various hydroelectric power plants in india and abroad

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  • 1. Home AssignmentTASK # 1Write various types of power plants in India & Abroad.Name: Mohd DanishFaculty No.: 12 CEM 22Enrollment No.: GB 1822Course: M. Tech. Hydraulics StructureSemester: IISubject: Hydropower Structures CE-617
  • 2. Task # 1 Write various types of power plants in India & Abroad.1. IntroductionElectricity can be generated using the kinetic energy of water, heat energy of the sun andcoal, or from the nuclear energy released from the fission of nuclear fuel. There are varioustypes of power plants that use one of the many resources available to generate electricity.Energy is an important requirement for us. From running our air conditioners to fueling ourvehicles, our daily survival depends upon energy. Energy requirements have led countries towar and continue to be a bone of contention between many nations. Insufficient power(energy) supply is one of the main causes of crippling economies. Strong power generationindustry indicates strong economic growth and prosperity for any nation. Energy comes invarious forms. The most convenient of all of them is electrical energy. Not only is it easy togenerate, but it can also be generated through a number of different ways with the help ofdifferent types of power plants. Although the word generated is commonly used along withthe term energy, it is a fact that energy cannot be generated or destroyed. We can just changethe form of energy. At power plants too, energy that is available in a particular form isconverted into another form.2. Types of Power Plants2.1. Nuclear Power PlantsNuclear power plants work on the chemical process of fission. Nuclear reactors are used togenerate electricity. Fission is a type of nuclear reaction in which, when the atoms of certainelements called nuclear fuels absorb free neutrons, they split into two or more small nucleiand some free neutrons. In the process, large amount of energy is released. The free neutronsfurther strike the atoms of other fissile materials, thus setting off a chain reaction. The energyreleased from this chain reaction is harnessed to generate electricity. Nuclear power plantshave ways to control or stop these reactions when they seem to go out of control and becomethreatening. The nuclear fuel used are Uranium-235 or Plutonium-239. Every country is inthe race of becoming capable of harnessing nuclear energy. It is so because the free energyreleased by nuclear material is millions times more than that contained in an equal amount ofany other traditional fuel. However, what raises the concern about these reactions is that a lotof radioactive material is created in the process. These substances remain radioactive forlong. This raises the problem of managing nuclear waste. Records show that there are about435 working nuclear power plants in the world. Managing the used fuel at the plants andName: Mohd DanishFaculty No.: 12 CEM 22En. No.: GB 1822
  • 3. Task # 1 Write various types of power plants in India & Abroad.reducing the chances of threats involve high designing skills, extensive research and use ofadvanced technology. Moreover, nuclear power stations should be able to sustain a terroristattack (large fires or explosions), as power stations are preferred targets of terrorist attacks.Thus, the operating cost or cost of setting up a new nuclear plant is likely to shoot up rapidlynot only due to increasing costs of fuels but also due to the advanced technology required. Asof 16 January 2013, there were 390 nuclear power plants in operation. A typical NuclearPower plant is shown in fig. 1.Fig. 1 Nuclear Power Plant2.2. Thermal Power PlantsThese power plants generate electrical energy from thermal energy (heat). Since heat isgenerated by burning fossil fuels like coal, petroleum, or natural gas, these are alsocollectively referred to as the fossil fueled power plants. Coal power plants were the earliestof the fossil power plants to have been built. Even today, coal is the most common fuel that isused by thermal power stations. The heat generated by burning the fossil fuels is used to turna rotating machinery, most commonly a steam turbine or a gas turbine that changes thethermal energy into mechanical energy. The rotating turbine is attached to an alternator thatName: Mohd DanishFaculty No.: 12 CEM 22En. No.: GB 1822
  • 4. Task # 1 Write various types of power plants in India & Abroad.coverts the mechanical energy of the rotating turbine into electrical energy. Handling anddisposal of ash plays an important role in maintaining the environmental balance. These days,thermal power stations that use biomass or biofuel to generate electricity are beingconstructed. A typical diagram of a Thermal Power Plants showing its various components isgiven in fig. 2.Fig. 2 Typical diagram of a coal fired thermal Power stationName: Mohd DanishFaculty No.: 12 CEM 22En. No.: GB 1822
