English-Language   Development Standards   for California   Public Schools   Kindergarten Through   Grade Twelve   Adopted...
English-Language              Development Standards              for California              Public Schools              K...
Publishing InformationWhen the English-Language Development Standards for California PublicSchools, Kindergarten Through G...
ContentsCalifornia English-Language Proficiency Assessment Project ..........................................................
California English-Language       Proficiency Assessment Project   Assembly Bill 748, enacted in 1997, requires       Donn...
Executive Summary   The following pages present a summary     as they move toward full fluency in English.of the English-l...
SummaryLISTENING AND SPEAKING                                            Strategies and Applications   English–language ar...
SummaryLISTENING AND SPEAKING                                      Strategies and Applications (Continued)    English–lang...
SummaryREADING              Word Analysis, Fluency, and Systematic Vocabulary Development   English–language arts         ...
SummaryREADING        Word Analysis, Fluency, and Systematic Vocabulary Development (Continued)    English–language arts  ...
SummaryREADING        Word Analysis, Fluency, and Systematic Vocabulary Development (Continued)   English–language arts   ...
SummaryREADING                                             Reading Comprehension    English–language arts          substra...
SummaryREADING                                        Reading Comprehension (Continued)   English–language arts           ...
SummaryWRITING                                           Strategies and Applications    English–language arts          sub...
SummaryWRITING                                         English-Language Conventions   English–language arts         substr...
Introduction   The English–Language Arts Content Stan­       on some modifications and additions todards for California Pu...
acquire in initial English learning to enable   language arts standards. At each grade levelthem to become proficient in t...
English learners are to learn to read in           English learners working at the advancedEnglish while they are acquirin...
English-Language Development Standards   The ELD standards are designed to assist      diate level of these ELD standards ...
LISTENING AND SPEAKING        Strategies and Applications                listening and speaking and acquire the           ...
Listening and Speaking                                           Strategies and Applications English–language             ...
Listening and Speaking                                          Strategies and Applications English–language              ...
Listening and Speaking                                           Strategies and Applications English–language             ...
Listening and Speaking                                        Strategies and Applications English–language                ...
Listening and Speaking                                           Strategies and Applications English–language             ...
Listening and Speaking                                          Strategies and Applications English–language              ...
Listening and Speaking                                           Strategies and Applications English–language             ...
Listening and Speaking                                          Strategies and Applications English–language              ...
READING                  Word Analysis                    three through twelve should be proficient in                    ...
content knowledge while learning English        are expected to demonstrate proficiency inliteracy skills. Older students ...
Reading                                              Word Analysis English–language                                       ...
Reading                                                   Word Analysis English–language                                  ...
Reading                                                  Word Analysis English–language                                 Ea...
Reading                                                  Word AnalysisEnglish–language                                    ...
Reading                                                  Word AnalysisEnglish–language                                    ...
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  1. 1. English-Language Development Standards for California Public Schools Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve Adopted by the California State Board of Education July 1999California Department of Education Reposted June 9, 2009
  2. 2. English-Language Development Standards for California Public Schools Kindergarten Through Grade TwelveCalifornia Department of Education Reposted June 9, 2009
  3. 3. Publishing InformationWhen the English-Language Development Standards for California PublicSchools, Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve was adopted by the CaliforniaState Board of Education in July 1999, the members of the State Board werethe following: Robert L. Trigg, President; Kathryn Dronenburg, Vice-President; Marian Bergeson; Susan Hammer; Carlton J. Jenkins; MarionJoseph; Yvonne Larsen; Monica Lozano; Janet Nicholas; Vicki Reynolds;and Richard Weston.This publication was edited by Faye Ong, working in cooperation withLilia G. Sanchez, Consultant, Language Policy and Leadership Office. Itwas designed and prepared for printing by the staff of CDE Press, with thecover and interior design created and prepared by Juan D. Sanchez.Typesetting was done by Jeannette Huff. It was published by the CaliforniaDepartment of Education, 1430 N Street, Sacramento, California (mailingaddress: P.O. Box 944272, Sacramento, CA 94244-2720). It was distributedunder the provisions of the Library Distribution Act and Government CodeSection 11096.© 2002 by the California Department of EducationAll rights reservedISBN 0-8011-1578-7Ordering InformationCopies of this publication are available for $12.50 each, plus shipping andhandling charges. California residents are charged sales tax. Orders maybesent to the California Department of Education, CDE Press, Sales Office,P.O.Box 271, Sacramento, CA 95812-0271; FAX (916) 323-0823. See page90 for complete information on payment, including credit card purchases,and an order blank. Prices on all publications are subject to change.A partial list of other educational resources available from the Departmentappears on page 89. In addition, an illustrated Educational ResourcesCatalog describing publications, videos, and other instructional mediaavailable from the Department can be obtained without charge by writing tothe address given above or by calling the Sales Office at (916) 445-1260.NoticeThe guidance in English-Language Development Standards for CaliforniaPublic Schools, Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve is not binding on localeducational agencies or other entities. Except for the statutes, regulations,and court decisions that are referenced herein, the document is exemplary,and compliance with it is not mandatory. (See Education Code Section Prepared for publication33308.5.) by CSEA members. California Department of Education Reposted June 9, 2009
