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A roadmap towards an integrated regional airspace management



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  • 1. A Roadmap towards an IntegratedRegional Airspace ManagementPresented at African Research and Resource Forum(ARRF)ConferenceTheme: Harnessing Policy Research forSustainable Regional Integration in the EACMOI UNIVERSITYNurturing Innovation and TalentTorongey P. K. and Odido D. O.pktorongey@mu.ac.ke ; odido@mu.ac.ke
  • 2. Outline Review◦ Policy & Legal Framework◦ AirTraffic Management◦ Case Studies Framework for Research TheWay ForwardNurturing Innovation and Talent
  • 3. Pertinent Laws and Treaties EACTreaty Chicago Convention Yamoussoukro Declaration Yamoussoukro Decision COMESA Aviation Policy COMESA-EAC-SADC MergerNurturing Innovation and Talent
  • 4. ICAO DocumentsSARPs◦ Annex 10◦ Annex 16ManualsNurturing Innovation and Talent
  • 5. ICAO Guiding Documents Global AirTraffic ManagementOperational Concept (Doc 9854)◦ Requires a Seamless, Safe and Interoperableairspace system Global Air Navigation Plan (Doc 9750)Nurturing Innovation and Talent
  • 6. EAC Treaty,Article 92:Civil Aviation and Civil Air transport1.The Partner States shall harmonisetheir policies on civil aviation topromote the development of safe, reliable,efficient and economically viable civilaviation with a view to developingappropriate infrastructure,aeronautical skills and technology, as wellas the role of aviation in support of othereconomic activities.Nurturing Innovation and Talent
  • 7. …Art. 922.The Partner States shall take necessarysteps to facilitate the establishmentof joint air services and the efficientuse of aircraft as steps towards theenhancement of air transportation withinthe Community.Nurturing Innovation and Talent
  • 8. …Art. 923.The Partner States shall in particular:(a) adopt common policies for thedevelopment of civil air transport inthe Community in collaboration withother relevant international organisationsincluding the African Civil AviationCommission (AFCAC), the African AirlinesAssociation (AFRAA), the International AirTransport Association (IATA), andInternational Civil Aviation Organisation(ICAO);(b) ...Nurturing Innovation and Talent
  • 9. …Art. 92(c)…(d)…(e) establish a Unified Upper Area Controlsystem;(f)…(g)…(h) consider ways to develop, maintain and co-ordinate in common, their navigational,communications and meteorologicalfacilities for the provision of safe air navigationand the joint management of their air space;Nurturing Innovation and Talent
  • 10. …Art. 92(j) agree to take common measures forthe control and protection of the airspace of the Community;(k) apply the ICAO policies and guidelinesin determining user charges and apply thesame rules and regulations relating toscheduled air transport services amongthemselves;Nurturing Innovation and Talent
  • 11. Chicago Convention, 1944Article 28: Air navigation facilitiesand standard systemsEach contracting State undertakes, so far as itmay find practicable, to:(a) Provide, in its territory, airports, radioservices, meteorological services andother air navigation facilitiesto facilitate international airnavigation, in accordance withthe standards and practices recommendedor established from time to time, pursuantto this Convention;Nurturing Innovation and Talent
  • 12. …Art. 28(b) Adopt and put into operation theappropriate standard systems ofcommunications procedure, codes,markings, signals, lighting and otheroperational practices and rules which maybe recommended or established fromtime to time, pursuant tothis Convention;Nurturing Innovation and Talent
  • 13. …Art. 28(c) Collaborate in international measures tosecure the publication of aeronauticalmaps and charts in accordance withstandards which may be recommended orestablished from time to time, pursuant tothis Convention.Nurturing Innovation and Talent
  • 14. Outline Review◦ Policy and Legal Framework◦ AirTraffic Management◦ Case Studies The Way ForwardNurturing Innovation and Talent
  • 15. The AirspaceChicago ConventionArticle 1: SovereigntyThe contracting States recognize thatevery State has complete and exclusivesovereignty over the airspace above itsterritory.Nurturing Innovation and Talent
  • 16. The Airspace…Nurturing Innovation and Talent
  • 17. The Airspace…The Airspace is a Resource Provides revenue from Air NavigationService Provision (ANSP) Upper Airspace is particularly lucrative A Shared Resource:◦ Civil Aviation◦ Military AviationNurturing Innovation and Talent
