Water cycle


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Water cycle

  1. 1. Water CycleDominican American Cultural Institute The Water Cycle Name: Dansel Urbaez Mendez Code: 2008-01-1-2107 Teacher: Sean Legere Date: February 15, 2011 1
  2. 2. Water Cycle Index PageCover Page 1Introduction 3Water Cycle 4Water 5States of Water 6Changes in State 7The Cycle 8Concepts of Water Cycle 10 Evaporation 10 Condensation 11 Precipitation 11 Surface Runoff 12 Infiltration 12 Transpiration 13Cloud Formation 14 Cumulonimbus 15 Nimbostartus 15 Cirrocumulus 16 Altostratus 16Conclusion 18Reference Page 19 2
  3. 3. Water Cycle IntroductionNowadays few people know what the water cycle is, it processhas a principal objective wich is to keep the planet withenough water in everywhere.I choose this topyc becouse is one of the processes that ourplanet has and without it can’t work.In the following pages I expect you to learn and understandhow the water cycle process works.In this project I intend to show the differents parts of thewater cycle and every one knows the importance of it.Also I will explain how important are the clouds and how itworks together with the process of water cycle. 3
  4. 4. Water Cycle Water Cycle.The water cycle, also known as the hydrologic cycle or H2O cycle, describes the continuous movement of water on, above and below the surface of the Earth. Water can change states among liquid, vapour, and ice at various places in the water cycle. Although the balance of water on Earth remains fairly constant over time, individual water molecules can come and go, in and out of the atmosphere. The water moves from one reservoir to another, such as from river to ocean, or from the ocean to the atmosphere, by the physical processes of evaporation, condensation, precipitation, infiltration, runoff, and transpiration. In so doing, the water goes through different phases: liquid, solid, and gas.The water cycle also involves the exchange of heat energy,which leads to temperature changes. For instance, in theprocess of evaporation, water takes up energy from thesurroundings and cools the environment. Conversely, in theprocess of condensation, water releases energy to itssurroundings, warming the environment.The water cycle figures significantly in the maintenance oflife and ecosystems on Earth. Even as water in each reservoirplays an important role, the water cycle brings addedsignificance to the presence of water on our planet. Bytransferring water from one reservoir to another, the watercycle purifies water, replenishes the land with freshwater,and transports minerals to different parts of the globe. It isalso involved in reshaping the geological features of theEarth, through such processes as erosion and sedimentation. 4
  5. 5. Water CycleIn addition, as the water cycle involves heat exchange, itexerts an influence on climate as well. WaterWater is an integral part of life on this planet. It is anodorless, tasteless, substance that covers more than three-fourths of the Earths surface. Most of the water on Earth,97% to be exact, is salt water found in the oceans. We cannot drink salt water or use it for crops because of the saltcontent. We can remove salt from ocean water, but theprocess is very expensive. Only about 3% of Earths water is fresh. Two percent of theEarths water (about 66% of all fresh water) is in solid form,found in ice caps and glaciers. Because it is frozen and so faraway, the fresh water in ice caps is not available for use bypeople or plants. That leaves about 1% of all the Earthswater in a form useable to humans and land animals. Thisfresh water is found in lakes, rivers, streams, ponds, and inthe ground. (A small amount of water is found as vapor in theatmosphere.) 5
  6. 6. Water Cycle States of WaterWater exists in three states- solid, liquid, and gaseous.Liquid WaterLiquid water is found in many places. You seeliquid water coming out of the faucet, whenit rains, and running in a river. Pure liquidwater is free of salt, rocks, soil, andgarbage.Solid WaterIce, snow, and frost are examples ofwater in the solid state. Liquid waterfreezes at 0 degrees Celsius. Celsius isscale that measures temperature. Winteris a season that you see a lot of solidwater. Other examples of solid water areice cubes, icicles, ice on a skating rink.Water as a GasGas is invisible. Water in the liquid state may change to waterin the gaseous state. Waterevaporates to turn into a gas.Gases are colorless and odorless. You cannot see gas ,butsometimes you can hear it and smell it.Water can evaporate or disappear with the help of heat.Changes in temperature can increase the rate or how long ittakes water to evaporate. Evaporate means to disappear. Itevaporates off wet clothes hanging on a clothesline. Plantsrelease water vapor into the air. We breathe out water vapor. 6
