There are texts from approximately 50 B.C that mentions a game that resembles soccer being played between teams from China and Japan, using a leather ball.The Romans played a game that resembles more of the modern soccer, in the early Olympics games held in Rome it featured a game with twenty seven man on a side that competed vigorously that two thirds of them had to hospitalized after a fifteen minute game.The modern rules of soccer where first drawn up at Cambridge University in 1848 FIFA is the governing body of soccer, its headquarters are located in Zurich, FIFA is accounted for organizing the major soccer tournaments like the World Cup
I plan on using this information to show how soccer is the most popular sport in the world The most important and best leagues are European leagues which have the world best players Millions go to support there teams to stadium and this shows the passion and love they have for the game and how incredible it isThe high number goes to show how soccer has a greater number of supporters than any other sport
I will use this to show how fans support there teams by chants to encourage them to winFans want to cheer as much as they can to there player to they can feel motivated to winAnthems have become important to clubs as they are a symbol Racist chants are banned after many players compliments of being mock because of there race
I will use this to show how violence has become part of the soccer culture for fans With the amount of passion involve in this beautiful game violence in inedibleGangs form by team supporters have created a lot of violence in recent years Gangs are forms by team supporters who are extremely passionate and loyal to there team, they caused violent acts known's as hooliganism Many deaths have occur to hooliganism and violence
I will use this to show how rivalries really bring out the love and passion of the gameExamples of rivalries; Manchester rivalry, Milan rivalry Derby matches are really important for fans and players, the teams never want to lose a derby matchI derby match can created a lot of attention due to the massive media coverage and because is such an important event Violence are common at derby matches, fans mock and insult each other which leads into fighting and other violent acts
Rivalries play a very important part in the culture of soccer, it brings out the passion people have for the game Derby matches are incredible and are always full of excitement, you never know what will happen in games with such intensity
Boca juniors vs. river plate is one of the biggest rivalries in the world, is consider one of the most colorful rivalriesSince fans bring all different kinds of flags, banner fireworks to support there teams. The game is always fill with tension and the fans never stop Cheering.
Real Madrid vs. Barcelona is one of the biggest games in Europe as both teams have the best players in the worldThe game draws a vast number of audience from around the world, this year the game was so big and important that it was shown in movie theater inSpain
Internazionale vs. Milan is the Milan rivalry as both team are from Milan, they shared the same stadium, the game is played at a very high levelAs both team want to prove there the better Milan team, there has been many incidents in these games including a flare being thrown at Milan's goalkeeper
This game is the biggest game in Peru the two teams have a really big rivalry. The game was fill with nonstop cheering, it was really something special to be part of. This was the first time I ever went to a derby match and I was really astonish with the amount of passion these games have.The stadium was at full capacity with 70,000 screaming fans
This information wil be used to show the evolution that players have taken into becoming celebritiesPlayers make millions of dollars and live extravagance lifestyles that involve living in luxury, parting, get follow by paparazzi The fancy cars, mansions are all acquire by just playing and is making young kids to consider them as heroes and look up to themMany players have model for famous clothing companies and are use for there campaigns
This information will be used to explain how soccer players inspire young kidsYoung kids look up to there favorite players and want to be just like them in everywayKids also are amazed by the amount of fame and publicity players have and they want to live that way toSoccer players inspire young kids who have struggles. A lot of charity work is done to help kids in need, players also visitKids who are living in poor conditions to motivate them and try to help them in any possible way
John Stein was the Scotland manger in the 1981 world cup, during the game against Wales after his team had just equalize the scoreHe suffer a heart attack and die. Scotland secure a place to the second roundIn the 2003 confederations cup, Cameroon player Marc-Vivien Foe collapse on the pitch during a game against Colombia. He had already beenDiagnosed with heart problems, the die a day laterThe most recent death in soccer was of Sevilla player Antonio Puerta he suffered a heart attack during Sevilla first game of the season, he was running back to goal when he collapse, teammates came to help along with medical staff but it was too late
This information will be sued to show to soccer is being compare as a religionThere are many rituals that player and fans perform before matches so it can help them win Just like a religion soccer fans put a lot of passion and love into the game, its an incredible sport that is not like othersFans sing during games to motivate there teams, they try to bring them luck
Millions of people go and watch soccer every weekend, just like religious people The fact that soccer is becoming a treat to other religion just shows you the force it has on people is somethingUnique that cannot be compare with anything else in this worldSome players are consider gods in there countries for what they have achieve.