  4. 4. ContentsCalifornia English-Language Proficiency Assessment Project ............................................................. ivExecutive Summary .....................................................................................................................................1Introduction ................................................................................................................................................. 11English-Language Development Standards ...........................................................................................15 Listening and Speaking .........................................................................................................................16 Strategies and Applications ..............................................................................................................16 Reading ....................................................................................................................................................25 Word Analysis ....................................................................................................................................25 Fluency and Systematic Vocabulary Development .......................................................................36 Reading Comprehension ..................................................................................................................48 Literary Response and Analysis ......................................................................................................59 Writing .....................................................................................................................................................69 Strategies and Applications ..............................................................................................................69 English-Language Conventions .......................................................................................................79Glossary........................................................................................................................................................85Selected References .....................................................................................................................................86 iiiCalifornia Department of Education Reposted June 9, 2009
  5. 5. California English-Language Proficiency Assessment Project Assembly Bill 748, enacted in 1997, requires Donna Heath, San Dieguito Union High Schoolthat the test or tests assessing the progress of DistrictEnglish learners toward achieving fluency in Natalie Kuhlman, Teaching English to SpeakersEnglish be aligned with state standards for of Other Languages BoardEnglish-language development. The San Magaly Lavadenz, Loyola Marymount UniversityDiego County Office of Education, under Barbara Merino, University of California, Daviscontract with the Standards and Assessment Basha Millhollen, California Department ofDivision of the California Department of EducationEducation, named an advisory committee of Ofelia Miramontes, University of Colorado,state and national leaders to assist in the Boulderdevelopment of the English-language devel­ Alberto Ochoa, San Diego State Universityopment (ELD) standards. A list of the Califor­ David Ramirez, California State University, Longnia English-Language Proficiency Assessment BeachProject advisory committee members and Rosalia Salinas, San Diego County Office of Educationtheir affiliations follows: Robin Scarcella, University of California, IrvineAdel Nadeau, Chair, San Diego County Office of Education Jerome Shaw, WestEdTim Allen, San Diego City Unified School District Leonore Spafford, Secretary, San Diego County Office of EducationBob Anderson, California Department of Educa­ tion Shelly Spiegel-Coleman, Los Angeles County Office of EducationNancy Brynelson, California Department of Education Gwen Stephens, California Department of EducationFrances Butler, Center for the Study of Evaluation, University of California, Los Angeles Aida Walqui, Stanford UniversityRuben Carriedo, San Diego City Unified School Terry Wiley, California State University, Long District BeachRichard Diaz, California Department of Education Sandy Williams, Escondido Union High School DistrictRichard Duran, University of California, Santa Barbara Richard Wolfe, Ontario Institute for Studies in EducationMark Fetler, California Department of Education Gay Wong, California State University, LosSara Fields, California Association of Teachers of Angeles English to Speakers of Other Languages Charlene Zawacki, Escondido Union SchoolJim Grissom, California Department of Education DistrictElizabeth Hartung-Cole, Long Beach Unified School District Note: The affiliations of persons named in this list were current at the time this document was developed. iv California Department of Education Reposted June 9, 2009
  6. 6. Executive Summary The following pages present a summary as they move toward full fluency in English.of the English-language development (ELD) The levels through which English learnersstandards for each domain (listening and progress are identified as beginning, interme­speaking, reading, and writing ). The sum- diate, and advanced. For each ELD standardmary is designed to give an overview of the summary indicates the English–languagewhat students must know and be able to do arts substrand associated with it. 1California Department of Education Reposted June 9, 2009
  7. 7. SummaryLISTENING AND SPEAKING Strategies and Applications English–language arts substrand Beginning ELD level*Comprehension Answer simple questions with one- to two-word responses. Respond to simple directions and questions by using physical actions and other means of nonverbal communication (e.g., matching objects, pointing to an answer, drawing pictures). Begin to speak with a few words or sentences by using a few standard English grammatical forms and sounds (e.g., single words or phrases). Use common social greetings and simple repetitive phrases indepen­ dently (e.g., “Thank you,” “You’re welcome”). Ask and answer questions by using phrases or simple sentences. Retell stories by using appropriate gestures, expressions, and illustra­ tive objects.Organization and Begin to be understood when speaking, but usage of standard EnglishDelivery of Oral grammatical forms and sounds (e.g., plurals, simple past tense,Communication pronouns [he or she]) may be inconsistent. Orally communicate basic personal needs and desires (e.g., “May I go to the bathroom?”). English–language arts substrand Intermediate ELD level*Comprehension Ask and answer instructional questions by using simple sentences. Listen attentively to stories and information and identify important details and concepts by using both verbal and nonverbal responses. Ask and answer instructional questions with some supporting ele­ ments (e.g., “Which part of the story was the most important?”).Comprehension and Participate in social conversations with peers and adults on familiarOrganization and topics by asking and answering questions and soliciting information.Delivery of OralCommunicationOrganization and Make oneself understood when speaking by using consistent stan-Delivery of Oral dard English grammatical forms and sounds; however, some rules areCommunication not followed (e.g., third-person singular, male and female pronouns).*The ELD standards must be applied appropriately for students in each grade level from kindergarten through grade twelve. 2 California Department of Education Reposted June 9, 2009
  8. 8. SummaryLISTENING AND SPEAKING Strategies and Applications (Continued) English–language arts substrand Advanced ELD level*Comprehension Demonstrate understanding of most idiomatic expressions (e.g., “Give me a hand”) by responding to such expressions and using them appropriately.Organization and Negotiate and initiate social conversations by questioning, restating,Delivery of Oral soliciting information, and paraphrasing the communication ofCommunication others.*The ELD standards must be applied appropriately for students in each grade level from kindergarten through grade twelve. 3California Department of Education Reposted June 9, 2009