  7. 7. Water Cycle Changes in StateGas to LiquidWhen a gas changes to a liquid, it goes through the process ofcondensation. This is when the gas cools and loses energy.Then the particles are forced to change state, from a gas toa liquid.Liquid to SolidWhen a liquid changes to a solid, it goes through the processof Freezing. This is when a liquid cools below the freezingpoint and loses energy. Then the particles are forced tochange state, from a liquid to a solid.Solid to GasWhen a solid changes directly to a gas, it goes through theprocess of sublimation. The particles are forced to changestate.Liquid to GasThe process in which a liquid changes into a gas iscalled Evaporation. When a liquid gains enough energy, it canovercome all of the attracting forces. Then it changes state,from a liquid to a gas. 7
  8. 8. Water Cycle The CycleWater is constantly being cycled between the atmosphere,the ocean and land. This cycling is a very important processthat helps sustain life on Earth.As the water evaporates, vapors rise and condense intoclouds. The clouds move over the land, and precipitation fallsin the form of rain, ice or snow. The water fills streams andrivers, and eventually flows back into the oceans whereevaporation starts the process anew. 8
  9. 9. Water CycleWaters state (solid, liquid or gas) is determined mostly bytemperature. Although water continuously changes statesfrom solid to liquid to gas, the amount of water on Earthremains constant. There is as much water now as there washundreds of millions of years ago. 9
  10. 10. Water Cycle Concepts of Water Cycle.There are six important processes that make up the watercycle. These are:EvaporationEvaporation is the process where aliquid, in this case water, changesfrom its liquid state to a gaseousstate. Liquid water becomes watervapor. Although lower air pressurehelps promote evaporation,temperature is the primary factor.For example, all of the water in a pot left on a table willeventually evaporate. It may take several weeks. But, if thatsame pot of water is put on a stove and brought to a boilingtemperature, the water will evaporate more quickly.During the water cycle some of the water in the oceans andfreshwater bodies, such as lakes and rivers, is warmed by thesun and evaporates. During the process of evaporation,impurities in the water are left behind. As a result, the waterthat goes into the atmosphere is cleaner than it was onEarth. 10
  11. 11. Water CycleCondensationCondensation is the opposite ofevaporation. Condensation occurswhen a gas is changed into aliquid. Condensation occurs whenthe temperature of the vapordecreases.When the water droplets formedfrom condensation are very small, they remain suspended inthe atmosphere. These millions of droplets of suspendedwater form clouds in the sky or fog at ground level. Watercondenses into droplets only when there are small dustparticles present around which the droplet can form.PrecipitationWhen the temperature andatmospheric pressure are right,the small droplets of water inclouds form larger droplets andprecipitation occurs. Theraindrops fall to Earth.As a result of evaporation, condensation and precipitation,water travels from the surface of the Earth goes into theatmosphere, and returns to Earth again. 11
  12. 12. Water CycleSurface RunoffMuch of the water that returns toEarth as precipitation runs off thesurface of the land, and flows down hillinto streams, rivers, ponds and lakes.Small streams flow into larger streams,then into rivers, and eventually thewater flows into the ocean.Surface runoff is an important part ofthe water cycle because, throughsurface runoff, much of the waterreturns again to the oceans, where a great deal ofevaporation occurs.InfiltrationInfiltration is an importantprocess where rain water soaksinto the ground, through the soiland underlying rock layers. Someof this water ultimately returnsto the surface at springs or inlow spots downhill. Some of thewater remains underground and is called groundwater.As the water infiltrates through the soil and rock layers,many of the impurities in the water are filtered out. Thisfiltering process helps clean the water. 12
  13. 13. Water CycleTranspirationOne final process is important inthe water cycle. As plantsabsorb water from the soil, thewater moves from the rootsthrough the stems to the leaves.Once the water reaches theleaves, some of it evaporatesfrom the leaves, adding to theamount of water vapor in the air.This process of evaporationthrough plant leaves is calledtranspiration. In large forests,an enormous amount of water willtranspire through leaves. 13