I will this to show how alcohol consumption has become of the soccer culture for fansAlcohol consumption mainly occur in European countries like England, Germany, Scotland where soccer has a lot of passionFans meet in large numbers the day of the match and go to bars to drink before and after the gamePeople drink to celebrate there team winning or they drink out of angerAlcohol consumption has also increase violence and hooliganism in the soccer culture due to the fact that fans don’t know how to control themeselves
Food and drinks have become part of this amazing culture, there is always the traditional food and drinkIn European countries especially Germany sausages are very popular and it came to a major spotlight in the 2006 world cupHeld in Germany, the people got to see the types of food and drink fans haveIn South America they mainly eat a sandwich call choripan which is basically a sausage sandwich Beer is always present in soccer games and there is even a beer made for a soccer player Diego MaradonaThe sale of food and drinks has help the club increase there income and to have extra money that they an can use
This will be used how racism has been a problem in the soccer cultureSoccer is played all over the world, it breaks boundaries, there are players from so many different ethnicities African players were excluded and look down upon by the European leagues just because of there race and this is not right as no oneShould be discriminated for any reason especially for the way the look or come fromPlayers have been insulted and mock during games. I have seem this while watching a game an African player kept getting insulted by fansThe fans where making monkeys noises and provoking a reaction from the player.FIFA’s campaign has made players and fans aware of this terrible problem that needs to be put to an end, and indeed the campaign has put a stopTo racism in soccer
Children look up to soccer player and sometimes they get to see a negative say and they can learn that this is good, the campaign has help both playersAnd kids to play and live a fair live. The fair play campaign goes beyond the fields, to teach others to respect and care for each otherDiscrimination has being a huge conflict and a hard battle to fight against but the number of case has decrease dramatically
Play fair, a lot of players where cheating during games for example pretending they got foul, hitting other players when the referee wasn’t lookingPlay fair requires courage and honesty it also earn you respect from your opponents After some hard fought games teams couldn’t accept defeat and will start conflict with the opposite teams, the campaign has help for loosing teams toCongratulate the winnersDuring games players would engaged in insults and arguments, respect your opponents helps to enjoy the game more and one should know that withoutYour opponent there wouldn’t be a game so one should respect themDrugs and violence have being putting a negative view on the most popular sport in the world, the campaign has help to say no to drugs and teach young kidsTo stay away from drugs and to treat each other equal
Women has been player soccer as much as men only they didn’t have the same opportunities as men didWomen didn’t have a professionally league. They were being discriminated because of there gender as people thought it wasn't going to be a popular sport The first world cup was held in China in 1991 and it featured only 12 nations, The United States soccer will defeat Norway to win the world cup The world cup attracted many viewer and television networks realize that women soccer had potential to become as popular as men's
The world cup was a huge step in women soccer because it made people realize that it was actually very entertaining and competitive.Investor now wanted to invest in women soccer as they saw a future in it.Today women soccer is very popular, its very competitive, it attracts a lot of viewers.
