• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
United  States  Movement  Of  Independence
 

United States Movement Of Independence

on

  • 1,503 views

heres the notes for acevedo for whoever needs them (:

heres the notes for acevedo for whoever needs them (:

Statistics

Views

Total Views
1,503
Views on SlideShare
1,502
Embed Views
1

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
18
Comments
0

1 Embed 1

http://www.slideshare.net 1

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment
  • There was a fundamental dilemma for the founding fathers of continuing the revolution ( Payne) or moving towards establishing a new order. When the revolution will end? Who will be exempt from the revolution. The Slaves.

United  States  Movement  Of  Independence United States Movement Of Independence Presentation Transcript

  • Movements of Independence The British Colonies and Latin America
  • The British Colonies Revolutionary War
    • It was the destiny of the Americans to be
    • be republicans, not monarchists. It was
    • the destiny of the Americans to be
    • independent, not subject to British
    • dominion. It was the destiny of Americans
    • to be Americans, not English. According
    • to Thomas Payne that was Common Sense.
  • Background before the French Indian War
    • Colonial and British relations before the French Indian War
    • 1. American colonial governments were based on an English model – a governor appointed by he king, a council appointed by the governor, and lower house elected by the freemen of the colony.
    • a. conflict with the governor – power to disband the lower house.
    • 2. British control on trade to benefit the metropolis (mercantilism ).
    • a. Navigation Act of 1660
    • b. Internal British politics and conflicts led to a lax enforcement of these acts.
    • 3. More social mobility in the colonies – 1700 the population 200,000 by 1773 it reached to 1,600,000. By 1775 one-third of white colonists
    • were non – English speakers.
    • 3. Conflicts between the French, the British, and the colonists
    • a. France controlled Canada and the Mississippi Valley and the colonists were crossing into French territory.
    • b. The French and the British have Caribbean Islands that they desire
    • c. India was another source of conflict after the collapsed of the Mogul Empire.
  • Generalizations - Colonies
    • The colonies have achieved a level of maturity – we see working political
    • institutions.
    • Colonies are involved and integrated into
    • an imperial world order: Transatlantic
    • trade, continuing and increasing immigra-
    • tion, well established cities. (Philadelphia)
  • Causes of the War
    • The French control of the areas west of the Appalachian Mountains with their Indian allies who were not only their political allies but their partners in the fur trade.
    • 2. The British and the colonists wanted to expand the control of the lands in North America.
  • Causes of the War
    • 3. The competition between the French and the British to control the fur trade in North America.
    • 4. Imperial competition [ French-Britain] in the Caribbean and in India.
  • Results of the War
    • France lost all of its territories in North America.
    • Britain was saddled with a large debt -
    • expected the colonists to pay a portion of it
    • The colonists no longer needed the British army and navy to protect them from the French and Indians.
    • The new territories will be open for colonization.
  • Different expectations and assessments
    • Colonies
    • 1. the end of high taxes
    • 2. Expansion west of
    • the Appalachian
    • Mountains
    • 3. colonists were proud of their support to the war
    • British
    • 1. imposed new taxes
    • 2. Proclamation 1763
    • [ prohibited westward expansion ]
    • 3. Colonists support and performance during the war was very poor
  • Different Expectations
    • 4. Colonists expect to enjoy a more equal status in the empire
    • 5. Colonists thought that the British army will leave.
    • 4. There was no inclination to give the colonists that term of equality.
    • 5. Gr. Br. believed that the troops need to stay to prevent France from trying to regain the territory and to enforce the Proclamation of 1763.
  • Causes of the War for Independence
    • 1.The need for revenues to pay for the war debt – Parliament passed a series of acts that affected the colonies.
    • a. The Sugar Act ( 1764 )
    • b. The Stamp Act ( 1765 )
