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# Comparison between computers of past and present

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### Comparison between computers of past and present

1. 1. Comparison Between Computers of Past and Present WHAT IS COMPUTER? The word “Computer” is derived from the word “compute” which means to calculate. In the past, the computer was normally considered to be a calculating device which used to calculate arithmetic operations. But today, computer is used in every field of daily life to solve problems of different kinds. Therefore, a computer can be defined as:  Definition: Computer is an electronic device that is used to solve different kinds of problems depending on a set of instructions given to it.  Functions: A computer can perform following functions: 1) Accepts data and instructions as an input. 2) Processes or manipulates the data according to the given instructions. 3) Produces the output known as information. 4) Stores information for future use. HISTORY OF COMPUTER The history of computers goes back to a very long way. For many years, people used their own brain power to perform calculations. So the first computers were people! Electronic computers were given this name because they performed the work that had previously been assigned to people. The brief history of some of the old computers is described below:  Abacus: It is earliest and the simplest form of calculating device, it used rods with beads on them to perform calculations.  Napier’s Bone: John Napier developed Napier’s Bone in 17th century to perform arithmetic calculations.  Pascaline: Blaise Pascal developed Pascaline in 1642. It consisted of wheels and gears numbered from 0 to 9 to perform arithmetic calculations.  Difference Engine and Analytical Engine: In 1822, Charles Babbage developed a special calculator named as ‘Difference Engine’ which was powered by steam of calculations. Later on in 1842, he also designed ‘Analytical Engine’. It was first automatic programmable computer which could perform arithmetic calculations at a speed of 60 additions per minute.  Boolean algebra: It is known as algebra of logic. It was introduced by George Boole on 1847 for designing logic circuits inside the computer. The design of a circuit is based on a set of logical statements which return result on 1s (true) or 0s (false).  Later Mark-1, ENIAC, EDVAC, EDSAC and UNIVAC-1 were also designed. Muhammad Danish Badar Superior University, Lahore Contact: +923234539176
2. 2. Comparison Between Computers of Past and Present CLASSIFICATION OF COMPUTERS Computes are being manufactured in different sizes, data processing speeds etc. Therefore, depending on their memory size, data processing speed, amount of data they can hold and price, computers are classified into following four main groups: 1. 2. 3. 4.  Supercomputers. Mainframe computers. Mini computers. Microcomputer. Supercomputers: Supercomputers are the most powerful and fastest computers. They were introduced in 1960s. They are very expensive. They can perform trillions of calculations at one time. Supercomputers are mainly used for: 1). Whether forecasting. 2). Nuclear energy research. 3). Aircraft design. 5). Online banking, etc. Some examples of Supercomputers are CDC 6600, CRAY-1, CRAY-2, ETA-10, etc. i). First Supercomputer (CDC 6600): CDC 6600 was the first Mainframe Supercomputer. It was introduced in 1965 by Control Data Corporation. Technical Specification: 1). CDC 6600, serial number 3 (pre-production series machine). 2). Transistor machine. 3). Central Processing Unit clock cycle: 100 nanoseconds. 4). Core memory: 128K words of 60 bits (converted to modern terms, with 8-bit bytes, this is 0.94 MB). 5). Memory access: 1 microsecond (but independent memory banks allowed for up to one access per clock cycle). 6). Instruction prefetch function. 7). Ten overlapping functional units. 8). Ten autonomous peripheral processor units (PPU's) each with 4K 12-bit words of core memory. 9). Huge disks over 1 meter in diameter held 500 million bits each. 10). Tape units (half inch tape: 7 tracks, recording 200, 556 and 800 bytes per inch; oneinch tape: 14 tracks recording 800 bytes per inch). 11). High-speed card reader (1200 cards per minute). Reference Link: http://timeline.web.cern.ch/the-cdc-6600-arrives-at-cern Muhammad Danish Badar Superior University, Lahore Contact: +923234539176