  9. 9. SummaryREADING Word Analysis, Fluency, and Systematic Vocabulary Development English–language arts substrand Beginning ELD level*Phonemic Awareness Recognize and produce the English phonemes that are like the pho­and Decoding and nemes students hear and produce in their primary language.Word Recognition Recognize and produce English phonemes that are unlike the pho­ nemes students hear and produce in their primary language.Phonemic Awareness, Produce most English phonemes while beginning to read aloud.Decoding and WordRecognition, ConceptsAbout PrintVocabulary and Produce simple vocabulary (e.g., single words or very short phrases)Concept Development to communicate basic needs in social and academic settings (e.g., locations, greetings, classroom objects). Demonstrate comprehension of simple vocabulary with an appropri­ ate action. Retell stories by using simple words, phrases, and sentences. Recognize simple affixes (e.g., educate, education), prefixes (e.g., dislike, preheat), synonyms (e.g., big, large), and antonyms (e.g., hot, cold). Begin to use knowledge of simple affixes, prefixes, synonyms, and antonyms to interpret the meaning of unknown words. Recognize the difference between the use of the first- and third-person points of view in phrases or simple sentences.*The ELD standards must be applied appropriately for students in each grade level from kindergarten through grade twelve. 4 California Department of Education Reposted June 9, 2009
  10. 10. SummaryREADING Word Analysis, Fluency, and Systematic Vocabulary Development (Continued) English–language arts substrandI Intermediate ELD level*Phonemic Awareness, Produce English phonemes while reading aloud.Decoding and Word Recognize sound/symbol relationships and basic word-formationRecognition, Concepts rules in written text (e.g., basic syllabication rules and phonics).About Print Apply knowledge of English phonemes in oral and silent reading to derive meaning from literature and texts in content areas.Vocabulary and Use more complex vocabulary and sentences to communicate needsConcept Development and express ideas in a wider variety of social and academic settings. Recognize simple antonyms and synonyms (e.g., good, bad, blend, mix) in written text. Expand recognition of them and begin to use appropri­ ately. Apply knowledge of vocabulary to discussions related to reading tasks. Read simple vocabulary, phrases, and sentences independently. Read narrative and expository texts aloud with the correct pacing, intonation, and expression. Use expanded vocabulary and descriptive words in oral and written responses to written texts. Recognize and understand simple idioms, analogies, and figures of speech in written text. Recognize that some words have multiple meanings and apply this knowledge to written text. Recognize the function of connectors in written text (e.g., first, then, after that, finally).*The ELD standards must be applied appropriately for students in each grade level from kindergarten through grade twelve. 5California Department of Education Reposted June 9, 2009
  11. 11. SummaryREADING Word Analysis, Fluency, and Systematic Vocabulary Development (Continued) English–language arts substrand Advanced ELD level*Phonemic Awareness, Apply knowledge of sound/symbol relationships and basic word-Decoding and Word formation rules to derive meaning from written text (e.g., basic syl­Recognition, Concepts labication rules, regular and irregular plurals, and basic phonics).About PrintVocabulary and Apply knowledge of academic and social vocabulary while readingConcept Development independently. Be able to use a standard dictionary to find the meanings of unfamil­ iar words. Interpret the meaning of unknown words by using knowledge gained from previously read text. Understand idioms, analogies, and metaphors in conversation and written text.*The ELD standards must be applied appropriately for students in each grade level from kindergarten through grade twelve. 6 California Department of Education Reposted June 9, 2009
  12. 12. SummaryREADING Reading Comprehension English–language arts substrand Beginning ELD level*Comprehension and Respond orally to stories read aloud and use physical actions andAnalysis of Grade- other means of nonverbal communication (e.g., matching objects,Level Appropriate Text pointing to an answer, drawing pictures). Respond orally to stories read aloud, giving one- to two-word re­ sponses in answer to factual comprehension questions (who, what, when, where, and how). Understand and follow simple one-step directions for classroom- related activities.Structural Features Identify the basic sequence of events in stories read aloud, usingof Informational important words or visual representations, such as pictures and storyMaterials frames. Respond orally to stories read aloud, using phrases or simple sen­ tences to answer factual comprehension questions. English–language arts substrand I Intermediate ELD level*Comprehension and Understand and follow simple written directions for classroom-Analysis of Grade- related activities.Level-Appropriate Text Read text and orally identify the main ideas and draw inferences about the text by using detailed sentences. Read and identify basic text features, such as the title, table of con- tents, and chapter headings. Respond to comprehension questions about text by using detailed sentences (e.g., “The brown bear lives with his family in the forest”).Structural Features Identify, using key words or phrases, the basic sequence of events inof Informational stories read.Materials*The ELD standards must be applied appropriately for students in each grade level from kindergarten through grade twelve. 7California Department of Education Reposted June 9, 2009
  13. 13. SummaryREADING Reading Comprehension (Continued) English–language arts Advanced ELD level* substrandComprehension and Read and orally respond to familiar stories and other texts by answer­Analysis of Grade- ing factual comprehension questions about cause-and-effect relation-Level-Appropriate Text ships. Read and orally respond to stories and texts from content areas by restating facts and details to clarify ideas. Explain how understanding of text is affected by patterns of organiza­ tion, repetition of main ideas, syntax, and word choice. Write a brief summary (two or three paragraphs) of a story.*The ELD standards must be applied appropriately for students in each grade level from kindergarten through grade twelve. 8 California Department of Education Reposted June 9, 2009
  14. 14. SummaryWRITING Strategies and Applications English–language arts substrand Beginning ELD level*Penmanship Copy the alphabet legibly. Copy words posted and commonly used in the classroom (e.g., labels, number names, days of the week).Organization and Focus Write simple sentences by using key words commonly used in the classroom (e.g., labels, number names, days of the week, and months). Write phrases and simple sentences that follow English syntactical order. English–language arts substrand Intermediate ELD level*Organization and Focus Follow a model given by the teacher to independently write a short paragraph of at least four sentences.Organization and Write legible, simple sentences that respond to topics in language artsFocus, Penmanship and other content areas (e.g., math, science, history–social science).Organization and Focus Create cohesive paragraphs that develop a central idea and consis­ tently use standard English grammatical forms even though some rules may not be followed. Write simple sentences about an event or a character from a written text. Produce independent writing that is understood when read but may include inconsistent use of standard grammatical forms. English–language arts Advanced ELD level* substrandOrganization and Focus Develop a clear thesis and support it by using analogies, quotations, and facts appropriately. Write a multiparagraph essay with consistent use of standard gram­ matical forms.*The ELD standards must be applied appropriately for students in each grade level from kindergarten through grade twelve. 9California Department of Education Reposted June 9, 2009