    • c. The Declaratory Act ( 1766 )
    • d. The Townshend ( 1767 )
  • Action - Reaction (Act/Law) (Colonies)
    • Sugar Act – 1764 tax on molasses (to make rum). It reduced the tax but enlarge the costume service and set up system of courts for violators without juries.
    • The colonists protested by boicot-
    • ting British imports.
    • ( the British lower the tax even more)
  • Action - Reaction
    • 2. Stamp Act – 1765 levy taxes on all colonial newspapers, legal documents, diplomas, pamphlets, property deeds, cards and almanacs.
    • [ In 1766 the stamp act was repealed ]
    • 2. An uproar –
    • it directly affected the income of colonial elites.
    • The Sons of Liberty were formed, boicott
    • of British goods (colonial radicals enforce the boicott).
  • Action - Reaction
    • 3. Declaratory Act – this act restated its right to tax the colonies.
    • 4. Townshend Act – 1767 collect duties on paper, paint, lead, glass, and tea.
    • [ Act was repealed except for the 3 pence on the tea ]
    • 3.Colonial elites rejected this assertions. No taxes without representation in the Parliament.
    • 4. More boycotts [ trade fell 50% ]
  • Incidents that increased the tension
    • Incident
    • Boston Massacre 1770 –a crowd began taunting and throwing snowballs at British soldiers they open fire and five colonists were killed.
    • Reaction
    • The colonists form the Committees of
    • Correspondence. (Revolutionary cells). The Boston Massacre became a propaganda disaster for the British.
  • Increased tension
    • 2. The Gaspee Incident
    • a group of colonists boarded a British costumes vessels after it run aground on a sand bar they burn the ship. [ the ship’s captain was seriously wounded ]
    • The British government increased their concern.
    • 3. The Boston Tea Party (1773) - 150 Bostonians disguised as Indians boarded three ships that were laden with tea. The men threw the tea overboard.
    • [ colonists response -
    • tea monopoly given to the British East India Company ]
    • 3. Britain retaliated with the Coercive Acts.
    • The colonists called them the Intolerable
    • Acts.
    • Quebec Act – French - Catholic religion and new boundaries- Quebec north of Ohio and west Appalachian Mts
  • The Empire Strikes Back The Intolerable Acts
    • Close the port of Boston until tea was paid.
    • Suspended self-government in Massachusetts
    • Allowed trials of colonists to be moved to another colony or Britain
    • Allowed soldiers to be quartered in private homes.
  • Towards the Revolution
    • The First Continental Congress
    • a) the delegates shared common values: civic virtue, self-reliance, thrift,
    • simplicity, and a commitment to the public good.
    • b) Declaration of Rights and Grievances
    • c) It denied Parliament the right to impose taxes and make laws but recognized its authority to regulate trade.
    • 2. Determine to repeal the Coercive Acts
    • 3.The Battle of Lexington and Concord
    • 4. Thomas Paine – Common Sense is published in 1776.
  • The Road for Independence
    • 1.The King rejects the Declaration of Rights and Grievances
    • 2. The Second Continental Congress
    • a) The Declaration of Independence –
    • July 4, 1776.
    • b) Continental Army – General George
    • Washington
  • Strategy & Order of Battle
    • Amer. Strategy
    • To survive until they could get help from European power (France)
    • Take out British base areas of operations
    • Propaganda campaign against the Br.
    • The British Strategy:
    • A decisive battle to end the revolution
    • Separate strategies for New England, Middle and Southern colonies
    • Fight with their back to the sea [Navy to support land operations
    • US strategy
    • 1. Attack on Quebec [Ethan Allen & Benedict campaign]
    • 2. Western Campaign
    • The British strategy
    • 1. Strategy: Three colonial strategies
    • a) New Eng. – separate it from other colonies
    • b) Middle Colonies – to take Philadelphia
    • ( Cap. US) & NY
    • c) Southern – to divide the colonial society by supporting loyalist among the elites & new immigrants against old settlers; win the south by using local forces.
    • US Forces
    • a) Continental army, 18,000 men (regular forces)
    • Problems: Army suffered chronic shortages of men, supplies, low pay, constant threat of diseases
    • Militia: local irregular troops; partisans guerilla fighters led
    • by charismatic leaders
    • Problem: ineffective in formal battle formations
