Trasparency within the Irish Seafood Industry

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  • -25% of which are overexploited, depleted or recovering from depletion -Large pred fish in N. Atlantic have decreased in size by 2/3 in the last 50 yrs
  • -situation is similar in Ireland...
  • -situation is similar in Ireland...
  • -situation is similar in Ireland...
  • -situation is similar in Ireland...
  • -situation is similar in Ireland...
  • -situation is similar in Ireland...
  • -Elaborate on ecosystem approach – the realization that fish are part of a larger ecosystem... Extract one part of the system and other components are effected as well Elaborate on how they work... (refuge where fish can grow and reproduce, benefits expected for fisheries through spillover of juvenilles and adults, also larval recruitment into surrounding areas
  • -Elaborate on ecosystem approach – the realization that fish are part of a larger ecosystem... Extract one part of the system and other components are effected as well Elaborate on how they work... (refuge where fish can grow and reproduce, benefits expected for fisheries through spillover of juvenilles and adults, also larval recruitment into surrounding areas
  • -Elaborate on ecosystem approach – the realization that fish are part of a larger ecosystem... Extract one part of the system and other components are effected as well Elaborate on how they work... (refuge where fish can grow and reproduce, benefits expected for fisheries through spillover of juvenilles and adults, also larval recruitment into surrounding areas
  • -in response to international agreement, Aus went ahead with expansion of no-fishing areas -opposition mainly by fishing lobbies, didnt believe enough evidence that existing no-fishing zones were beneficial - After more research, consultation eventually, planning process ended and rezoning completed
  • Trasparency within the Irish Seafood Industry

