Organizational beahviour till personality


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  • Organizational beahviour till personality

    2. 2. INTRODUCTION TO OB • OB is an academic discipline concerned with describing understanding crediting controlling human behaviour in an organizational environment. • OB helps in improving the performance of an employee in an organization in effective and efficient manner.
    3. 3. Meaning of OB The field of organization behaviour is concerned with study of what people do in an organization and how that behaviour effects the performance of organization. Organization behaviour is about people at work in all kinds of organizations and how they may be motivated to work together in more effective ways
    4. 4. DEFINITION OF OB According to D.R Clark “OB as the study and application of knowledge about how people, individuals, group acts in an organization.”
    5. 5. GOALS OF OB • Describe the behaviour • Understand the behaviour • Predict the behaviour • Control the behaviour
    6. 6. Elements of OB Company philosophy, va lues, vision, g oals Co. culture, leadership, communication People, their level of satisfaction, motivation, growth & development Organization structure, technology
    7. 7. HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF OB • Kautilya‟s Arthasastra states that there is a systematic management of human resources as early as 4th century BC itself. • Minimum wage rate and incentive wage plan was included in the Babylonian code of Hammurabi in 1800 BC itself. • Prior to the 19th century, the employees conditions was miserable. • The industrial revolution begins in the 19th century that resulted in the total transformation of the industrial environment. • JN Tata, Robert Owen, Andrew Ure took a special interest in the welfare of the workers. [ cont… ]
    8. 8. • In scientific management era, F.W Taylor converted broad generalization into practical tools. He measured the people‟s performance according to the output they produce. • Taylors idea were criticized that he rationalize everything and holding the assumptions that human relation is based on „rabble hypothesis‟ • Failure of scientific management lead to the human relation movement that emphasis on employee cooperation and morale. • Labor movement, great depression and Hawthorne‟s study helps to develop the human relation movement. • Human relation movement developed fast, so fast, that, it always became a fad. • The movement lost its flavor and gave place to organizational behaviour. – 1950‟s
    9. 9. FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS OF OB • OB is based on a few fundamental concept which revolve around the nature of people and organization. • Every discipline, beat a social science or physical science based on certain assumptions. • The basic assumptions distinct to the discipline are : There are differences between individuals. A whole person. Behaviour of an individual is caused. An individual has dignity. Organizations are social system. Mutuality of interest among organizational members. Holistic organizational behaviour. Need for management.
    10. 10. Foundation of OB Individual differences Social systems Whole person OB Mutuality of interests Caused behaviour Human dignity Holistic approach Need for management
    11. 11. Contributing Disciplines to OB • OB draws the concepts and principles from behavioural science and the core disciplines of behavioural science, such as • • • • • Psychology Sociology Socio-psychology Anthropology Political science
    12. 12. SOCIOLOGY: It studies the human behaviour in relation to their fellow human beings. Group dynamic Work teams Communication Power Conflict Intergroup behavior Organization system Formal organization Organizational technology Organization change Organizational culture Group Sociology
    13. 13. PSYCHOLOGY: It is a science that seeks to measure explain and sometimes change the behaviour of human and other animals. Personality Perception Attitude Learning Motivation Job satisfaction Training Leadership effectiveness Performance appraisal Employee selection Work design Work stress
    14. 14. SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY: It focuses on the influence of people on one another. It is useful in measuring, understanding, and changing attitudes, communicating the patterns Social psychology Behavioural change Attitude change Communication Group process Group decision making Group
    15. 15. ANTHROPOLOGY: It is the study of the societies to learn about human beings and their activities. Anthropology Individual culture Organizational culture Organizational environment Organization
    16. 16. POLITICAL SCIENCE: it is the study of behaviour of an individual groups within a political environment. Political science Organizational power Politics Conflicts • Organization
    17. 17. Personality Perception Learning Attitudes and attribution Motivation OB Model Individual Behaviour Group dynamics Team dynamics Leadership Power and politics Communication Conflict Organizational Culture Human resource Policies & Practices Work Stress Organization Change & Development Group Behaviour Organization Organizational Effectiveness
    18. 18. OB MODEL • The basic purpose of model development is to understand human behaviour in an organization. • The behaviour approach is used for controlling and modifying the behaviour of individuals and group for effective performance • A model of OB explains the behaviour at individual, group and organizational levels
    19. 19. KEITH DAVIS’S MODELS OF OB These models show evolution of the thinking and behaviour on the part of management and managers alike. The four major models or frameworks that organizations operate out of: Autocratic model Custodial model Supportive model Collegial model
    20. 20. LIMITATIONS OF OB • OB results wont give any assurance for future behaviour • OB has almost become fad with managers in most organization. • OB is selfish and exploitative. • It is not an absolute problem its only a means to improve.