  15. 15. SummaryWRITING English-Language Conventions English–language arts substrand Beginning, intermediate, and advanced ELD levels*Capitalization Use capitalization when writing one’s own name. Use capitalization at the beginning of a sentence and for proper nouns.Punctuation Use a period at the end of a sentence and a question mark at the end of a question.Capitalization, Produce independent writing that includes partial consistency in thePunctuation, and use of capitalization and periods and correct spelling.Spelling Produce independent writing with consistent use of capitalization, punctuation, and correct spelling.*The ELD standards must be applied appropriately for students in each grade level from kindergarten through grade twelve. 10 California Department of Education Reposted June 9, 2009
  16. 16. Introduction The English–Language Arts Content Stan­ on some modifications and additions todards for California Public Schools (1998) and better align the ELD standards with thethe Reading/Language Arts Framework for English–language arts content standardsCalifornia Public Schools (1999), both adopted that had been adopted by the State Board inby the State Board of Education, define what January 1997. The State Board gave finalall students in California, including students approval to the ELD standards in July 1999.learning English as a second language, are The Reading/Language Arts Framework isexpected to know and be able to do. The based on the assumption that all studentsEnglish-language development (ELD) will attain proficiency in the English–standards are designed to supplement the language arts standards, but the frameworkEnglish–language arts content standards to also recognizes that not all learners willensure that limited-English proficient (LEP) acquire skills and knowledge at the samestudents (now called English learners in rate. There are 1.4 million English learners inCalifornia) develop proficiency in both the California. More than 40 percent of studentsEnglish language and the concepts and skills in California speak a language other thancontained in the English–language arts English, and about 25 percent of students incontent standards. California are not yet fluent in English. The ELD standards were developed by a Those students enter school with languagecommittee composed of 15 practitioners of abilities very different from monolingualand experts in English-language develop­ English-speaking students, who beginment and assessment. The standards are school with speaking vocabularies of be-designed to assist teachers in moving En­ tween 2,000 and 8,000 words.glish learners to fluency in English and Generally, monolingual English speakersproficiency in the English–language arts have mastered basic English sentence struc­content standards. The ELD standards will tures before entering school. English learnersalso be used to develop the California enter California public schools at all gradeEnglish-Language Development Examina­ levels with limited or no knowledge oftions. The standards were reviewed by English vocabulary and sentence structure.teachers throughout California and were Many of these children are unfamiliar withpresented to the California State Board of the Roman alphabet, and those who knowEducation in January 1999. After the State the alphabet often have to learn new soundsBoard meeting in January, the draft stan­ for many of the letters. English learnersdards were posted on the Internet for public need to catch up with the state’s monolin­comment. The standards were approved by gual English speakers. The ELD standardsthe State Board during April 1999 contingent address the skills English learners must 11California Department of Education Reposted June 9, 2009
  17. 17. acquire in initial English learning to enable language arts standards. At each grade levelthem to become proficient in the English– suggestions are made to teachers for ensur­language arts standards. ing that the needs of English learners are The Reading/Language Arts Framework addressed. The ELD standards encapsulatespecifies that teachers must provide students those suggestions by explicitly stating whatwith straightforward assessments of their all students need to know and be able to doproficiency in English at every stage of as they learn English and move towardinstruction so that students understand what mastery of the English–language arts stan­to do to improve. The processes by which dards for their grade levels.students develop proficiency in a second The ELD standards define the levels oflanguage differ from the experiences of proficiency required for an English learnermonolingual English speakers. Grammatical to move through the levels of English-structures that monolingual English speak­ language development. The standards areers learn early in their language develop­ designed to move all students, regardless ofment may be learned much later by students their instructional program, into the main-learning English as a second language. stream English–language arts curriculum.Progress to full competency for English The levels of proficiency in a second lan­learners depends on the age at which a guage have been well documented throughchild begins learning English and the rich­ research, and the ELD standards wereness of the child’s English environment. The designed around those levels to provideEnglish-language development standards teachers in all types of programs with clearprovide teachers with usable information to benchmarks of progress. The ELD standardsensure that English-language development provide different academic pathways, whichis occurring appropriately for all students, reflect critical developmental differences, forincluding English learners who enter school students who enter school at various gradein: levels. • Kindergarten through grade two The ELD standards are written as path- ways to, or benchmarks of, the English– • Grades three through twelve, literate in language arts standards. At the early profi­ their primary language ciency levels, one ELD standard may be a • Grades three through twelve, not pathway to attain several English–language literate in their primary language arts standards. At the more advanced levels, The ELD standards for grades three the skills in the ELD standards begin tothrough twelve are designed for students resemble those in the English–language artswho are literate in their primary language. standards and represent the standards atStudents who enter California schools in which an English learner has attainedthose grade levels not literate in their pri­ academic proficiency in English. The ELDmary language need to be taught the ELD standards integrate listening, speaking, reading,literacy standards for earlier grade levels, and writing and create a distinct pathway toincluding those standards related to phone­ reading in English rather than delaying themic awareness, concepts of print, and decod­ introduction of English reading.ing skills. All English learners, regardless of grade The Reading/Language Arts Framework level or primary-language literacy level,addresses universal access to mastering the must receive reading instruction in English. 12 California Department of Education Reposted June 9, 2009