  14. 14. Water Cycle Cloud FormationPrecipitation is one key to the water cycle. Rain comes fromclouds, but where do clouds come from?Through the process of evaporation and transpiration, watermoves into the atmosphere. Water vapors then join with dustparticles to create clouds. Eventually, water returns to Earthas precipitation in the form of rain, snow, sleet, and hail.All clouds contain water vapors. You rarely ever see clouds inthe desert because there is very little water to evaporateand form clouds. Coastal regions can receive a lot of rainbecause they pull up moisture from surrounding waters.Cloud size are influenced by many complex factors, some ofwhich we still do not understand very well. These include:heat, seasons, mountain ranges, bodies of water, volcaniceruptions, and even global warming.Differents kinds of clouds are: 14
  15. 15. Water CycleCumulonimbusCumulonimbus (Cb) is a typeof cloud that is tall, dense, andinvolved in thunderstorms and otherintense weather. Cumulonimbusoriginates from Latin: Cumulus"accumulated" and nimbus "rain". It isa result of atmospheric instability. These clouds can formalone, in clusters, or along a cold front in a squall line. Theycreate lightning through the heart of the cloud. Cumulonimbusclouds form from cumulus clouds (namely from cumuluscongestus) and can further develop into a supercell, a severethunderstorm with special features.NimbostartusA Nimbostratus cloud is characterized bya formless cloud layer that is almostuniformly dark gray. "Nimbo" is from theLatin word "nimbus", meaning rain. It is alow to middle-level (familyC2) stratiform cloud that produces rain,developing cloud basesbetween thesurface and 10000 ft (3000 m). This cloudtypically forms from altostratus in themiddle altitude range then subsides intothe low altitude range during precipitation.Nimbostratus usually has a thickness of 2000 meters. In rarecases, Nimbostratus can be very thin and accompanied by aseparate layer of altostratus divided by a cloudless layer.Though found worldwide, nimbostratus is found morecommonly in the middle latitudes. 15
  16. 16. Water CycleCirrocumulusCirrocumulus clouds are high-altitudeclouds that usually occur at an altitudeof 5 km to 12 km. Like other cumulusclouds, cirrocumulus cloudssignify convection. Unlike other cirrusclouds, cirrocumulus include a smallamount of liquid water droplets,although these are in a supercooled state. Ice crystals arethe predominant component, and typically, the ice crystalscause the supercooled water drops in the cloud to rapidlyfreeze, transforming the cirrocumulus into cirrostratus. Thisprocess can also produce precipitation in the form ofa virga consisting of ice or snow. Thus cirrocumulus clouds areusually short-lived.Properly, the term cirrocumulus refers to each cloud, but istypically also used to refer to an entire patch of cirrocumulus.When used in this way, each cirrocumulus element is referredto as a "cloudlet".AltostratusAltostratus is a cloud belonging to aclass characterized by a generallyuniform gray sheet or layer, lighter incolorthannimbostratus and darker than cirrostratus. The sun can be seenthrough thin altostratus, but thickerlayers can be quite opaque. They canlook similar to lower altitude stratus clouds. 16
  17. 17. Water CycleAltostratus is caused by a large air mass that is liftedthen condensed, usually by an incoming frontal system and canbe found over widespread areas. Altostratus clouds arepotentially dangerous, because they can cause iceaccretion on aircraft. Their altitude is from 6,500–20,000feet (2,400–6,100 m). They are primarily composed of waterdroplets.Altostratus clouds can produce light precipitation, often inthe form of virga. If the precipitation increases inpersistence and/or intensity, the altostratus cloud maythicken into Nimbostratus. 17
  18. 18. Water Cycle ConclusionOnce we studied the proces of water cycle we know that it isindispensable for the worlds’ function since is the only way tobring water to plants and animals, from this point of viewwere not life in the planet if it doesn’t work well.In this project we learned that only one percent of theworlds’ water is available for human use, it means that weneed to be careful of the water.After we know how important the water cycle is we should bepart of the people who try to maintain the world clean to keepthe live worlwide. 18
  19. 19. Water Cycle Reference pagehttp://en.wikipedia.orghttp://www.mbgnet.net/fresh/cycle/index.htmhttp://www.radford.edu/~sbisset/wqh2o.htmhttp://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/watercycle.htmlhttp://www.nyu.edu/pages/mathmol/textbook/slg.htmlhttp://www.elytradesign.com/ali/html/changes.htm 19
  20. 20. Water Cycle Reference pagehttp://en.wikipedia.orghttp://www.mbgnet.net/fresh/cycle/index.htmhttp://www.radford.edu/~sbisset/wqh2o.htmhttp://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/watercycle.htmlhttp://www.nyu.edu/pages/mathmol/textbook/slg.htmlhttp://www.elytradesign.com/ali/html/changes.htm 19
  21. 21. Water Cycle Reference pagehttp://en.wikipedia.orghttp://www.mbgnet.net/fresh/cycle/index.htmhttp://www.radford.edu/~sbisset/wqh2o.htmhttp://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/watercycle.htmlhttp://www.nyu.edu/pages/mathmol/textbook/slg.htmlhttp://www.elytradesign.com/ali/html/changes.htm 19