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Intro to Imperialism
 

Intro to Imperialism

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    Intro to Imperialism Intro to Imperialism Presentation Transcript

    • Introduction to Imperialism: A SPRITE Approach
    • Definition of Imperialism:
      • Process by which one state, with superior military strength and more advanced technology, imposes its control over the land , resources , and population of a less developed region
      • Imperialism, in the context of our studies, runs from the 1880s - 1940s
    • Social
      • Local rivalries/infighting reduced
        • (all equally ‘inferior’ and subjugated by Europeans)
        • Expectations that people accept European ways
    • POLITICAL
      • European countries competing to be most dominant (It’s a global competition!)
      • Berlin Conference (1884): Europeans agreed to carve out African colonies
    • Political
      • European Powers Used One of 4 Approaches:
        • COLONY (Direct Rule) :
          • NO local control
          • Euro. Country sends governor, military, bureaucrats to keep order
          • No intention of respecting or keeping local culture/traditions
          • Most associated with Germany, Portugal, France
    • Political
      • PROTECTORATE (Indirect Rule) :
        • “ Make it look like they’re in charge”
        • European governor “advises” local leaders, military, police carry out European policies
        • Theoretically respects/preserves local culture
        • Associated with British
    • Spheres of Influence / Company Rule
      • Sphere of Influence :
        • Most associated with CHINA
        • Europeans control port cities , only interested in controlling TRADE
      • Company Rule :
        • Corportations given charter (gov’t permission) to control lands as part of company
        • Gov’t gets money in exchange for company charter
        • Gov’t does not need to spend time and money to control land, gets money
        • AKA Joint-Stock Companies , example: India
    • Religious
      • Christian Missionaries are early explorers
        • Teach locals European languages
        • Introduce European medicine, religion, schooling, technology
        • Troubling cultural traditions eradicated (infanticide, etc.)
    • Intellectual
      • “ White Man’s Burden ”
        • Europeans had responsibility to “save” locals from “savage” ways
      • Sense of Adventure:
        • Exploring exotic places = 19th century “extreme” activity
      • Nationalism:
        • Europeans want their country to win!
    • Technological
      • Shipping Shortcuts:
        • Suez Canal (connected Mediterranean to Indian Ocean)
        • Panama Canal (connected Atlantic, Pacific Oceans)
      • Transport Technology:
        • Steamships (allow rivers to go against strong currents)
        • Trains (allow transport of huge amt stuff inland, and to cost)
        • Allow Europeans to fully infiltrate lands, control much more than before (not just coast)
    • Technological
      • Technology:
      • Weaponry (bolt-action rifle, Maxim Gun)
      • Communication (telegraph, telephone)
      • Disease:
      • European Diseases (smallpox)
      • Tropical Diseases (malaria)
    • Economic
      • Industrial Revolution = $$$$
      • Advertisements used “exotic” elements to sell goods.
      • Europeans get:
        • Cheap resources
        • Captive customers
      • Non-Europeans get :
        • Full-time jobs extracting nat. resources for nothing
        • Endless supply of industrial goods to buy
    • Geographic Regions:
      • Africa:
        • Carved up by Berlin Conference
        • Independents: Ethiopia, Liberia
      • India:
        • British Raj (rule)
      • Asia:
        • Carved up by Europeans, but not as extreme as Africa
        • Independent: Thailand
      • Pacific Islands:
        • Access to natural resources (Germany = chemicals)
        • Where America had its colonies (Hawaii, Philippines)
      • Latin America:
        • Unofficially Dominated by U.S.
    • Taking Stock…
      • What elements of Imperialism were positive?
      • What elements of Imperialism were negative?
    • Which Makes the World Look Like This… It was said: “The Sun Never Set on the British Empire.” Why?
    • Part 2: Motives of Imperialism in Pictures
      • Motives of Imperialism:
      • Political/Territorial
      • Intellectual
      • Economic
      • Exploratory/Adventure
      • Religious
      • As you see these images, which apply? Why?
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