Indiaoverview Part12008
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Indiaoverview Part12008

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Indiaoverview Part12008 Indiaoverview Part12008 Presentation Transcript

  • India Overview A Supplement to Gandhi
  • Part 1: Introduction to India
  • Demographics
    • Over 500,000 villages
    • Over 2000 cities
    • India
    • 80% Hindu, 13% Muslim
    • Today: 1.13 billion people
    • Pakistan
    • 90% Muslim, 2% Hindu
    • Today: 168 million people
    • 1920: 300 million
  • Caste System
    • Hindu society was divided into major castes or classes
    • People are born into a caste and upward mobility is next to impossible – people only married within their caste
    • Caste determined job within community
    • Connected to Hindu belief of reincarnation – live well and follow rules, then you will be reborn into a higher caste
  • Major Hindu Castes
    • Brahmins – Priests and scholars
    • Kshatriyas – Warriors
    • Baishyas – Farmers and merchants
    • Shudras – Laborers and serfs
    • Untouchables – People who were below the caste system and completed the most undesirable of jobs
  • British East India Company
    • Became leading commercial power by 1757
    • Exploited Indian indigo, cotton, and tea
    • Ruled India, politically and economically (called raj or "rule")
  • British East India Company
    • Made alliances with different tribes and ethnic groups, employed sepoys (Indian soldiers)
    • Considered the "jewel in the crown" of the British Empire
  • Direct Control
    • 1857 Sepoy Rebellion takes place
    • Started with misunderstanding that new bullets had animal grease on them (sacred to Hindus and unclean to Muslims)
    • British government saw uprising as a sign that Indians could cause more problems in the future and took direct control of government
  • Domination
    • English and Western ideas promoted as elite – including education and dress
    • Restricted domestic industries, forced Indians to purchase British goods
  • Part 2: Indian National Congress
  • Indian National Congress
    • 1885 – Met for the first time to bring more Indians into the British controlled government
    • Over then next thirty years they began to push for home rule and then independence
  • Indian National Congress
    • Party members generally were English educated and did not represent the 350 million Indians who mostly worked in the fields of rural India
    • Many did not separate the Congress members in their minds from the British because they advocated similar ideas (i.e. industrialization), but under Indian rule
  • Part 3: Hindu / Muslim Tensions
  • Map of the Muslim World c.A.D.900
  • Map of the Muslim World c.A.D. 1100
  • Map of the Muslim World c.A.D. 1500
  • Muslim Conquests
    • 711 CE – Muslim invaders take Lower Sind
    • 1200 CE - Delhi Sultanate in Northern India
    • 1500 CE – Mughal Empire established
    • 1750 CE – British East India Company begins control
  • Ongoing Conflict
    • Muslim invasions were bloody conflicts
    • Hindu temples razed, Mosques built in place
    • Violent uprisings by Hindus throughout Muslim rule
    • British used differences to help maintain control
    • Bitterness between the two lead to great violence during the independence process