  • 18. AIR ROUTES IN EAST AFRICANurturing Innovation and Talent
  • 19. Category of user Air Navigation Services costsUS$Proportion of total costs (%)Domestic Civil Aviation 1,295,168 5.2International Civil Aviation 23,611,902 94.8TOTAL 24,907,069 100.0Air Navigation Revenue, Nairobi FIR, 2006Nurturing Innovation and Talent
  • 20. Nurturing Innovation and Talent
  • 21. The Airspace…The Airspace is the Environment Carbon Emissions NoiseNurturing Innovation and Talent
  • 22. Air Traffic ManagementAll issues concerned with interaction ofAircraft in the Airspace. Comprises:◦ Airspace management (ASM)◦ AirTraffic Flow Management (ATFM)◦ AirTraffic Services (ATS)Nurturing Innovation and Talent
  • 23. Guiding principles for AirspaceMgmt.: All airspace should be managed flexibly.Airspace boundaries should be adjustedto particular traffic flows and shouldnot be constrained by national orfacility boundaries;Nurturing Innovation and Talent
  • 24.  Airspace management processes shouldaccommodate dynamic 4D trajectoriesand provide optimum system solutions; When conditions require that differenttypes of traffic be segregated by airspaceorganization, the size, shape and timeregulation of that airspace will be set tominimize the impact on operations;Nurturing Innovation and Talent
  • 25.  Airspace use should be coordinated andmonitored in order to accommodate theconflicting legitimate requirements of allusers and to minimize any constraints onoperations; Airspace reservations should be plannedin advance with changes made dynamicallywhenever possible.Nurturing Innovation and Talent
  • 26.  Structured route systems will be appliedonly where required to enhance capacityor to avoid areas where access has beenlimited or where hazardous conditionsexist;Nurturing Innovation and Talent
  • 27.  Uniform airspace organisation andmanagement principles will be applicable toall regions. Global principles will beapplicable at all levels of density and willaffect total traffic volume. Complexoperations may limit the degree of flexibility;and Areas that should strive for the earliest andshortest implementation are those whereATM community expectations are not beingmet.Nurturing Innovation and Talent
  • 28. Outline Review◦ Policy and Legal Framework◦ AirTraffic Management◦ Case Studies The Way ForwardNurturing Innovation and Talent
  • 29. ASECNA AIRSPACENurturing Innovation and Talent
  • 30. ASECNA 18 ASECNA Countries:◦ Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central Africa,Chad, Congo, Comoro Islands, Cote d’Ivoire,Equatorial Guinea, France, Gabon, GuineaBissau, Madagascar, Mali, Mauritania, Niger,Senegal,Togo 16 Million Square Kilometres 6 FIRsNurturing Innovation and Talent
  • 31. EurocontrolIntergovernmental civil-militaryorganisation39 Member StatesRuns Maastricht Upper AirspaceFull Cost Recovery by ANSPsNurturing Innovation and Talent
  • 32. Eurocontrol… Functions:◦ Central Flow Management◦ Central Route Charges◦ ATM Research & Simulations◦ Central European ATS◦ Institute of Air Navigation Services◦ Maastricht Upper Area Control CentreNurturing Innovation and Talent
  • 33. SESAR Single European Sky ATM Research European Airspace:◦ 10.8 Million Square Kilometres◦ 37 ANSPs◦ 60 Control Centres Cost of fragmentation:◦ 4 billion EurosNurturing Innovation and Talent
  • 34. SESAR… Objectives◦ Reform European ATM◦ Provide Legislative framework◦ Handle upto 50,000 flights per dayNurturing Innovation and Talent
  • 35. Single European Sky (SESAR) Use of Functional Airspace Blocks A Functional Airspace Block (FAB) is anairspace block based on operationalrequirements and established regardlessof State boundaries, where the provisionof air navigation services and relatedancillary functions have been optimisedand/or integrated.Nurturing Innovation and Talent
  • 36. SESAR… Nine FABs have been established:◦ Baltic FAB: Poland and Lithuania◦ Blue Med (Mediterranean FAB): Italy, Malta, Greece and Cyprus.Also includes non EU countries as Associate Partners (Egypt andTunisia).Albania and Jordan are observers.◦ Danube: Bulgaria and Romania◦ FAB EC (FAB Europe Central): France, Germany, Belgium,Netherlands, Luxembourg and Switzerland.◦ FAB CE (FAB Central Europe): Czech Republic, SlovakRepublic,Austria, Hungary, Croatia,Slovenia, Bosnia andHerzegovina.◦ NEFAB: (North European FAB): Estonia, Finland, Latvia andNorway.◦ SW FAB (SouthWest FAB): Portugal and Spain◦ UK-IRELAND FAB: United Kingdom and Ireland◦ NUAC Programme: Danish-Swedish FABNurturing Innovation and Talent