This will be used to show that although soccer player are role models they are also known for there bad behaviorYoung kids may look up too them because of there skills and try to imitate them, but young kids can also think is alright to imitate thereBad decisions.Some of the top players have had struggles with drugs, cocaine use was common in the 90’s as it gave players more energy and they lasted longerSteroid use is something every sport deals with including soccer. Soccer players are also notorious for partying until late when not allowThis has cause them to be blame for not performing as well during game
This slide will be used to show how corruption is occurring in the soccer cultureMatch fixing has come to the spotlight after heavy investigation was made by FIFA officials Gambling and placing bets has also been occurring and there have been cases where teams receive money in order to lose a gamePlayers have sometimes lost matches on purpose after being bride with money, referees have also been part of this corruption scandal for fixing matches,
The 2005 bundesliga scandal was based on the confession of referee Robert Hoyzer who admitted of fixing matches, is considerThe biggest soccer scandal in Germany. Hoyzer had meeting with gambling syndicates and organize crime who paid him to fixThe matches, Hoyzer was banned from life from any role in football and 29 months in prisonBrazilian League referee Edison Pereira was part of an alleged scheme for manipulating results in the Brazilian league, also was involvedIn gambling organization who paid him to fix matches, they would even settle it in the dressing rooms before the matchThe Serie A scandal was one of the biggest soccer scandals ever it involved 4 of the best soccer teams of Italy, presidents of the club wereRecorded having conversation with officials to give them referees that they knew would be beneficial to them, they achieve this by bribery The 4 teams were relegated to second division as punishment and it had a huge impact on the Italian soccer league
Soccer nowadays has become a business as more investors are getting involve with clubs by investing money or helping the club createA more popular image.Clubs are investing millions in buying highly rated players to bring more popularity to there clubs, this helps the clubs image Billionaires are buying clubs and investing in them and try to create a rich club an example is English Club Manchester City, recently bought by billionairesBecome one of the richest clubs in the world and are buying highly rated players.www.businessweek.comTelevsion stations paid a huge amount of money to clubs in order to cover the matches, the money is used by the clubs to cover some of the expensesBut only the big clubs are the ones benefiting from it as they get more media coverage, unlike lower clubs who are getting less to nothing
Clubs are spending large amount of money in buying players that have high transfer fees and receive high wagesThis has lead to clubs dealing with debt problems and more clubs are now facing with this.FIFA has started to take a measure in this case and wants to put an end to the debt problems many clubs are facingThe will start to punish clubs by not allowing them to buy players during transfer windows until there debt is low enoughMany clubs have express there disagreement to this idea saying the need to buy players in order to compete with bigger clubs
The chart shows the top 25 richest soccer clubs in the world Most of the clubs are from England, Spain and Italy since they have the best leagues and the more wealthiest leagues These 25 top clubs have also the best soccer players and are the most popular teams
The popularity of soccer can bee seem as movies are made to show what soccer is how people live itThere are many different types of soccer movies some are based on a true event, other are pure entertainment but all theMovies show the amount of passion soccer is lived byYoung kids also get inspired from watching films about soccer, it motivates them to do better and to love the sport more
Goal is a movie that’s about every soccer players dream, getting discover by a big club and start playing at a professional levelLiving the dream of fame and money. Its also an inspiration for young players who want to become professional players
Freestyle soccer is consider a way of expressing yourself, artful. The tricks are performed using any part of your bodyAmazing tricks are performed most famous trick include around the world, the crossover, hop the world During the 21 century freestyle soccer become very popular after a Nike campaign advertising this new way of soccer Joga Bonito was the name and there videos very reaching a high number of views on YouTube as more people started to become interestedIn freestyle soccer
Nike started a new campaign called Joga Bonito which is Portuguese for play beautiful, play beautiful by performing tricks With the ball and having fun with it. The campaign was a huge success and the popularity of freestyle increase tremendouslyThe videos featured top players such as brazilian superstar ronaldinho and portugals superstar RonaldoAmateurs freestylers were uploading videos of themselves performing tricks on YouTube as the freestyle craziness exploded Nike videos were getting millions of views and it just create a new way of expressing yourself with a soccer ball
For my application I held a indoor soccer tournament, the location was the Far Post. I played in a indoor league there and I asked if I could do a tournament with the teams of my league, the people who ran the league agree with it and I decided to have on march 28 which was a Sunday. It was 5 v 5 and 20 minutes games. A lot of people showed up with family and friends which created a vibrant atmosphere. Everybody had a good time playing the best sport in the world
The teams where part of the soccer league I was involved. All the teams are mainly Hispanic. Each team had to paid 30 dollars to be in the tournamentUnfortunately the money was used to paid off the referees and for the fields so I couldn’t donate the money. The teams where divided into two groups of 3 and the first placed from each group played the championship game. Zorro's was the winner after defeating arsenal in a interesting game
For my class activity I brought in the 2010 world cup ball the “Jabulani”. The jabulani is a very unique ball, it uses 11 different colors to representThe 11 officials languages of South Africa, the 11 South African communities, it also represents the 11 players on the field. Jabulani means to celebrate. Soccer is a passion that unites the world. For this activity I will like that my classmates write down words that is associated with unity.
