1. CENTRE FOR POLICY STUDIES UNIVERSITY COLLEGE CORK EC2204TUTORIAL #1 W/S 15/10/2012 Academic Year: 2012/2013 Instructors: Brenda Lynch/PJ Hunt Contact:firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com
2. MANAGERIAL ECONOMICS & ECONOMIC THEORYThere are a number of basic concepts which lie at the heart of business economics and managerial decision making. One of the most important is resource allocation.Economics is concerned with the efficient use of scarce resources.
3. When purchasing raw materials, employing labour and undertaking investment decisions, the manager is involved in resource allocation. Decisions need to be taken at three levels;• What goods and services to produce with the available resources.• How to combine the available resources (inputs) to produce different types of goods and services and,• For whom the goods and services are to be supplied
4. It is very important that an organizationconsiders its environment before beginning themarketing process. In fact, environmentalanalysis should be continuous and feed allaspects of planning. The organizationsmarketing environment is made up of:• 1. The internal environment e.g. staff (or internal customers), office technology, wages and finance, etc.
5. • 2. The micro-environment e.g. our external customers, agents and distributors, suppliers, our competitors, etc• 3. The macro-environment e.g. Political (and legal) forces, Economic forces, Sociocultural forces, and Technological forces. These are known as PEST factors.
6. Political Factors: The political arena has a huge influence upon the regulation of businesses, and the spending power of consumers and other businesses. You must consider issues such as:• 1.How stable is the political environment?• 2.Will government policy influence laws that regulate or tax your business?• 3.What is the governments position on marketing ethics?
7. 4. What is the governments policy on the economy?5. Does the government have a view on culture andreligion?6. Is the government involved in trading agreementssuch as EU, US, China or others?Economic Factors: Marketers need to consider the state of a trading economy in the short and long-terms. This is especially true when planning for international marketing. You need to look at:
8. 1. Interest rates.2. The level of inflation/employment level per capita.3. Long-term prospects for the economy GDP per capita, GDP etc.Sociocultural Factors:
9. The social and cultural influences on businessvary from country to country. It is veryimportant that such factors are considered.Factors include:1.What is the dominant religion?2.What are attitudes to foreign products and services?3.Does language impact upon the diffusion of products onto markets?
10. 4.How much time do consumers have forleisure?5.What are the roles of men and women within society?6.How long are the population living? Are the older generations wealthy?7.Do the population have a strong/weak opinion on green issues?Technological Factors:Technology is vital for competitive advantage, and is a major driver of globalization. Consider the following points:
11. 1. Does technology allow for products andservices to be made more cheaply and to abetter standard of quality?2. Do the technologies offer consumers and businesses more innovative products and services such as Internet banking, new generation mobile telephones, etc?3. How is distribution changed by new technologies e.g. books via the Internet, flight tickets, auctions, etc?