  • 37. FUNCTIONAL AIRSPACE BLOCKSNurturing Innovation and Talent
  • 38. SESAR… FABs have the following common objectives:◦ Safety: Ensure an improved safety level despite civilian trafficgrowth◦ Capacity: meet the demand of civil air traffic foreseen to increase◦ Cost-effectiveness: balance the cost of operations within FABsby establishing more effective route structure and ATC service◦ Flight efficiency: improve flight efficiency through improvementsin routes, flight profiles and distances flown◦ Environment:reduce the impact on the environment throughimprovements in routes, flight profiles and distances flown◦ Military mission effectiveness: improve military missioneffectiveness through improved training capabilities andreadiness postures as required by StatesNurturing Innovation and Talent
  • 39. Outline Review◦ Policy and Legal Framework◦ AirTraffic Management◦ Case Studies Integration Initiatives TheWay ForwardNurturing Innovation and Talent
  • 40. Integration Initiatives ICAO AFI Plan AFI ANSPs COMESA Airspace Integration Project COMESA-EAC-SADC MergerNurturing Innovation and Talent
  • 41. ICAO AFI Plan The AFI Implementation Plan is conceived asa rolling fifteen year plan towards the fullimplementation of the ICAO CNS/ATMConcept throughout the AFI Region and inthe interface with adjacent regions, in orderto achieve a coherent regional Air TrafficManagement (ATM) system fully responsiveto the regional needs in a timely and cost-effective manner and adequately integratedwith the world-wide air navigation system.Nurturing Innovation and Talent
  • 42. AFI ANSPs the vision of the AFI Region on the “singlesky” be aligned with ICAO concept of“global air traffic management”; and ICAO develop the definition of the “singlesky” concept and provide to the States ofthe AFI Region guidance material and theorientation for a progressiveimplementation of the “single sky” inAfrica, taking into account the global ATMoperational concept.Nurturing Innovation and Talent
  • 43. AFI ANSPs…◦ Almadies (Dakar) Declaration (2002) [1stMeeting of Africa-Indian ocean (AFI) air trafficservices] Emphasised need to create/strengthen regional orsub-regional operating agencies for the jointmanagement of air navigation facilities and servicesNurturing Innovation and Talent
  • 44. AFI ANSPs…◦ Gauteng Declaration (2004) [2nd Meeting ofAFI in Johannesburg] Commitment to ensure evolutionaryimplementation of seamless AFI Region skies basedon ICAO Global ATM Operational Concept Establish appropriate political protocols for establishment ofcooperative organisation and management of airspace Technical measures for joint management facilities andservices Establish system-wide performance measurement andmanagement proceduresNurturing Innovation and Talent
  • 45. AFI ANSPs…◦ AirTraffic and Navigation Services (ATNS)point of view (2010) [3rd AFI Regional ANSPMeeting in Cotonou] Demand by operators for greater capacity, lowerprices; Pressure on ANSPs to increase performanceby minimising delays, increasing operationalefficiencies, optimising costs Need for seamless airspace where systems aretechnically interoperable, universally safe andaffordableNurturing Innovation and Talent
  • 46. AFI ANSPs… Benefits of Single African Sky: Improved Safety level More effective and integrated ATM architecture Demand driven ANSP Enhanced cross-border coordination Improved decision-making and enhanced enforcement inATM Economic benefits No progress made on Almadies, Gauteng; Blame isheaped on politicians (Rwanda article:“shockingthat Rwanda airspace is managed from Tanzania”Playing to the Gallery? Kenya manages sections ofTanzanian airspace, ditto Ugandan;Tanzania managesRwanda, Burundi Upper AirspaceNurturing Innovation and Talent
  • 47. • The Single African Sky does not necessarilyentail a single service provider, per se; butrather emphasizes on harmonised andinteroperable ATM systemsNurturing Innovation and Talent
  • 48. COMESA-EAC-SADC Merger TheTripartite Summit resolved that thethree RECs should immediately startworking towards a merger into a single RECwith the objective of fast tracking theattainment of the African EconomicCommunity.The Tripartite Summit directedthe Tripartite Task Force of the threeSecretariats to develop a roadmap for theimplementation of this merger forconsideration at its next meeting. The Merger is unlikely in the Short Term…Nurturing Innovation and Talent