Culture of Soccer By Diego Anteparra
Overview Thesis How soccer has establish itself as a culture Research made Application Class activity Conclusion
Thesis Through out my research I have learned that soccer has become more than a sport, it has establish itself as a culture and a way of life.
Reason for Project The reason why I did this project was because I’m very passionate about soccer, its my favorite sport, hobby, pass time. I been playing since I was a little kid and I wanted others to know more about this wonderful sport that has more to offer than just kicking a ball.
Importance to others A lot of people don’t really know much about soccer, its not a popular sport in the US. I want others to see all the great things soccer has to offer, because its more than a sport its something that is extraordinary.
History “Earliest form of soccer can be traced as far back to 1004 B.C” (Goldblatt, David) Romans played a game that resemble modern soccer in there Olympics games The modern rules of soccer where establish in 1848 in England FIFA (Federation International de Football Association) establish 1904 www.athleticsholarships.net
Most Popular Sport in The World Soccer is played professionally all over the world Billions of people watch and millions attend stadiums to support there favorite team “Around half the planet watched the 2006 world cup” (Goldbatt, David) “In a survey made by FIFA over 300 million people play soccer regularly” (Szymanski, Stefan) Its play in over 200 countries
Chants Soccer chants are sang by the teams supporters to encourage there players to win They act as motivation to the players as thousands chant in support Club anthems Some clubs have there own song that acts as a club symbol In recent years the chants have created controversies as some are use to insult players, and some are racist chants These types of chants have been banned by FIFA after many incidents that occur in games www.soccerculture.com
Chants A number of chants are copy from famous pop songs Fans take pop song and change the lyrics Overall chants are a way to have fun at the games and to give needed support to the teams http://www.metacafe.com/watch/927904/boca_juniors_fans/
Hooliganism and Violence They amount of passion that soccer is lived by has caused violence to rise between rival supporters. Soccer gangs The gangs often engaged in fights with rival teams in order to prove who is the best “Hooliganism have been expose by the media to show people the violence in soccer and have caused to create a bad image to the game” (Giulianotti, Richard) www.liv.ac.uk
Rivalries Soccer rivalries are often between teams from the same city Games between rivals are call “Derby Matches” Derby matches are the most important matches for both fans and players The games are played at an intense level and the fans try to support there team as much as they can Rival games has lead to violence between fans www.footbo.com
Rivalries Soccer rivalries bring out the excitement of the game, the passion and love is shown. It’s a very unique experience. (Soccer and Life) On Derby Matches the stadiums are at full capacity, fans chant at the top of there lunges, banners and flags are brought to the stadium and the fans never stop cheering
Boca Juniors vs. River plate Boca Juniors vs. River plate This game is known as “El SuperClasico” Biggest game in South America
Real Madrid vs. Barcelona Real Madrid vs. Barcelona Known as “El DerbiEspanol” The two teams are the most successful teams in the country www.footballderbies.com
Internazionale vs. Milan Internazionale vs. Milan DerbidellaMadonnina The game is fill with tension and excitement www.theroar.com.au
My Derby Experience Last summer experience the Peruvian derby Universitario de Deportes vs. Alianza Lima Biggest rival in Peruvian football 70,000 spectators