    • British Forces
    • a)50,000 soldiers regular Br. army
    • b) 13,000 Hessians mercenary troops
    • c) auxiliary Indian forces
    • d) Naval forces (300 ships used in attack on New York City)
    • Problems: hostile colonial population; logistical impediments in wilderness campaigning.
    • US Commanders
    • George Washington – Commander in chief
    • Continental Army
    • Horatio Gates, Benedict Arnold, Nathaniel Greene
    • Militias leaders – Daniel Morgan, Thomas Sumter, Francis Marion (Swamp Fox)
    • Br. Commanders
    • Gen. William Howe & Gen. Richard Clinton
    • Gen. John Burgoyne
    • Gen. Charles Cornwallis and Col. Banastire Tarleton
    • Navy Commander:
    • Admr. Lord Richard Howe
    • French Commanders: Gen. Rochambeau and Admr. De Grasse; Lt. Marquis De Lafayette
    • Polish: Pulaski
    • Spain’s: Bernardo de Galvez [Florida Campaign]
    • Prussian: Wilhelm von Stubben
    • US Battles
    • Northern Campaign
    • Bunker Hill –strategic
    • triumph colonial militia
    • secure the control of
    • New England country-
    • side.
    • Ft. Ticonderoga –
    • Benedict Arnold and Ethan Allen to get more needed ammunition.
    • British Battles
    • Northern Campaign
    • Breed’s Hill – after
    • Bunker Hill the British needed to show that they could control the
    • rebels and they did, but the cost was too high. Almost 40 % of
    • the British force were
    • wounded or dead.
    • Ft. Ticonderoga – the
    • combined forces of
    • Benedict Arnold and
    • Ethan Allen took the
    • fort by surprise with the
    • purpose of getting the
    • much needed
    • Ammunition.
    • Battle of Long Island Gen. Howe arrived in
    • NY by August he had 32,000 men. Washington
    • had only 23,000. Howe
    • almost surrounded
    • Washington slipped away
    • to Brooklyn but 3,000
    • rebels were captured and
    • 1,500 died. Washington
    • manage to get to Manhattan and then to
    • New Jersey.
    • Battle of Trenton
    • Washington attacked an isolated outpost and captured 900
    • Hessians. This victory
    • helped to save the
    • Continental Army and serve as a recruiting
    • ground.
    • Battle of Saratoga
    • The British plan in
    • this battle was to
    • With British victory at Brandywine Creek and Paoli they occupied Philadelphia
    • and the Americans retreat to Valley Forge.
    • isolate New England by
    • combining two British
    • armies Burgoyne from
    • the north and Howe
    • from the south. Howe
    • did not arrived and
    • Burgoyne was defeated
    • by the Continentals and
    • A New England militia.
    • The French decide to
    • help the Americans.
    • Even with Burgoyne
    • defeat the British
    • kept New York under
    • their control.
    • Southern Campaign
    • Battle of King’s Mt.
    • rebel militia led by
    • Thomas Sumter.
    • Cowpens Battle the
    • Continental forces led
    • by Nathaniel Greene
    • and Daniel Morgan
    • ( militia ) defeated Tarleton.
    • British Southern
    • campaign
    • Clinton’s forces occupy Savannah in
    • 1778.
    • Occupation of
    • Charleston in 1780.
    • Battle of Yorktown
    • Washington, Green and Morgan forces with the help of the French army and Navy defeated Cornwallis at Yorktown. The British
    • Navy did not arrive on time to help Cornwallis.
  • The end of the war
    • The Treaty of Paris on September 3, 1783,
    • was a diplomatic triumph for the American
    • negotiators: Benjamin Franklin, John Jay,
    • and John Adams.
    • The British recognized the American inde-
    • pendence and its boundaries on the west
    • to the Mississippi River.
  • General observations
    • The role of the African slaves
    • Many slaves joined either the British or the Continental Army seeking for freedom.
    • Many Africans fighting on the British side
    • were sent back to their owners or sold as slaves in the West Indies some were able
    • remain free. Those fighting with the Continental army were freed and moved to the North.
    • The role of women during the war
    • They were and important group. They travel with their husbands during battle, took care of the wounded, provided them with water, cooked, washed their clothes, and provide much needed psychological comfort.
    • Loyalist
    • Many loyalist left to Canada, the West Indies or England. Approximate 50,000 left leaving their
    • properties and businesses.
  • Observations in the Changing of the World Order
