INTRODUCTION TO OB
• OB is an academic discipline concerned with
describing understanding crediting controlling
human behaviour in an organizational environment.
• OB helps in improving the performance of an
employee in an organization in effective and
Meaning of OB
The field of organization behaviour is concerned with
study of what people do in an organization and how that
behaviour effects the performance of organization.
Organization behaviour is about people at work in all
kinds of organizations and how they may be motivated to
work together in more effective ways
DEFINITION OF OB
According to D.R Clark
“OB as the study and application of knowledge about
how people, individuals, group acts in an organization.”
GOALS OF OB
• Describe the behaviour
• Understand the behaviour
• Predict the behaviour
• Control the behaviour
Elements of OB
lues, vision, g
HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF OB
• Kautilya‟s Arthasastra states that there is a systematic
management of human resources as early as 4th century
• Minimum wage rate and incentive wage plan was
included in the Babylonian code of Hammurabi in 1800
• Prior to the 19th century, the employees conditions was
• The industrial revolution begins in the 19th century that
resulted in the total transformation of the industrial
• JN Tata, Robert Owen, Andrew Ure took a special
interest in the welfare of the workers. [ cont… ]
• In scientific management era, F.W Taylor converted
broad generalization into practical tools. He measured
the people‟s performance according to the output they
• Taylors idea were criticized that he rationalize everything
and holding the assumptions that human relation is
based on „rabble hypothesis‟
• Failure of scientific management lead to the human
relation movement that emphasis on employee
cooperation and morale.
• Labor movement, great depression and Hawthorne‟s
study helps to develop the human relation movement.
• Human relation movement developed fast, so
fast, that, it always became a fad.
• The movement lost its flavor and gave place to
organizational behaviour. – 1950‟s
FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS OF OB
• OB is based on a few fundamental concept which revolve
around the nature of people and organization.
• Every discipline, beat a social science or physical science
based on certain assumptions.
• The basic assumptions distinct to the discipline are :
There are differences between individuals.
A whole person.
Behaviour of an individual is caused.
An individual has dignity.
Organizations are social system.
Mutuality of interest among organizational members.
Holistic organizational behaviour.
Need for management.
Foundation of OB
Contributing Disciplines to OB
• OB draws the concepts and principles from behavioural science
and the core disciplines of behavioural science, such as
SOCIOLOGY: It studies the human behaviour in relation to their fellow
PSYCHOLOGY: It is a science that seeks to measure explain and
sometimes change the behaviour of human and other animals.
SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY: It focuses on the influence of people on one
another. It is useful in measuring, understanding, and changing
attitudes, communicating the patterns
Group decision making
ANTHROPOLOGY: It is the study of the societies to learn about
human beings and their activities.
POLITICAL SCIENCE: it is the study of behaviour of an individual
groups within a political environment.
Power and politics
Human resource Policies &
Organization Change &
• The basic purpose of model development is to understand
human behaviour in an organization.
• The behaviour approach is used for controlling and modifying
the behaviour of individuals and group for effective
• A model of OB explains the behaviour at individual, group and
KEITH DAVIS’S MODELS OF OB
These models show evolution of the thinking and behaviour
on the part of management and managers alike. The four
major models or frameworks that organizations operate out
LIMITATIONS OF OB
• OB results wont give any assurance for future behaviour
• OB has almost become fad with managers in most organization.
• OB is selfish and exploitative.
• It is not an absolute problem its only a means to improve.
CHALLENGES IN OB
As we go into the future, OB experts confront several challenges
while managing interpersonal relations in organizations. They
• Changing work force
• Ethical behaviour
• Managing diversity
FOUNDATIONS OF INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOURINRODUCTION
• Behaviour is the collective name for the entire activities of an
• Organizational performance mainly based on the individual
• The behaviour of an individual is influenced by many factors
such as personal factors, environmental factors, etc
FOUNDATIONS OF INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOUR
No. of dependants
Organizational systems &
Work related behaviour
Social norms & values
Ethics & Social
It refers to an individual’s capacity to perform various
tasks in a job. The ability of an individual is made up of two
sets of skills;
a) Intellectual ability
b) Physical ability
• INTELLECTUAL ABILITIES: These are needed to perform
mental activities. Example, IQ test
Dimensions of intellectual abilities are;
PHYSICAL ABILITIES: These abilities manifest one’s stamina
,manual dexterity, leg strength and the like.
• The term personality has been derived from Latin word
‘Personna’ which means ‘to speak through’.
• It may mean different things to different people.
• It means a general sum of traits or qualities of an individual.
DEFINITION OF PERSONALITY
Personality can be defined as
“The sum total of all the tendencies that an individual
has inherited and that he has acquired by experience.”
DETERMINANTS OF PERSONALITY
Big five model of personality
Outgoing, Talkative, sociable, assertive
natured, cooperative, softhearted
Dependable, responsible, achievementOriented, persistent
relaxed, secure, unworried
Openness to experience
sensitive, intellectual, imaginative, curious,
TYPES OF PERSONALITY
• There are two types of personality
a) TYPE A
b) TYPE B
Feel impatient with discouraging event
Never bothered about time
Confidence of success
An attitude is an expression of favor or disfavor towards
a person, place, thing, or event.
Attitude is mental state of readiness, learned and
organized through experience, exerting a specific influence on
person’s response to people, object and situations with which
it is related
Nature of Attitude
• Refers to feelings and beliefs
• It’s a psychological phenomenon and can not be
• All people hold attitude irrespective of their status
Source of Attitude
Family & peer
• Experience with the object: Attitudes can develop from
personal experience with the job. Employees form attitudes
about jobs on their previous experiences.
• Classical Conditioning: Attitudes can be formed on the basis
of learning principles. People develop associations between
various objects and emotional reactions that accompany
them. Ex: we may come to hold positive attitude towards a
particular perfume just because our favorite model wears it.
• Operant Conditioning: attitude that is reinforced, may tend to
be maintained, or attitude that is considered as ridicule by
others may modify or abandon the attitude. Attitudes are
generated through rewards & punishments for that
behaviour. Through this, association is made between a
behaviour & a consequence for that behaviour. Ex: children
completing homework to get rewards from their parents or
• Vicarious Learning: formation of attitude by observing others &
consequences of that behaviour
• Family & peer groups: Attitudes are acquired from family members,
peer groups in college & organizations. If parents have a positive
attitude towards an object, child who admires his parents, likely to
adopt similar attitude.
• Neighborhood: attitude can be acquired from our neighborhood
people & environment where we live in.
• Economics Status: Our economic and occupational status influences
• Mass Communication: All varieties of communication- TV, radio,
newspapers, magazines- feed large quantities of information to their
audiences. This information in turn, develops attitude towards that
Types of Attitude
• Positive attitude: actively participate in life, take risk & willing to do
mistakes, oriented towards learning, flexible, optimistic & are
usually confident. Typical phrases are; I can, I will, I am sure, I
• Negative attitude: Comment on life & complain, never feel satisfied,
pessimistic, lack confidence, do not accept changes 7 learning.
Typical phrases: Stop! Typical phrases: I can't, I won't, No way and
You made me.
• Neutral Attitude: want to be a silent spectator, watch life happen,
& observe others, play it safe, try to avoid risk. Typical phrases: I
doubt it, I might, I don't know and I'm hesitant.