Players as celebrities Players have achieved themselves as celebrities by their lifestyles Wealth and fame have made them into more than just players Many are consider heroes by there fans Players have become involve in the fashion scene www.actnow.com.au
Role Models “Soccer players have become role models to young kids who aspire in becoming like them” (Trvizo, Perla) Young kids try to imitate there favorite players playing style Many kids look up to soccer players for the glamorous lifestyle they have Wealth Fame They served as inspiration to kids who have struggling lives www.dailymail.co.uk
Deaths There has been a number of deaths on the fields during soccer games 1981 Scotland national team manager suffer a heart attack During World Cup game In 2003 Cameroon player collapse during a game against Colombia Die a day later In 2007 Sevilla FC player suffered a heart attack Teammates and medical staff rush to aid Other cases of deaths have been cause by lighting www.medicalnewstoday.com
Religion Many consider soccer to have become a type of religion “Players engage in rituals before matches to help them during the match” (Foer, Franklin) The passion and love in which fans show towards the sport Singing and dancing in stadium during games Singing in compare to church www.cultureofsoccer.com
Religion Both soccer and religion attract millions of passionate devotees Many religions have express there concern that soccer is indeed becoming a threat to there religion In Argentina there is an official church dedicated to Diego Maradona Maradona is consider one of the best players ever Some players are consider “gods” to there countries www.soccerculture.com
Alcohol “Football is a fascination of the devil and a twin sister of the drinking system” (Leeds) In many different countries soccer is related to alcohol consumption This is more profound in European countries Drinking usually occurs before and after the games Alcohol consumption has led to violence in the soccer community Raise of Hooliganism www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk
Food and Drinks Traditional food and beverages have become part of the soccer culture Sausages are very popular in European countries when attending stadiums Beer is always present in every game “The sale of food and drinks at stadiums during games have increased clubs income” Clubs are benefiting from the sales www.argentravelespecialistasenargentina.blogspot.com
Racism Soccer is a very diverse sport that has players from many different ethnicities “In earlier years African players were not allow to play in European teams” (Crabbe, Tim) This has then changed and players are no longer discriminated for there race Many players have been insulted during games by both fans and players because of there ethnicity FIFA started a campaign “No to Racism” This has made people aware of racism in soccer The campaign has help to put an end to racism www.le.ac.uk
FIFA Fair Play Campaign “Children need strong values to grow up with and football makes then realize how essential discipline, respect are for the game and for life” (Blatter, Joseph) Program design to promote sportsmanship and put an end to discrimination A lot cases of discrimination It extended beyond football Help charities Young kids www.FIFA.com
FIFA Fair Play Campaign Major principles Play fair Accept defeat Respect your opponent No drugs, violence, racism FIFA gives an award honoring individuals who have demonstrate fair play every year The campaign has help player respect each other www.moorlandschool.co.uk
Female players Females have been playing soccer as long as men “Women soccer although having a huge popularity in the last decade, was always shadow by men’s soccer”(www.soccer-fans-info.com) Women players have suffer discrimination throughout many years First world cup was held in 1991 Draw a lot of interest from from television networks