  • 5. Task # 1 Write various types of power plants in India & Abroad.2.3. Hydro Power PlantsThese plants use the kinetic energy of flowing water to produce electrical energy. Hydropower plants store water in large reservoirs. Water in these reservoirs flow down the dam androtate a turbine. As the blades of a turbine turn, so do the magnets inside the generator whichis connected to the turbine. These magnets rotate past copper coils and with each rotation,electricity is produced. There are more than 2,000 hydro power plants in the US, making itthe largest source of energy in the country. Despite their utility, their major drawback is thatthey are highly dependent on the hydrological cycle of the area where they are built. Lesselectricity is generated when the supply of water to the plant is insufficient. Some hydropower stations were shut down due to shortage of water. Direct benefits of dams, reservoirsand hydro power plants include increased availability of water for drinking and for crops,improved irrigation, good employment opportunities and a better standard of living for thevillagers in the surrounding area. Construction of dams and hydro power plants results ineconomic and social development of the local people. Reservoirs also promote fish farmingand ecotourism in the area. But, at the same time, people have to surrender their lands;millions are displaced, as few villages, cities and towns are flooded due the dam. Accordingto the available records, the Three Gorges Dam shown in fig. 3 built on the river Yangtze inChina is the worlds largest hydro power project.Name: Mohd DanishFaculty No.: 12 CEM 22En. No.: GB 1822
  • 6. Task # 1 Write various types of power plants in India & Abroad.Fig. 3 Three Gorges Dam2.4. Solar Power PlantsSolar power is the conversion of sunlight into electricity, either directly using photovoltaic(PV), or indirectly using concentrated solar power (CSP). It uses lenses or mirrors andtracking systems to focus a large area of sunlight into a small beam. Photovoltaic convertlight into electric current using the photoelectric effect. Commercial concentrated solar powerplants were first developed in the 1980s. The installation 354 MW SEGS CSP is the largestsolar power plant in the world, located in the Mojave Desert of California. Other large CSPplants include the Solnova Solar Power Station (150 MW) and the Andasol solar powerstation (150 MW), both in Spain. The 200 MW Agua Caliente Solar Project in the UnitedStates, and the 214 MW Charanka Solar Parkin India are the world’s largest photovoltaicplants. A photovoltaic power panels is shown ion fig. 4.Fig. 4 Photovoltaic Power plant2.5. Wind PlantsName: Mohd DanishFaculty No.: 12 CEM 22En. No.: GB 1822
  • 7. Task # 1 Write various types of power plants in India & Abroad.Wind power is the conversion of wind energy into a useful form of energy, such asusing wind turbines to make electrical power, windmills for mechanical power, wind pumpsfor water pumping or drainage, or sails to propel ships. Large wind farms consist of hundredsof individual wind turbines which are connected to the electric power transmission network.Offshore wind farms can harness more frequent and powerful winds than are available toland-based installations and have less visual impact on the landscape but construction costsare considerably higher. Small onshore wind facilities are used to provide electricity toisolated locations and utility companies increasingly buy surplus electricity produced bysmall domestic wind turbines. Wind power, as an alternative to fossil fuels, isplentiful, renewable, widely distributed, clean, produces no greenhouse gas emissions duringoperation and uses little land. Any effects on the environment are generally less problematicthan those from other power sources. As of 2011, Denmark is generating more than a quarterof its electricity from wind. 83 countries around the world are using wind power on acommercial basis. In 2010 wind energy production was over 2.5% of total worldwideelectricity usage, and growing rapidly at more than 25% per annum. The monetary cost perunit of energy produced is similar to the cost for new coal and natural gasinstallations. Although wind power is a popular form of energy generation, the constructionof wind farms is not universally welcomed due to aesthetics. Wind power is very consistentfrom year to year but has significant variation over shorter time scales. The intermittency ofwind seldom creates problems when used to supply up to 20% of total electricity demand, butas the proportion increases, a need to upgrade the grid, and a lowered ability to supplantconventional production can occur. Power management techniques such as having excesscapacity storage, geographically distributed turbines, dispatch able backing sources, storagesuch as pumped-storage hydroelectricity, exporting and importing power to neighboring areasor reducing demand when wind production is low, can greatly mitigate these problems. Inaddition, weather forecasting permits the electricity network to be readied for the predictablevariations in production that occur. A typical wind power plant and a diagram showing windmachine are shown in fig. 5 and fig. 6 respectively.Name: Mohd DanishFaculty No.: 12 CEM 22En. No.: GB 1822