  18. 18. English learners are to learn to read in English learners working at the advancedEnglish while they are acquiring oral English level of the ELD standards are to demon­fluency. English learners in kindergarten strate proficiency in the English–languagethrough grade two are to demonstrate arts standards for their grade level and forproficiency in the English–language arts all prior grade levels. This expectationstandards of phonemic awareness, decoding, means that English learners must acquireand concepts of print appropriate for their prerequisite skills at earlier proficiencygrade levels. These standards are embedded levels.in the ELD standards. English learners in Teachers are to monitor the students’grades three through twelve must demon­ acquisition of English and provide correc­strate proficiency in those essential begin­ tion so that kindergarten students workingning reading skills by the time they reach at the advanced ELD level and students inthe early intermediate level of the ELD all other grades working at the early ad­standards. This expectation holds true for vanced level will have internalized English-students who enter school regardless of language skills to such a degree that thewhether they are literate or not literate in teacher will often observe the studentstheir primary language. correcting their own grammar, usage, and The ELD standards may be used as crite­ word choices in speaking, reading, andria to develop the entry-level assessments writing.and the assessments to monitor studentprogress called for in the Reading/LanguageArts Framework. 13California Department of Education Reposted June 9, 2009
  19. 19. English-Language Development Standards The ELD standards are designed to assist diate level of these ELD standards should beclassroom teachers in assessing the progress able to demonstrate proficiency in theof English learners toward attaining full language arts standards for all prior gradefluency in English. The strategies used to levels. Teachers will need to work concur­help students attain proficiency in English rently with this document and the English–differ according to the age at which a stu­ Language Arts Content Standards for Californiadent begins learning English; therefore, the Public Schools, Kindergarten Through Gradestandards include outcomes for students Twelve (1998) to ensure that English learnerswho begin learning English in kindergarten achieve proficiency.through grade two, grades three through The ELD standards are comprehensive,five, grades six through eight, and grades with more detailed proficiency levels thannine through twelve. The standards in those were included in the Executive Summary.grade ranges were developed to help teach­ This refinement is needed so that teachersers move English learners to full fluency in can better assess the progress of their stu­English and to proficiency in the English– dents. The proficiency levels are as follows:language arts standards. English learners at • Beginningthe advanced level of the ELD standards are • Early intermediateto demonstrate proficiency in all standardsdetailed in this document and all language • Intermediatearts standards for the grades in which they • Early advancedare enrolled. English learners at the interme­ • Advanced 15California Department of Education Reposted June 9, 2009
  20. 20. LISTENING AND SPEAKING Strategies and Applications listening and speaking and acquire the concepts in the English–language arts The listening and speaking standards for standards. English learners achieving at theEnglish learners identify a student’s compe­ advanced level of the ELD standards shouldtency to understand the English language demonstrate proficiency in the language artsand to produce the language orally. Students standards at their own grade level and at allmust be prepared to use English effectively prior grade levels. This expectation meansin social and academic settings. Listening that by the early advanced ELD level, alland speaking skills provide one of the most prerequisite skills needed to achieve theimportant building blocks for the foundation level of skills in the English–language artsof second-language acquisition and are standards must have been learned. Englishessential for developing reading and writing learners must develop both fluency inskills in English. To develop proficiency in English and proficiency in the language artslistening, speaking, reading, and writing, standards. Teachers must ensure that En­students must receive instruction in reading glish learners receive instruction in listeningand writing while developing fluency in oral and speaking that will enable them to meetEnglish. the speaking applications standards of the Teachers must use both the ELD and the language arts standards.English–language arts standards to ensurethat English learners develop proficiency in 16 California Department of Education Reposted June 9, 2009
  21. 21. Listening and Speaking Strategies and Applications English–language Beginning ELD level arts substrand Grades K–2 Grades 3–5 Grades 6–8 Grades 9–12Comprehension Begin to speak a few Begin to speak a few Begin to speak a few Begin to speak a few words or sentences by words or sentences by words or sentences by words or sentences by using some English using some English using some English using some English phonemes and phonemes and phonemes and phonemes and rudimentary English rudimentary English rudimentary English rudimentary English grammatical forms grammatical forms grammatical forms grammatical forms (e.g., single words or (e.g., single words or (e.g., single words or (e.g., single words or phrases). phrases). phrases). phrases). Answer simple Answer simple Ask and answer Ask and answer questions with one- to questions with one- to questions by using questions by using two-word responses. two-word responses. simple sentences or simple sentences or phrases. phrases. Respond to simple Retell familiar stories Demonstrate Demonstrate directions and and participate in comprehension of comprehension of questions by using short conversations oral presentations oral presentations physical actions and by using appropriate and instructions and instructions other means of gestures, expressions, through nonverbal through nonverbal nonverbal communi­ and illustrative responses responses. cation (e.g., matching objects. (e.g., gestures, objects, pointing to an pointing, drawing). answer, drawing pictures).Comprehension and Independently use Independently use Independently useOrganization and common social common social common socialDelivery of Oral greetings and simple greetings and simple greetings and simpleCommunication repetitive phrases repetitive phrases repetitive phrases (e.g., “Thank you,” (e.g., “May I go and (e.g., “Good morning, “You’re welcome”). play?”). Ms. ___”).Analysis and Respond with simpleEvaluation of words or phrases toOral and Media questions aboutCommunications and simple written texts.Comprehension Orally identify types of media (e.g., magazine, documentary film, news report). 17California Department of Education Reposted June 9, 2009
  22. 22. Listening and Speaking Strategies and Applications English–language Early intermediate ELD level arts substrand Grades K–2 Grades 3–5 Grades 6–8 Grades 9–12Comprehension Begin to be under- Begin to be under- Begin to be under- Begin to be under- stood when speaking stood when speaking stood when speaking stood when speaking but may have some but may have some but may have some but may have some inconsistent use of inconsistent use of inconsistent use of inconsistent use of standard English standard English standard English standard English grammatical forms grammatical forms grammatical forms grammatical forms and sounds and sounds and sounds and sounds (e.g., plurals, simple (e.g., plurals, simple (e.g., plurals, simple (e.g., plurals, simple past tense, pronouns past tense, pronouns past tense, pronouns past tense, pronouns such as he or she). such as he or she). such as he or she). such as he or she). Ask and answer Ask and answer Ask and answer Ask and answer questions by using questions by using questions by using questions by using phrases or simple phrases or simple phrases or simple phrases or simple sentences. sentences. sentences. sentences. Restate and execute Restate and execute Restate and execute multiple-step oral multiple-step oral multiple-step oral directions. directions. directions.Comprehension and Retell familiar stories Orally identify the Restate in simple Restate in simpleOrganization and and short conversa­ main points of simple sentences the main sentences the mainDelivery of Oral tions by using appro­ conversations and idea of oral presenta­ idea of oral presenta­Communication priate gestures, stories that are read tions in subject- tions in subject- expressions, and aloud by using matter content. matter content. illustrative objects. phrases or simple sentences. Orally communicate Orally communicate Orally communicate Orally communicate basic needs basic needs basic needs (e.g., “I basic needs (e.g., “Do (e.g., “May I get a (e.g., “May I get a need to borrow a we have to drink?”). drink of water?”). pencil”). ________?”). Recite familiar Recite familiar Prepare and deliver Prepare and deliver rhymes, songs, and rhymes, songs, and short oral presenta­ short oral presenta­ simple stories. simple stories. tions. tions. 18 California Department of Education Reposted June 9, 2009