Birth of Women’s Professional Soccer “For much of the 20th century women soccer had consisted primarily of informational recreational games and intramural college games”(Dave Litterer) After the first world cup women soccer set its landmark as a competitive and entertaining sport Investor were already having ideas of a professionally league for women The Women’s United Soccer Association was founded in 2000 Today women soccer is very popular attracting large crowds and television covered www.homepages.sover.net
Bad Behavior Even though soccer players are consider role models for young kids they have engaged in bad behavior Often outside the pitch Some players have struggle with drug problems Steroid use cocaine Partying late at night Fighting during games At clubs
Corruption Match fixing has been occurring more frequently in soccer Illegal gambling are contributing to corruption Players have been accuse of fixing matches Loosing the game in exchange for an amount of money “Corruption of match officials is probably more shocking than that of the players” (Giulianotti, Richard)
Corruption Scandals 2005 Bundesliga scandal Discovery of 2 million Euro match fixing center on referee Robert Hoyzer Match fixing Brazilian Football match fixing Investors bride referees to fix matches 11 matches were fixed 2006 Serie A Scandal It involved the top teams in Italy Had network connections Accused of rigging games www.mypi.co
Money “Soccer is becoming less then a sport and more of a bussiness” Clubs are investing millions Clubs are being bought by billionaires owners Television stations pay clubs to cover soccer matches Big clubs are highly benefited from it Clubs in lower leagues receive less money
Money Clubs are spending a lot of money and are facing debt problems Buying very expensive players Investing in revenues “These clubs, why are they in debt? Because they paid too high salaries and they spend more money than they have”( Blatter, Sepp) FIFA is starting to punish clubs with high debts Clubs won’t be able to buy players www.belfasttelegraph.co.uk
film “The passion that soccer inspires is so universal that is amazingly crosses boundaries of class, race, religion and belief “(Stehlik, Milos) Soccer is reflected in many different ways Soccer films are made to show the beauty and passion of the sport Inspire young kids Motivation www.chicagopublicradio.org
Music Many different artist have compose songs relate it to soccer Theme song for World Cups Song relate to a specific player Diego Maradona
Ricky Martin compose theme song for 1998 World cup “The Cup of Life”
Puerto Rican rapper Daddy Yankee compose song for 2010 world Cup “Grito Mundial”
El Potro Rodrigo, Argentinean artist Famous song dedicated to Diego Maradona
Freestyle Soccer “Art of expressing yourself” Various tricks are performed Different part of the body Widespread throughout the world Became popular after Nike commercials Joga Bonito www.freestylesoccerra.com http://www.metacafe.com/watch/1439078/jeremy_lynch_amazing_football_freestyle/
Conclusion I really enjoy working on this project, it was a topic that I really enjoyed I hope everybody enjoyed it as well and learned more about this amazing sport I also learned new things
Works Cited Academy at Moorland School. Rules of Fair Play 2006: n. pag. Web. 27 Apr. 2010. <http://www.moorlandschool.co.uk/football/fairplay.htm>. Akita, Alex. "Why Soccer Fans Need Your Love, But Don't Want Your Support." Bleacherreport. N.p., 2009. Web. 10 Nov. 2009. <http://bleacherreport.com/articles/ 275569-soccer-fans-need-your-love-but-dont-want-your-support>. "Blattercriticises over debt levels." Belfasttelegraph. N.p., 2010. Web. 27 Apr. 2010. <http://www.belfasttelegraph.co.uk/breaking-news/sport/soccer/ blatter-criticises-over-debt-levels-14752181.html?r=RSS>. "Derby Della Madonnina." Footballderbies. N.p., 2010. Web. 27 Apr. 2010. <http://www.footballderbies.com/index.php>. Farred, Grant. Long Distance Love: A Passion for Football. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Apr. 2010. FIFA. FIFA. N.p., 2009. Web. 27 Apr. 2010. <http://www.fifa.com>.