    1. 1. Transparency within the Irish seafood industry: Data accessibility and public awareness Dana Miller Irish Wildlife Trust School of Biology and Environmental Science University College Dublin
    2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Irish fisheries and seafood data sources </li></ul><ul><li>Irish seafood consumption </li></ul><ul><li>Irish seafood production </li></ul><ul><li>Industry investigation </li></ul><ul><li>Summary and conclusions </li></ul>
    3. 3. <ul><li>In 200 7 , 80 % of global fish stocks were fully exploited , overexploited or depleted (FAO, 200 8 ) </li></ul>Introduction : Why do we need fisheries data? (FAO, 2008)
    4. 4. <ul><li>88% of Community stocks are being fished beyond MSY, 30% of stocks outside safe biological limits (EC, 2009) </li></ul>Europe (Myers and Worm, 2003)
    5. 5. <ul><li>Inform us about where we are now </li></ul><ul><li>Indicate where we have come from </li></ul><ul><li>Help us anticipate scenarios for the future </li></ul>Fisheries data can:
    6. 6. <ul><li>Marine Institute </li></ul><ul><li>Sea Fisheries Protection Authority (SFPA) </li></ul><ul><li>Bord Iascaigh Mhara (BIM) </li></ul><ul><li>Food Safety Authority Ireland (FSAI) </li></ul><ul><li>Inland Fisheries Ireland </li></ul><ul><li>Libraries – Trinity College Official Publications </li></ul><ul><li>Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO) </li></ul><ul><li>International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) </li></ul><ul><li>Generate contempory data through surveys </li></ul>Irish fisheries and seafood industry data sources:
    7. 7. <ul><li>Longterm records not digitised </li></ul><ul><li>Inconsistent records </li></ul><ul><li>Incomplete datasets </li></ul><ul><li>Public information too summarised (SFPA website) </li></ul><ul><li>Detailed information confusing and fragmented </li></ul><ul><li>Access to detailed data often requires submiting a data request to the relevant agency... with mixed results </li></ul>Accessibility issues:
    8. 8. Irish seafood product availability:
    9. 9. Irish fisheries production: cod Landings are now recorded in live weight and also now include landings in foreign ports. ?
    10. 10. <ul><li>Offshore mixed-stock commercial fisheries for salmon were closed in 2007 (Inland Fisheries Ireland, 2009) </li></ul>Salmon (Portal.unesco.org)
    11. 11. <ul><li>Farmed Salmon </li></ul><ul><li>Imports </li></ul><ul><li>Estimates that up to 70% of farmed salmon and 50% of whitefish sold in Ireland is imported (BIM, 2006). </li></ul><ul><li>In 2008, salmon and cod represented over 70% of fresh fish sold in the Irish retail market (BIM, 2008) </li></ul>If Irish cod and salmon stocks are so depleted, why is cod and salmon still so widely available in Dublin?
    12. 12. IS IT ALL ACTUALLY COD??? (www.pew.org)
    13. 13. <ul><li>10 postal code areas </li></ul><ul><li>2 supermarkets, </li></ul><ul><li>2 fishmongers and 2 fish </li></ul><ul><li>and chip shops sampled in each area </li></ul><ul><li>4 samples (2 frozen, 2 packaged fresh) were purchased from each supermarket and 2 samples from each fish and chips shop and fishmonger </li></ul><ul><li>156 cod and haddock samples obtained in total </li></ul>Irish cod and haddock identification: Methods
    14. 15. <ul><li>Approx. 648bp of (COI) mitochondrial gene gene was amplified through PCR then sequenced. </li></ul><ul><li>Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) used to identify specimens. </li></ul>DNA Barcoding
    15. 16. <ul><li>39/156 (25%) of all samples mislabeled </li></ul><ul><li>28/34 (82.4%) smoked fish sampled mislabeled </li></ul><ul><li>37/131 (28.2%) of cod samples mislabeled </li></ul><ul><li>26/28 (92.9%) of smoked cod samples were mislabeled </li></ul><ul><li>Commonly mislabeled fish was coley and pollack </li></ul>Irish cod and haddock identification: Results (Miller & Mariani, 2010)
    16. 17. <ul><li>Sociological Investigation: </li></ul><ul><li>Semi-structured in-depth interviews with industry representatives (28) </li></ul><ul><li>Focus groups with consumers (3) </li></ul><ul><li>UK Study: </li></ul><ul><li>96 cod samples from thoughout the UK obtained and successfully identified </li></ul><ul><li>Same DNA barcoding procedure used </li></ul>Further Investigation: Sociological and UK studies
    17. 18. <ul><li>Industry Representatives </li></ul><ul><li>Most admitted to knowing about the issue, only 1 retailer admitted to mislabeling </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanism appears to be happening on different levels , depending on which sector of the industry </li></ul><ul><li>Consumers </li></ul><ul><li>Generally shocked at news , concern is at first money </li></ul><ul><li>Majority will now think about issue more when buying fish </li></ul><ul><li>Seafood product awareness in Ireland is poor </li></ul>Sociological Investigation: Results
    18. 19. UK Study: Results
    19. 20. <ul><li>1/7 pangasius labeled as cod </li></ul><ul><li>2/7 haddock labeled as cod </li></ul><ul><li>4/7 Atlantic cod labeled as Pacific cod – all from the same giant retailer that also mislabeled in Ireland </li></ul>But....Different Mechanism?
    20. 21. <ul><li>High level (>25%) mislabelling in North America (Marko et al. 2004; Logan et al. 2008; Wong and Hanner, 2008) and Ireland, comparatively low level (<10%) in UK </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanism appears to be different in each area </li></ul>Discussion High awareness + Few restrictive policies = Mislabeling problem Low awareness + Restrictive policies = Mislabeling problem High awareness + Restrictive policies = Less of a mislabeling problem
    21. 22. <ul><li>Risk of creating a false perception of market availability </li></ul><ul><li>“ ...you don’t see any evidence of it. That’s the problem. You keep hearing that fish stocks are declining... and you can get fish whenever you want it so there’s no shortage of fish, in the shops or in the chippers or anything like that as far as you can tell, so it’s hard for it to hit home.” </li></ul>
    22. 23. <ul><li>Increased education </li></ul><ul><li>Increased awareness (through media,NGO campaigns and scientific advocacy) </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation and enforcement of policy </li></ul><ul><li>TRANSPARENCY </li></ul>Suggestions for improvement
    23. 24. <ul><li>IRCSET </li></ul><ul><li>Stefano Mariani </li></ul><ul><li>Hilary Tovey </li></ul><ul><li>Carlotta Sacchi </li></ul><ul><li>Adam Jessel and Blakeway Productions </li></ul><ul><li>Kelly Hickey </li></ul><ul><li>Annonymous interview and focus group participants </li></ul><ul><li>Doctoral Studies Panel (Jon Yearsley and Mary Kelly-Quinn) </li></ul><ul><li>SBES office staff </li></ul><ul><li>SBES students </li></ul><ul><li>Irish Wildlife Trust </li></ul><ul><li>Karin Dubsky </li></ul>Thanks!
    24. 25. <ul><li>Tune into Channel 4, Dispatches, January 15th </li></ul><ul><li>Visit : </li></ul><ul><li>www.iwt.ie </li></ul><ul><li>and </li></ul><ul><li>www.ocean2012.eu </li></ul>For more information.....
    25. 26. Questions?

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