3. 3. Comparison Between Computers of Past and Present ii). Latest Supercomputers: Tianhe-2 (MilkyWay-2) is one of the top 10 Supercomputer up-till now. It is currently holding first position in history of supercomputers. Technical Specification: 1). Country: China. 2). Site: National University of Defense Technology (NUDT). 3). Manufacturer: NUDT. 4). Cores: 3,120,000. 5). Linpack Performance (Rmax): 33,862.7 TFlop/s. 6). Theoretical Peak (Rpeak): 54,902.4 TFlop/s. 7). Memory: 1,024,000 GB. 8). Power: 17,808.00 kW. 9). Operating System: Kylin Linux. 10). Compiler: ICC. Reference Link: http://www.china.org.cn/top10/2013-06/21/content_29187340_10.htm  Mainframe Computers: Supercomputers are the most powerful and fastest computers. They were introduced in 1960s. They are very expensive. They can perform trillions of calculations at one time. Supercomputers are mainly used for: 1). Whether forecasting. 2). Nuclear energy research. 3). Aircraft design. 5). Online banking, etc. Some examples of Mainframe computers are IBMS/390, Control Data CYBER 176, Amdahl 580, etc. i). Mainframe computers at Beginning: Mark-1, EDVAC, UNIVAC, IBM 7040, etc. are all Mainframes. But when we talk about mainframe computers the first thing which comes in our mind is about IBM S/360. It is also considered as first mainframe computer. Technical Specification of IBM S/360: 1).General Purpose: 16 32-bit registers. 2).Floating Point Architecture:4 64-bit IBM floating-point registers. 3). 64-bit processor status register (PSW), which includes a 24-bit (Program counter/ Instruction Address. 4). 24-bit (16 MB) byte-addressable memory space. 5).Byte/word order. 6). Design: CISC. 7). Type: Register-Register/Register-Memory/Memory-Memory. 8). Encoding: Variable (2, 4 or 6 bytes long). Reference Link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_System/360_architecture ii). Latest Mainframe Computer: IBM zEnterprise Systems are considered to be latest in market.The zSeries family, Muhammad Danish Badar Superior University, Lahore Contact: +923234539176
4. 4. Comparison Between Computers of Past and Present which included the z900, z800, z990 and z890, introduced IBM's newly designed 64-bit zArchitecture to the mainframe world. Their some specification is given below Technical Specification: Major features of the eServer zSeries family: 1). Based on zArchitecture (64-bit real and virtual addresses). 2). First zSeries Superscalar server (z990) – A superscalar processor allows concurrent execution of instructions by adding additional resources onto the microprocessor to achieve more parallelism by creating multiple pipelines, each working on its own set of instructions. 3). Offers up to 32 central processors (CPs) per frame. 4). Frames can be coupled in up to a 32-frame IBM Parallel Sysplex with each frame physically separated up to 100 kilometers. 5). Supports the zOS, Linux on System z, zVM, zVSE, and zTPF operating systems 6). Support of multiple I/O channel subsystem – or multiple Logical Channel Subsystem (LCSS). The z990 allowed for support of up to four LCSS – offering support for up to 4 times the previous 256 channel limit 7). Support for zAAP processors. Reference Link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_System_z  Mini-Computers: Minicomputers computers are known for their small size and its capabilities which lie between mainframe and personal computers. The first mini-computer was introduced in mid-1960s by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC). Some examples of mini-computers are IBM AS/400, IBM S/360, HP 3000, etc. i). First Mini-computer: The first successful minicomputer was Digital Equipment Corporation’s 12-bit PDP-8, which cost from US\$16,000 upwards when launched in 1964. Technical Specification: 1). Word size: 12 bits. 2). Maximum memory: 32k words (8 4k banks). 3). Minimum instruction time: 1.2 microseconds. 4). Add memory to accumulator: 2.6 microseconds. 5). 12 x 12 multiply with 24 bit result: 256.5 microseconds (subroutine). 6). 12 x 12 multiply with 24 bit result: 40 microseconds (with EAE option). 7). Operating Environment: 0 to 55 C (32-130F) 10% to 90% Humidity. 8). Power: 450 watts (varies with option cards). 9). Size (HxWxD): 10.5x19x24 inches. 10). Weight: 100 lbs. total, 45 lbs. power supply. ii). Latest Mini-Computer: Latest technology in the market of mini-computers is increasing day by day. Therefore, no specific one of them can be regarded as the best one. So, one of the best mini-computer is Sony Vaio P Series. Muhammad Danish Badar Superior University, Lahore Contact: +923234539176