What is OpenStack?• Open Source Cloud Software…• A collection of “cloud services”• Each service includes: – A tenant-facing API that exposes logical abstractions for consuming the service. – One or more backend implementations of that API
In the beginning..*-as-a-Service Capability OpenStack Service Compute Nova Swift (Objects) Storage Glance (Images) Network ?
Why Quantum?• Networking was sub-component of Nova• Two Key Problems: #1: Limited technology “baked in” to design. #2: No tenant control of networking.
Problem #1: Technology Limitations• Cloud stresses networks like never before: – High-density multi-tenancy, massive scale – Strict uptime requirements. – Integrate with legacy hosting environments / remote data centers. – VM mobility• Nova provides only basic technologies: Who needs private networks? – VLANs are only option for multitenancy – Linux Bridge only Trunking all VLANs – “network controller” node is centralized is a great idea! single-point of failure for large networks. - Stone Age Man
Why Quantum? #1: Leveraging Advanced Technologies• New networking technologies are emerging to try and tackle these challenges. – Software-defined Networking (SDN) / OpenFlow – Overlay tunneling: VXLAN, NVGRE, STT – Fabric solutions: FabricPath, Qfabric, etc. – [ insert other solution here ]• Quantum provides a “plugin” mechanism to enable different technologies implement calls made via the Quantum API.• Choice is a good thing!
Problem #2: No Tenant Control• Cloud tenants want to replicate rich enterprise network topologies: – Ability to create “multi-tier” networks (e.g., web tier, app tier, db tier) – Control over IP addressing. – Ability to insert and configure your own services (e.g., firewall, IPS) – VPN/Bridge to remote physical hosting or customer premises (“cloudbursting”). “You can have any color as long as its black.“• Nova provides no tenant control: - Henry Ford about the Model-T – No way to control topology. – Cloud assigns IP prefixes + addresses. – No generic service insertion.
Why Quantum? Reason #2 On-demand Enterprise-Class Networking• Tenants can: – create multiple private networks – control IP addressing (bring your own!).• Quantum API extensions enable additional control: – Security, Quality-of-Service, Monitoring + Troubleshooting.• “Advanced Network Services” – Routers, Firewalls, VPN, IDS, etc.
Finally, Network-as-a-Service!*-as-a-Service Capability OpenStack Service Compute Nova Swift (Objects) Storage Glance (Images) Network Quantum
Why Quantum?Quantum enables advanced network “engines”…. that let you leave Amazon VPC in the dust…
Quantum Basics (by analogy to Nova) Nova Quantum*-as-a-service Compute NetworkMajor API abstractions “virtual servers”: represents “virtual networks”: a host with CPU, memory, A basic L2 network segment. disk, and NICs. “virtual ports”: Attachment point for devices connecting to virtual networks.Interactions with other virtual servers use “virtual virtual ports are linked to vNICs onOpenStack services. images” from Glance. “virtual servers”.Supports different “virt-drivers” for KVM, “plugins” for Open vSwitch Ciscoback-end technologies XenServer, Hyper-V, UCS, Linux Bridge, Nicira NVP, Ryu VMWare ESX Controller (and more!).API Extensibility for keypairs, instance rescue, quality-of-service, port statistics,new or back-end volumes, etc. security groups, etc.specific features.
Basic API Abstractions VM1 VM2 virtual serverNova 10.0.0.2 10.0.0.3 virtual interface (VIF) virtual portQuantum Net1 virtual network 10.0.0.0/24 “virtual networks” are fundamentally multi-tenant, just like virtual servers.
Quantum API Extensions• Enables innovation in virtual networking.• Add properties to existing network/port abstractions (e.g., QoS settings on virtual port, port statistics).• Can introduce new API entities (e.g., Security Groups that are linked to ports).
Old Model: Static Nova Networking TenantA-VM1 TenantB-VM1 TenantA-VM2 TenantA-VM3 18.104.22.168 22.214.171.124 126.96.36.199 188.8.131.52 Public Net 184.108.40.206/18 • Single network exists (per-project or global). • VMs automatically get a vNIC on that single network on boot. • Tenants have no control over IP addressing.
Quantum Model: Dynamic Network Creation + Association TenantA-VM2 TenantA-VM3 TenantA-VM1 10.0.0.3 220.127.116.11 10.0.0.2 18.104.22.168 Tenant-A Net1 Tenant-A Net2 10.0.0.0/24 22.214.171.124/24 Public Net126.96.36.199/18 • Tenant can use API to create many networks. • When booting a VM, define which network(s) it should connect to. • Can even plug-in instances from other services (e.g., a load-balancing service).
Quantum “Plugins”• “Plugin” model give cloud operators choices: – Advanced Features (exposed as API extensions) – Cost / open vs. propriety – Scale – High Availability – Hypervisor + Network HW Compatibility – Manageability / Polish• Abstract logical API – tenants don’t see underlying technologies – Example: VLANs vs. tunneling
Project Status: Essex Cycle• Started at Diablo summit, “incubated” for Essex, “core” in Folsom.• Available at: http://launchpad.net/quantum• http://docs.openstack.org/incubation/openstack-network/admin/content/• Current Capabilities: – v1.1 of the Quantum L2 API, with extension support. – API client library and CLI – Nova Integration via the QuantumManager (DHCP, L3/NAT) – Plugin framework & several publicly available plugins: • Open vSwitch Plugin • Cisco UCS/Nexus Plugin • Linux Bridge Plugin • Nicira Network Virtualization Platform (NVP) • Ryu OpenFlow Controller – Integrated with “devstack” (see: http://wiki.openstack.org/QuantumDevstack) – Packaging for Ubuntu 12.04 / Fedora 17 / Debian .