    21. 21. CHALLENGES IN OB As we go into the future, OB experts confront several challenges while managing interpersonal relations in organizations. They are:• Globalization • Changing work force • Ethical behaviour • Managing diversity
    23. 23. FOUNDATIONS OF INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOURINRODUCTION • Behaviour is the collective name for the entire activities of an individual. • Organizational performance mainly based on the individual behaviour. • The behaviour of an individual is influenced by many factors such as personal factors, environmental factors, etc
    24. 24. FOUNDATIONS OF INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOUR Personal factors Age Gender Education Abilities Marital Status No. of dependants Creativity Emotional Intelligence Psychological factors Personality Perception Attitudes Values Learning Individual Behaviour Organizational systems & resources Physical facilities Organization structure & design Leadership Reward System Work related behaviour Environmental factors Economic Social norms & values Ethics & Social Responsibility Political
    25. 25. ABILITIES Ability It refers to an individual’s capacity to perform various tasks in a job. The ability of an individual is made up of two sets of skills; a) Intellectual ability b) Physical ability
    26. 26. • INTELLECTUAL ABILITIES: These are needed to perform mental activities. Example, IQ test Dimensions of intellectual abilities are; Number aptitude Verbal comprehension Inductive reasoning Deductive reasoning Memory PHYSICAL ABILITIES: These abilities manifest one’s stamina ,manual dexterity, leg strength and the like.
    27. 27. PERSONALITY • The term personality has been derived from Latin word ‘Personna’ which means ‘to speak through’. • It may mean different things to different people. • It means a general sum of traits or qualities of an individual.
    28. 28. DEFINITION OF PERSONALITY Personality can be defined as “The sum total of all the tendencies that an individual has inherited and that he has acquired by experience.”
    29. 29. DETERMINANTS OF PERSONALITY Environment Heredity Family Personality Social Situational
    30. 30. Big five model of personality Extroversion Outgoing, Talkative, sociable, assertive Agreeableness Trusting, good natured, cooperative, softhearted Conscientiousness Dependable, responsible, achievementOriented, persistent Emotional stability relaxed, secure, unworried Openness to experience sensitive, intellectual, imaginative, curious, broad minded
    31. 31. TYPES OF PERSONALITY • There are two types of personality a) TYPE A b) TYPE B
    32. 32. TYPE B TYPE A  Aggressive  Time conscious  Competitive  Success oriented  Feel impatient with discouraging event  Quantity oriented  Smooth performance  Never bothered about time  Quality oriented  Creative  Confidence of success
    33. 33. ATTITUDE An attitude is an expression of favor or disfavor towards a person, place, thing, or event. Attitude is mental state of readiness, learned and organized through experience, exerting a specific influence on person’s response to people, object and situations with which it is related
    34. 34. Nature of Attitude • Refers to feelings and beliefs • It’s a psychological phenomenon and can not be exactly measured • All people hold attitude irrespective of their status and intelligence
    35. 35. Source of Attitude Experience with the object Mass communication Economic status Classical conditioning Attitude Neighbourhood Operant conditioning Vicarious learning Family & peer group
    36. 36. • Experience with the object: Attitudes can develop from personal experience with the job. Employees form attitudes about jobs on their previous experiences. • Classical Conditioning: Attitudes can be formed on the basis of learning principles. People develop associations between various objects and emotional reactions that accompany them. Ex: we may come to hold positive attitude towards a particular perfume just because our favorite model wears it. • Operant Conditioning: attitude that is reinforced, may tend to be maintained, or attitude that is considered as ridicule by others may modify or abandon the attitude. Attitudes are generated through rewards & punishments for that behaviour. Through this, association is made between a behaviour & a consequence for that behaviour. Ex: children completing homework to get rewards from their parents or teachers.
    37. 37. • Vicarious Learning: formation of attitude by observing others & consequences of that behaviour • Family & peer groups: Attitudes are acquired from family members, peer groups in college & organizations. If parents have a positive attitude towards an object, child who admires his parents, likely to adopt similar attitude. • Neighborhood: attitude can be acquired from our neighborhood people & environment where we live in. • Economics Status: Our economic and occupational status influences our attitude. • Mass Communication: All varieties of communication- TV, radio, newspapers, magazines- feed large quantities of information to their audiences. This information in turn, develops attitude towards that objective
    38. 38. Types of Attitude • Positive attitude: actively participate in life, take risk & willing to do mistakes, oriented towards learning, flexible, optimistic & are usually confident. Typical phrases are; I can, I will, I am sure, I choose to • Negative attitude: Comment on life & complain, never feel satisfied, pessimistic, lack confidence, do not accept changes 7 learning. Typical phrases: Stop! Typical phrases: I can't, I won't, No way and You made me. • Neutral Attitude: want to be a silent spectator, watch life happen, & observe others, play it safe, try to avoid risk. Typical phrases: I doubt it, I might, I don't know and I'm hesitant.