    • The United States is the first of new nations.
    • a) created out of a colonial process
    • b) winning its independence by
    • revolution
    • c) facing challenges of building a new
    • nation/nationality.
  • How this affects the World Order?
    • Given that G.B. is defeated, this is the beginning of the end of the colonial period
    • for the Americas.
    • a) there will be very few colonial transfers
    • among European powers that will endure
    • b) transfer from a European country to an
    • American power – Puerto Rico as a
    • result of the Spanish-American War
    • in 1898.
    • For the first time revolution is a major feature (process) in world affairs. This becomes a political option ( young French
    • man in the café’s of Paris, intellectual elite
    • in Latin America, peasants in China, or uni-
    • versity students in Havana).
    • In a European centered world political societies are divided either seduced or horrified by the specter of revolution.
    • Given this revolutionary experience it would never be possible for the United States to
    • Propagate the old aristocratic order, a society based on title, privileged, tradition.
    • In many ways Paine was right we have the power and opportunity to begin the world anew.
    • This meant the United States had to designed new institutions. Including popular support as the basis for political order. ( Constitution, federalism).
    • As with any revolution there are limits as to how far change will go. Although critically questioned slavery was not abolished nationally. Unresolved question of the revolution.
    • Given that the U.S. and L.A. later are frontiers societies, borders were never considered fixed, but rather a result of populations moving in settling the country side. Obviously this will result in conflict with the British, Spain, Canada and Mexico. The America had to be developed not created at one stoke.
    • These new states of the Americas do not want to destroy the Columbian world order, but rather become new members. Example: conducted diplomacy in European fashion and manner, political
    • ideas were European in origin,( exclusion of Indians), and trade with European countries will continue.
    • This does not mean that the Columbian
    • order ends, rather it is transfer to other parts of the world. As Great Britain losses
    • the 13 colonies it gains an empire in India
    • and South Africa.
    • Great Britain at least until 1812 conside-
    • red the possibility of recuperating some of its lost American provinces and many
    • Americans held the notion that some day
    • Great Britain will be forced out of Canada and no longer would there be a British presence in North America.
  • The Revolution in Politics: Ideology
    • Ideology – series of ideas/abstractions directed towards some political goals,
    • Vague definition – links the world of
    • ideas to world politics
    • world of ideas – world of action (politics)
    • If ideology precedes/direct the political world
    • or if the political world merely uses ideas?
    • Creates them when it needs them
    • Cause – Effect (symbiotic)
    • Rev. war was a war of ideas – rights and
    • taxation.
    • Functions of Ideology
    • Series of generalizations that explains the
    • political world.
    • a) open-market – supply and demand
    • explains how prices come about
    • b) concept of balance of power
    • It justifies a political order, action – to rationalize, to give value.
    • a) it is not only this is it, but that
    • that it is right.
    • New dimension – value.
    • Example – god-country in the Declaration
    • of Independence
    • Ideology directed toward action – to motivate/ to put people to act.
    • Thomas Payne – Common Sense
    • (a call to action)
    • Propaganda with its own dimensions –
    • psychological elements.
    • Slogans of the revolution:
    • Patrick Henry – Give me liberty or give
    • me death.
    • Jefferson – All men are created equal.
    • - I only have one regret that I
    • only have one life to give to
    • my country.
    • French Rev. – liberty, equality, fraternity
    • Russian Rev. – land, bread, peace
    • Promise of another world – a better world
    • - a set the objectives that could be achieved through action.
    • The notion of a promised land –
    • ex. in socialism- social and economic
    • equality.
    • These can be expressed not only in the world of ideas, but in other mediums such as -
    • art ( paintings) and the movies.