Works Cited FIFA. FIFA. N.p., 2009. Web. 27 Apr. 2010. <http://www.fifa.com>. Footbo. "Superclasico." BocaRiver. N.p., 2007. Web. 27 Apr. 2010. <http://bocariver.net>. "Freestyle Soccer Era." Freestylesoccerra. N.p., 2007. Web. 27 Apr. 2010. <http://www.freestylesoccerera.com/Pages/freestyle%20soccer.html>. GGN. "Biggest Football Rivalries." English-fa-Betting. N.p., 2009. Web. 10 Nov. 2009. Giulianotti, Richard, Norman Bonney, and Mike Hepworth. Football, Violence, and Social Identity. New York: n.p., 2005. Google Books. Web. 27 Apr. 2010. <http://books.google.com/books?id=UH3Nj7J1xIIC&printsec=frontcover&dq=football+hooliganism&cd=6&safe=active#v=onepage&q=footba ll%20hooliganism&f=false>.
Works Cited History of Women's Soccer." Soccer-Fans-Info. N.p., 2007. Web. 27 Apr. 2010. <http://www.soccer-fans-info.com/history-of-women-soccer.html>. Kayes, David. CultureOfSoccer. N.p., 2010. Web. 27 Apr. 2010. <http://cultureofsoccer.com/>. Kidane, Fekrou. "The Passion for Football." La84foundation. N.p., 2009. Web. 10 Nov. 2009. <http://www.la84foundation.org/OlympicInformationCenter/OlympicReview/1998/oreXXVI21/ oreXXVI21j.pdf>. Litterer, Dave. Women's Soccer History 2005: n. pag. Web. 27 Apr. 2010. <http://homepages.sover.net/~spectrum/womensoverview.html>. Lyons, John. "History of Football Chants." Docstoc. N.p., 2009. Web. 10 Nov. 2009.
Works Cited Murphy, Patrick, John Williams, and Eric Dunning. Football on Trial: Spectator, Violence and Development in the Football World. London: Routledge, 1990. Google Book Search. Web. 29 Nov. 2009. <http://books.google.co.uk/ books?id=CFIOAAAAQAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=football+subject:%22+Soccer%22#v=onepage&q=&f=false>. MyPi. "Soccer Corruption." MyPi. N.p., 2006. Web. 27 Apr. 2010. <http://www.mypi.co.il/articles/ soccer-corruption/> Nordqvist, Christian. Soccer International, Antonio Puerta, Died After Suffering A Heart Attack 30 Aug. 2007: n. pag. Web. 27 Apr. 2010. <http:/http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/ 81004.php>. "Role Models." Dailymail. N.p., 2010. Web. 27 Apr. 2010. <http://www.dailymail.co.uk>. Scoot, Mark. "Soccer Clubs: Big Money, Growing Woes." BusinessWeek. N.p., 2010. Web. 17 Feb. 2009. "Soccer Team Valuations." Forbes. N.p., 2010. Web. 27 Apr. 2010. <http://www.forbes.com/lists/ 2009/34/soccer-values-09_Soccer-Team-Valuations_Rank.html>.
Works Cited Social Issues Research Centre. "Football Violence in Europe ." Sirc. N.p., 2009. Web. 10 Nov. 2009. <http://www.sirc.org/publik/fvexec.html>. Szymanski, Stefan, and Andrew Zimbalist. "How Soccer Spread Around The World but Baseball Didn't ." National Pastime: How Americans Play Baseball and The Rest of The World Plays Soccer. Harrisonburg: R. R. Donnelley, 1992. 55-81. Google Book Search. Web. 29 Nov. 2009. <http://books.google.com/ books?id=c0vzRdntD0MC&pg=PA80&dq=soccer+fan#v=onepage&q=soccer%20fan&f=false>. Trecker, Jamie. Love and Blood: At The World Cup with the Footballers, Fans, and Freaks. Orlando, Florida: Library of Congress, 2007. Google Books. Web. 27 Apr. 2010. <http://books.google.com/ books?id=wJE2rYRrbgYC&printsec=frontcover&dq=love+and+blood&cd=1&safe=active#v=onepage&q&f=false>. University of Leicester. Racism and Football 2005: n. pag. Web. 27 Apr. 2010. <http:/ http://www.le.ac.uk/so/css/resources/factsheets/fs6.html>.