  23. 23. Listening and Speaking Strategies and Applications English–language Intermediate ELD level arts substrand Grades K–2 Grades 3–5 Grades 6–8 Grades 9–12Comprehension Ask and answer Ask and answer Respond to messages Respond to messages instructional ques­ instructional ques­ by asking simple by asking simple tions by using simple tions with some questions or by briefly questions or by briefly sentences. supporting elements restating the mes­ restating the mes­ (e.g., “Is it your turn sage. sage. to go to the computer lab?”). Listen attentively to Listen attentively to Listen attentively to Listen attentively to stories and informa­ stories and informa­ stories and informa­ stories and informa­ tion and identify tion and identify tion and identify tion and identify important details and important details and important details and important details and concepts by using concepts by using concepts by using concepts by using both verbal and both verbal and both verbal and both verbal and nonverbal responses. nonverbal responses. nonverbal responses. nonverbal responses.Comprehension and Make oneself under- Make oneself under- Make oneself under- Make oneself under-Organization and stood when speaking stood when speaking stood when speaking stood when speakingDelivery of Oral by using consistent by using consistent by using consistent by using consistentCommunication standard English standard English standard English standard English grammatical forms grammatical forms grammatical forms grammatical forms and sounds; however, and sounds; however, and sounds; however, and sounds; however, some rules may not be some rules may not be some rules may not be some rules may not be followed (e.g., third- followed (e.g., third- followed (e.g., third- followed (e.g., third- person singular, male person singular, male person singular, male person singular, male and female pronouns). and female pronouns). and female pronouns). and female pronouns). Participate in social Participate in social Participate in social Participate in social conversations with conversations with conversations with conversations with peers and adults on peers and adults on peers and adults on peers and adults on familiar topics by familiar topics by familiar topics by familiar topics by asking and answering asking and answering asking and answering asking and answering questions and solicit­ questions and solicit­ questions and solicit­ questions and solicit­ ing information. ing information. ing information. ing information. Retell stories and talk Retell stories and talk Identify the main idea Identify the main idea about school-related about school-related and some supporting and some supporting activities by using activities by using details of oral details of oral expanded vocabulary, expanded vocabulary, presentations, presentations, descriptive words, descriptive words, familiar literature, familiar literature, and paraphrasing. and paraphrasing. and key concepts of and key concepts of subject-matter subject-matter content. content. (Continued on p. 20) 19California Department of Education Reposted June 9, 2009
  24. 24. Listening and Speaking Strategies and Applications English–language Intermediate ELD level (Continued) arts substrand Grades K–2 Grades 3–5 Grades 6–8 Grades 9–12Organization and Identify a varietyDelivery of Oral of media messagesCommunication (e.g., radio, television, movies) and give some details support­ ing the messages. Prepare and deliver Prepare and deliver short presentations short presentations on ideas, premises, or on ideas, premises, or images obtained from images obtained from various common various common sources. sources. Prepare and ask basic interview questions and respond to them. 20 California Department of Education Reposted June 9, 2009
  25. 25. Listening and Speaking Strategies and Applications English–language Early advanced ELD level arts substrand Grades K–2 Grades 3–5 Grades 6–8 Grades 9–12Comprehension Listen attentively to Listen attentively to Listen attentively to stories and informa­ more complex stories more complex stories tion and orally and information on and information on identify key details new topics across new topics across and concepts. content areas and content areas and identify the main identify the main points and supporting points and supporting details. details.Comprehension and Retell stories in Summarize major Retell stories in Summarize literaryOrganization and greater detail by ideas and retell greater detail by pieces in greaterDelivery of Oral including the stories in greater including the detail by includingCommunication characters, setting, detail by including characters, setting, the characters, and plot. the characters, and plot. setting, and plot and setting, and plot. analyzing them in greater detail. Make oneself under- Make oneself under- Make oneself under- Make oneself under- stood when speaking stood when speaking stood when speaking stood when speaking by using consistent by using consistent by using consistent by using consistent standard English standard English standard English standard English grammatical forms, grammatical forms, grammatical forms, grammatical forms, sounds, intonation, sounds, intonation, sounds, intonation, sounds, intonation, pitch, and modulation pitch, and modulation pitch, and modulation pitch, and modulation but may make random but may make random but may make random but may make random errors. errors. errors. errors. Participate in and Participate in and Participate in and Participate in and initiate more ex- initiate more ex- initiate more ex- initiate more ex- tended social conver­ tended social conver­ tended social conver­ tended social conver­ sations with peers and sations with peers and sations with peers and sations with peers and adults on unfamiliar adults on unfamiliar adults on unfamiliar adults on unfamiliar topics by asking and topics by asking and topics by asking and topics by asking and answering questions answering questions answering questions answering questions and restating and and restating and and restating and and restating and soliciting information. soliciting information. soliciting information. soliciting information. Recognize appropri­ Recognize appropri­ Recognize appropri­ Recognize appropri­ ate ways of speaking ate ways of speaking ate ways of speaking ate ways of speaking that vary according to that vary according to that vary according to that vary according to the purpose, audi­ the purpose, audi­ the purpose, audi­ the purpose, audi­ ence, and subject ence, and subject ence, and subject ence, and subject matter. matter. matter. matter. (Continued on p. 22) 21California Department of Education Reposted June 9, 2009
