps 5-9 for each paper towel for total of fifty times.
6. Qualitative Observations: Some water was lost when it was returned to the graduated cylinder. Water temperature was hard regulate. During some test the air conditioner was on.7. Quantitative Results: A. Raw Data Paper Towel Brand Table Brawny Scott Store 1 2 3 4 5 Class Avg.
B. Results Paper Towel with Greatest Holding Power 10 9 8 Average Amount of Water Held in mL 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Brawny Scott Store
8. Analysis & Interpretation of Results: [In words describe what was discovered.] 9. Possible Experimental Errors: [Review step 6 and write statements of what you observed.]10.Conclusion: [State whether your hypothesis was correct and Include why your results did, or did not, support the Hypothesis] 11. Recommendations for further experimentation based on your data & practical applications:
ChallengeIn groups of 3-4 students design anexperiment with one of the followingquestions. Which size funnel will sand pour through the fastest? Will the temperature of ice water change if you add salt, or sugar? Will the angle of a ramp have an affect on how far a marble will roll?