Project Status: Two Deployment Models• Admin-facing Quantum (available now): – Cloud admin must define networks with nova-manage. – Tenant can place VMs on different networks using nova extension (--nic option in nova client). – Allows cloud provider to leverage advanced networking technologies, but doesn’t give tenant’s network control.• Tenant-facing Quantum (Folsom Target): – Tenants can create their own networks, determine their own IP addressing via Quantum API. – Tenants can insert other logical services exposed by service provider (e.g., router, VPN) using extensions.
Project Status: Is Quantum “Ready”?• “Early adopters” already putting OpenStack Quantum into production networking Panel deployments (using Essex). today @ 3:50 in Seacliff AB• Many more are testing it out. Interested in a• Folsom release is target for general demo? Let me know! adoption. Planned to be default networking option.
Folsom Priorities: Tenant Control• Enabling tenant-facing network control. – Keystone Integration – New 2.0 API (with IP address management) – Horizon Integration – Improved CLI
Folsom Priorities: Network Services• Quantum is not just about L2 networks.• Essex already supports simple service insertion as VMs• Enable Quantum APIs for advanced services: – Quantum API extensions to control “service”. – Pluggable back-end implementations.• Achieve “Nova Parity” with L3/NAT + DHCP services: – plugins can eliminates single-point-of-failure and bottlenecks of existing nova-network implementations! – Programmatically build rich L2 + L3 topologies.
Service Example: “virtual NAT router”• API to create/manage “instances” – POST /router/ • Create router, specify NAT/forwarding configuration. – PUT /router/<uuid> • Modify router later. – POST /router/<uuid>/interface • Specify network that this interface is attached to.• On demand creation of rich L2+L3 topologies.
Folsom Priorities: Growing the Quantum Community• Growing Development team• Networking Vendors: – Many planning new plugins.• OpenStack Integrators/Distros: – Get them up to speed on Quantum early. – Improve packaging, install processes.• OpenStack Users/Operators: – Improving documentation, help + support channels. – Let’s work together to stand it up!
Key Takeaways• Enterprise-class OpenStack networking is here: – Leveraging advanced technologies. – Tenant control of networking.• Enable you as a cloud operator to not just copy Amazon VPC, but to innovate beyond that.• Quantum is in production today at early adopters.• Folsom is target for widespread deployment.
Frequently Asked Questions• Is OpenFlow required for Quantum – A: Nope! OpenFlow is just one technology that Quantum enables.• Is Quantum “software-defined networking”? – It depends…• How does Quantum compare to Amazon VPC? – A: Have similar goal of enabling advanced networking in cloud. Quantum will give cloud operators ability to compete with (and go beyond) VPC feature-set.
Plugins: A tiny bit of technical detail…• Define “quantum plugin”: Code that communicates with network devices to implement a particular set of Quantum API calls.• API currently has one set of calls for “base L2” networking => one plugin running at a time.• A plugin is not a “driver”. A single plugin can talk to different types of network devices.• Future: will support multiple plugins that expose different APIs (e.g., “virtual networks” vs. “virtual firewalls”)
Quantum Architecture (simple)API Clients Quantum Server Internal plugin Quantum communication. Uniform API for all clients API Quantum Plugin Tenant Create-net Scripts . Create-net virtual switch Nova Compute . . Horizon Nova Compute . . Nova Compute Create-port Nova Compute Nova . Create-port Interfaces from a service API like Nova plug into a Extensions DB switch manages by the Quantum plugin. API + Plugin = Quantum Service
Quantum Architecture (advanced) ExternalAPI Clients Quantum Server Manager DB Internal plugin Uniform API Quantum communication. for all clients API Quantum Plugin Tenant Create-net Scripts . Create-net virtual switch Nova Compute . . Horizon Nova Compute . . Nova Compute Create-port Nova Compute Nova . Create-port Interfaces from a service API like Nova plug into a Extensions DB switch manages by the Quantum plugin. API + Plugin = Quantum Service
Basic Quantum + Nova API FlowAPI Client Quantum Nova Server Create Network (POST /tenant1/network) Server Network UUID: ‘abc’ Create Server (POST /tenant1/server) Server UUID: ‘def’ Get Server Interface(s) (GET /tenant1/server/def/interface) Server Interface UUID List: * ‘ghi’ + Create Port on Network (POST /tenant1/network/abc/port) Port UUID ‘jkl’ Attach Interface to port (PUT /tenant1/network/abc/port/jkl) , ‘attachment’ : ‘ghi’ - Success
Example Quantum + Nova Architecture Dashboard / Automation Tools Tenant API Tenant APIQuantum Quantum API Nova ServiceService nova-scheduler nova-api Quantum Plugin Internal nova Communication nova-compute vswitch XenServer #1 Internal Plugin Communication Hypervisor
A plugin is not a driver• A plugin registers to handle all Quantum API calls in a “group” (e.g., all network/port calls).• Because Quantum only has one “group” of API calls right now, only one plugin runs at a time (this will change as APIs expand beyond L2).• A single plugin may talk to multiple types of switches (i.e., it may have multiple “drivers”)• “driver” code can be shared across plugins.
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