  26. 26. Listening and Speaking Strategies and Applications English–language Early advanced ELD level (Continued) arts substrand Grades K–2 Grades 3–5 Grades 6–8 Grades 9–12Comprehension and Ask and answer Ask and answer Respond to messages Respond to messagesOrganization and instructional instructional by asking questions, by asking questions,Delivery of Oral questions with more questions with more challenging state­ challenging state­Communication extensive supporting extensive supporting ments, or offering ments, or offering elements elements examples that affirm examples that affirm (e.g., “Which part of (e.g., “Which part of the message. the message. the story was the the story was the most important?”). most important?”). Use simple figurative Use simple figurative Use simple figurative language and idioma­ language and idioma­ language and idioma­ tic expressions tic expressions tic expressions (e.g., “It’s raining (e.g., “heavy as a ton (e.g., “sunshine girl,” cats and dogs”) to of bricks,” “soaking “heavy as a ton of communicate ideas to wet”) to communicate bricks”) to communi­ a variety of audiences. ideas to a variety of cate ideas to a variety audiences. of audiences. Prepare and deliver Prepare and deliver presentations that presentations that use various sources. follow a process of organization and use various sources. Prepare and deliver brief oral presenta­ tions/reports on historical investiga­ tions, a problem and solution, or a cause and effect. 22 California Department of Education Reposted June 9, 2009
  27. 27. Listening and Speaking Strategies and Applications English–language Advanced ELD level arts substrand Grades K–2 Grades 3–5 Grades 6–8 Grades 9–12Comprehension Listen attentively to Listen attentively to Listen attentively to stories and informa­ stories and informa­ stories and informa­ tion on new topics tion on topics; tion on topics; and identify both identify the main identify the main orally and in writing points and supporting points and supporting key details and details. details. concepts. Demonstrate an Demonstrate an Demonstrate an Demonstrate an understanding of understanding of understanding of understanding of idiomatic expressions idiomatic expressions figurative language figurative language (e.g., “Give me a (e.g., “It’s pouring and idiomatic and idiomatic hand”) by responding outside”) by respond­ expressions by expressions by to such expressions ing to such expres­ responding to such responding to such and using them sions and using them expressions and using expressions and using appropriately. appropriately. them appropriately. them appropriately. Identify strategies used by the media to present information for various purposes (e.g., to inform, entertain, or per­ suade).Comprehension and Negotiate and initiate Negotiate and initiate Negotiate and initiate Negotiate and initiateOrganization and social conversations social conversations social conversations social conversationsDelivery of Oral by questioning, by questioning, by questioning, by questioning,Communication restating, soliciting restating, soliciting restating, soliciting restating, soliciting information, and information, and information, and information, and paraphrasing the paraphrasing the paraphrasing the paraphrasing the communication of communication of communication of communication of others. others. others. others. Consistently use Consistently use Consistently use Consistently use appropriate ways of appropriate ways of appropriate ways of appropriate ways of speaking and writing speaking and writing speaking and writing speaking and writing that vary according to that vary according to that vary according to that vary according to the purpose, audi­ the purpose, audi­ the purpose, audi­ the purpose, audi­ ence, and subject ence, and subject ence, and subject ence, and subject matter. matter. matter. matter. (Continued on p. 24) 23California Department of Education Reposted June 9, 2009
  28. 28. Listening and Speaking Strategies and Applications English–language Advanced ELD level (Continued) arts substrand Grades K–2 Grades 3–5 Grades 6–8 Grades 9–12Comprehension and Narrate and para- Identify the main Prepare and deliver Prepare and deliverOrganization and phrase events in ideas and points of presentations and presentations andDelivery of Oral greater detail by view and distinguish reports in various reports in variousCommunication using more extended fact from fiction in content areas, content areas, vocabulary. broadcast and print including a purpose, including a purpose, media. point of view, point of view, introduction, introduction, coherent transition, coherent transition, and appropriate and appropriate conclusions. conclusions. Speak clearly and Speak clearly and Speak clearly and Speak clearly and comprehensibly by comprehensibly by comprehensibly by comprehensibly by using standard using standard using standard using standard English grammatical English grammatical English grammatical English grammatical forms, sounds, forms, sounds, forms, sounds, forms, sounds, intonation, pitch, and intonation, pitch, and intonation, pitch, and intonation, pitch, and modulation. modulation. modulation. modulation. 24 California Department of Education Reposted June 9, 2009
  29. 29. READING Word Analysis three through twelve should be proficient in those standards related to phonemic aware­ For all students, developing skills in ness, concepts about print, and decoding noreading English begins with a solid under- later than at the early intermediate level.standing of the relationships between En­ Except where it is necessary for instructionglish sounds and letters—the relationships to use nonsense words for teaching andbetween the spoken and written language. assessing students, such as in phonemicFor the English learner those concepts are awareness and early decoding instruction,first developed through the recognition and care should be taken to ensure that studentsproduction of English sounds. Students need work with vocabulary and concepts that areto learn first those sounds that exist and then meaningful and understandable to them.those that do not exist in their first language. For kindergarten through grade two, theStudents then are taught to transfer this English–language arts standards pertainingknowledge to the printed language. As to phonemic awareness, concepts aboutstudents develop knowledge of the corre­ print, and decoding/word recognition havespondence between sounds and printed been incorporated into the ELD standards.symbols, they also develop skills to deal Those language arts standards serve as signswith English morphemes (e.g., prefixes, of whether English learners are makingsuffixes, root words). Those word-analysis appropriate progress toward becomingskills are some of the building blocks stu­ proficient readers. The ELD standardsdents need to develop fluency in English indicate the grade span in which studentsand literacy skills. are to demonstrate proficiency, the language Native speakers of English are expected to arts substrand, and the number of therecognize and produce all the English targeted language arts standard. Nonreaderssounds by no later than first grade. This of any age must move through the sameknowledge is then used in phonics instruc­ sequence of skills when learning to read.tion when children learn to match the En­ Therefore, the instructional sequence forglish sounds with printed letters and use kindergarten through grade two should bethis knowledge to decode and encode used as a guide for English-language devel­words. English learners in kindergarten opment and reading instruction at all gradethrough grade two are to demonstrate levels.proficiency in those English–language arts The instructional sequence for teachingstandards pertaining to phonemic aware­ phonemic awareness, concepts about print,ness, concepts about print, and decoding and decoding skills is more specific in thestandards appropriate for their grade levels kindergarten-through-grade-two spanby the time they reach the advanced level of because the language arts standards forthe ELD standards. those grades focus primarily on developing Because the English–language arts stan­ literacy fluency. In grades three throughdards are essential for all students learning twelve, students must greatly increase theirto read in English, English learners in grades 25California Department of Education Reposted June 9, 2009