  • 49. Outline Review◦ Policy & Legal Framework◦ AirTraffic Management◦ Case Studies Integration Initiatives TheWay ForwardNurturing Innovation and Talent
  • 50. Roadmap for ATM Integrationin EACHarnessing Policy Research The purpose of the Roadmap is to outlinea research agenda that will guide thedevelopment of specific researchprograms to be conducted by theresearch fraternity and others, bothwithin and across disciplines, to provideanswers to current questions for futurepolicy development.Nurturing Innovation and Talent
  • 51. The Way Forward How do we harness policy research forpolicy-making at the regional level in the EACin Airspace Management? The main requirements for an air trafficmanagement system are:◦ Enhancing safety◦ Improving environmental performance◦ Increasing efficiency◦ Meeting future traffic demands.Nurturing Innovation and Talent
  • 52.  The policy directions which need to betackled are:a) Integrated planning – There is need forcooperation between the various aviationagencies in the region.This will lead to thedevelopment and implementation ofconsistent and effective air traffic policyoutcomesNurturing Innovation and Talent
  • 53. b) Adoption of new technologies, specifically Satellite basedCNS systems.The decision to adopt new technologiesshould be made on the basis of well developed safety recordand appropriate risk analysis.This is linked with theanticipated move from route based navigation usingterrestrial navigation aids to area navigation using satellitenavigation. Consideration should be on diversification in useof Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) so as to avoidover-reliance on one system.There should be a deliberatebackup using ground based systems within the region.Thecase for universal implementation of Automatic DependentSurveillance – Broadcast should be considered. Newtechnologies will enhance aviation safety, generate efficiencyand give several environmental benefits.Nurturing Innovation and Talent
  • 54. c) International harmonization – ICAO’sGlobal Air Traffic Operational Conceptoutlines the concept of an integrated andglobal ATM system based on clearlyestablished operational requirements.This isintended to guide the high-levelimplementation of communication,navigation, surveillance and air trafficmanagement technology by providing adescription of how the emerging and futureair navigation system should operated(ICAO, 2005).Nurturing Innovation and Talent
  • 55. d) Enhanced regional aviation safety – Focus shouldbe on improving airspace, air traffic services andfacilities at the major regional airports of JKIA,Entebbe,e) Management of environmental impacts – Impactsfrom noise and emissions are covered in ICAO’sAnnex 16.Advanced technologies and moreefficient use of airspace has the potential ofreducing the local noise footprint.A number of airtraffic management operational procedures canalso reduce emissions; these include flexible ATSroutes, air traffic control sequencing andcontinuous descent approaches to runways.Nurturing Innovation and Talent
  • 56. Bottlenecks Information scarcity – Poor datacollection, consideration of mundane dataas ‘classified’ “The data collection exercise carried outin the region show that:◦ the way air traffic data is recorded, processedand published differs greatly in each country◦ The degree of analytical detail is different◦ Lack of consistency(World Bank, 2005)”Nurturing Innovation and Talent
  • 57. Bottlenecks Political opposition – Airspace touches onNational Pride, as it is considered part of theterritory of a country“Kigali — After the completion of the Karisimbi Mast Project,Rwanda will have full controlling rights of her airspace.According to a stunning revelation to Parliament on Monday,the Minister in charge of Science and Technology, in the Officeof the President, Prof. Romain Murenzi, revealed that thecountrys upper aerial space is currently being controlledfromTanzania. Murenzis revelation came as a response to theMPs questions on the progress of the Karisimbi Project.TheProject is aimed at providing high quality communicationnavigation surveillance, telecommunications, and radio andtelevision signals.” June 17, 2009.Nurturing Innovation and Talent
  • 58.  Need forThink-tank on Aviation Issues atRegional Level◦ Research on Policy◦ Strategies for External Challenges European ETS Scheme; Noise Safety EnvironmentNurturing Innovation and Talent
  • 59. Thank You….Questions? /Comments?Nurturing Innovation and Talent