  30. 30. content knowledge while learning English are expected to demonstrate proficiency inliteracy skills. Older students with properly the language arts standards for their ownsequenced instruction may achieve literacy grade and for all prior grades.more rapidly than very young children do. One reason for incorporating the language In the ELD standards pathways are arts standards for kindergarten throughprovided that enable students of all ages to grade two into the ELD standards is tobuild literacy skills. The language arts clarify a point: Kindergarten and first-gradestandards for grades three through twelve students at the advanced level in the ELDhave linking ELD standards in each grade standards are also expected to be proficientspan that are designed to help students in the language arts standards for theirachieve proficiency in their grade-level grade level. No limited-English-proficientlanguage arts standards by the time they student is expected to learn the languagereach the advanced level of the ELD stan­ arts standards beyond his or her grade level.dards. Students at the advanced level in ELD 26 California Department of Education Reposted June 9, 2009
  31. 31. Reading Word Analysis English–language Beginning ELD level arts substrand Grades K–2 Grades 3–5 Grades 6–8 Grades 9–12Concepts About Recognize English Recognize English Recognize and Recognize andPrint, Phonemic phonemes that phonemes that correctly pronounce correctly pronounceAwareness, and correspond to correspond to most English most EnglishVocabulary and phonemes students phonemes students phonemes while phonemes whileConcept Develop­ already hear and already hear and reading aloud. reading aloud.ment produce in their produce while primary language. reading aloud.Phonemic Awareness Recognize sound/ Recognize the most Recognize the mostand Decoding and symbol relationships common English common EnglishWord Recognition in one’s own writing. morphemes in morphemes in phrases and simple phrases and simple sentences. sentences (e.g., basic syllabication rules, phonics, regular and irregular plurals). 27California Department of Education Reposted June 9, 2009
  32. 32. Reading Word Analysis English–language Early intermediate ELD level arts substrand Grades K–2 Grades 3–5 Grades 6–8 Grades 9–12Concepts About Produce English phonemes that While reading Produce most Produce mostPrint, Phonemic correspond to phonemes students aloud, recognize English pho­ English pho­Awareness, and already hear and produce, including and produce nemes compre­ nemes compre­Vocabulary and long and short vowels and initial and English pho­ hensibly while hensibly whileConcept Develop­ final consonants. nemes that do reading aloud reading aloudment not correspond one’s own one’s own English–Language Arts Content to phonemes writing, simple writing, simple Standards students already sentences, or sentences, or Kindergarten: Phonemic Aware­ hear and simple texts. simple texts. ness produce (e.g., a 1.7 Track (move sequentially from in cat and final sound to sound) and represent the consonants). number, sameness/difference, and order of two and three isolated phonemes (e.g., /f, s, th/,/j, d, j/). 1.10 Identify and produce rhyming words in response to an oral prompt. Grade One: Phonemic Awareness 1.4 Distinguish initial, medial, and final sounds in single-syllable words. Recognize English phonemes that do not correspond to sounds students hear and produce, (e.g., a in cat and final consonants). English–Language Arts Content Standards Kindergarten: Phonemic Aware­ ness 1.7 Track (move sequentially from sound to sound) and represent the number, sameness/difference, and order of two and three isolated phonemes (e.g., /f, s, th/,/j,d,j/). 1.10 Identify and produce rhyming words in response to an oral prompt. Grade One: Phonemic Awareness 1.4 Distinguish initial, medial, and final sounds in single-syllable words. (Continued on p. 29) 28 California Department of Education Reposted June 9, 2009
  33. 33. Reading Word Analysis English–language Early intermediate ELD level (Continued) arts substrand Grades K–2 Grades 3–5 Grades 6–8 Grades 9–12Decoding and Word Recognize common Use common Use commonRecognition and English morphemes English morphemes English morphemesVocabulary and in phrases and in oral and silent in oral and silentConcept Develop­ simple sentences reading. reading.ment (e.g., basic syllabi- cation rules and phonics). Recognize obvious Recognize obvious cognates cognates (e.g., education, (e.g., education, educación; actually, educación; actually, actualmente) in actualmente) in phrases, simple phrases, simple sentences, litera­ sentences, litera­ ture, and content ture, and content area texts. area texts. 29California Department of Education Reposted June 9, 2009
  34. 34. Reading Word AnalysisEnglish–language Intermediate ELD level arts substrand Grades K–2 Grades 3–5 Grades 6–8 Grades 9–12Phonemic Pronounce most English phonemes Pronounce mostAwareness correctly while reading aloud. English pho­ nemes correctly English–Language Arts Content while reading Standards aloud. Kindergarten: Phonemic Aware­ ness 1.7 Track (move sequentially from sound to sound) and represent the number, sameness/difference, and order of two and three isolated phonemes (e.g., /f, s, th/,/j, d, j/). Grade One: Phonemic Awareness 1.5 Distinguish long- and short- vowel sounds in orally stated single-syllable words (e.g., bit/ bite). 1.6 Create and say a series of rhyming words, including conso­ nant blends. 1.7 Add, delete, or change target sounds to change words (e.g., change cow to how; pan to an). 1.8 Blend two to four phonemes into recognizable words (e.g., /c/a/t/ = cat; /f/l/a/t/ = flat). 1.9 Segment single syllable words into their components (e.g., /c/a/t/ = cat; /s/p/l/a/t/ = splat; /r/i/ch/ = rich).Decoding and Recognize sound/symbol relation- Use common Apply knowledge Apply knowledgeWord Recognition ships and basic word-formation rules English mor­ of common of common in phrases, simple sentences, or phemes in oral English mor­ English mor­ simple text. and silent phemes in oral phemes in oral reading. and silent and silent English–Language Arts Content reading to derive reading to derive Standards meaning from meaning from Grade Two: Decoding and Word literature and literature and Recognition texts in content texts in content 1.4 Recognize common abbrevia­ areas. areas. tions (e.g., Jan., Sun., Mr., St.). (Continued on p. 31) 30 California Department of Education Reposted June 9, 2009
  35. 35. Reading Word AnalysisEnglish–language Intermediate ELD level (Continued) arts substrand Grades K–2 Grades 3–5 Grades 6–8 Grades 9–12Decoding and Identify cognates Identify cognatesWord Recognition (e.g., agonía, (e.g., agonía, agony) and false agony) and false cognates (e.g., éxito, cognates (e.g., éxito, exit) in literature exit) in literature and texts in content and texts in content areas. areas.Concepts About Recognize and name allPrint uppercase and lowercase letters of the alphabet. English–Language Arts Content Standards Kindergarten 1.1 Identify the front cover, back cover, and title page of a book. 1.2 Follow words from left to right and from top to bottom on the printed page. 1.3 Understand that printed materials provide informa­ tion. 1.4 Recognize that sen­ tences in print are made up of separate words. 1.5 Distinguish letters from words. Grade One 1.1 Match spoken words to printed words. 1.3 Identify letters, words, and sentences. 31California Department of Education Reposted June 9, 2009

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