  • 8. Task # 1 Write various types of power plants in India & Abroad.Fig. 5 Wind Power Plant2.6. Gas PlantGas turbine plants use the dynamic pressure from flowing gases (air and combustionproducts) to directly operate the turbine. Natural-gas fuelled (and oil fueled) combustionturbine plants can start rapidly and so are used to supply "peak" energy during periods of highdemand, though at higher cost than base-loaded plants. These may be comparatively smallunits, and sometimes completely unmanned, being remotely operated. This type waspioneered by the UK, Princetown being the worlds first, commissioned in 1959.2.7. Tidal PlantsTidal power, also called tidal energy, is a form of hydropower that converts the energyof tides into useful forms of power - mainly electricity. Although not yet widely used, tidalpower has potential for future electricity generation. Tides are more predictable than windenergy and solar power. Among sources of renewable energy, tidal power has traditionallyName: Mohd DanishFaculty No.: 12 CEM 22En. No.: GB 1822
  • 9. Task # 1 Write various types of power plants in India & Abroad.suffered from relatively high cost and limited availability of sites with sufficiently high tidalranges or flow velocities, thus constricting its total availability. However, many recenttechnological developments and improvements, both in design (e.g. dynamic tidalpower, tidal lagoons) and turbine technology (e.g. new axial turbines, cross flow turbines),indicate that the total availability of tidal power may be much higher than previouslyassumed, and that economic and environmental costs may be brought down to competitivelevels. Historically, tide mills have been used, both in Europe and on the Atlantic coast ofNorth America. The incoming water was contained in large storage ponds, and as the tidewent out, it turned waterwheels that used the mechanical power it produced to mill grain. Theearliest occurrences date from the Middle Ages, or even from Roman times. It was only in the19th century that the process of using falling water and spinning turbines to create electricitywas introduced in the U.S. and Europe. The worlds first large-scale tidal power plant(the Rance Tidal Power Station) became operational in 1966.2.8. Geothermal PlantsGeothermal energy is used to generate electrucuty.. Technologies in use include dry steampower plants, flash steam power plants and binary cycle power plants. Geothermal electricitygeneration is currently used in 24 countries, while geothermal heating is in use in 70countries. Estimates of the electricity generating potential of geothermal energy vary from 35to 2,000 GW. Current worldwide installed capacity is 10,715 megawatts (MW), with thelargest capacity in the United States (3,086 MW), Philippines, and Indonesia. Geothermalpower is considered to be sustainable because the heat extraction is small compared with theEarths heat content. The emission intensity of existing geothermal electric plants is onaverage 122 kg of CO2 per megawatt-hour (MW·h) of electricity, about one-eighth of aconventional coal-fired plant.2.9. Pumped Storage PlantsPumped-storage hydroelectricity (PSH) is a type of hydroelectric power generation used bysome power plants for load balancing. The method stores energy in the form of potentialenergy of water, pumped from a lower elevation reservoir to a higher elevation. Low-cost off-peak electric power is used to run the pumps. During periods of high electrical demand, thestored water is released through turbines to produce electric power. Although the losses of thepumping process makes the plant a net consumer of energy overall, the systemName: Mohd DanishFaculty No.: 12 CEM 22En. No.: GB 1822
  • 10. Task # 1 Write various types of power plants in India & Abroad.increases revenue by selling more electricity during periods of peak demand, when electricityprices are highest. Pumped storage is the largest-capacity form of grid energystorage available, and, as of March 2012, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)reports that PSH accounts for more than 99% of bulk storage capacity worldwide,representing around 127,000MW. PSH reported energy efficiency varies in practice between70% and 80%, with some claiming up to 87%.3. Data showing various power plants in India and GloballyLocation of various types of power plants on the World map is shown in fig.7.Fig. 7 Global Power PlantList of various Power Plants in India is shown in fig. 8Name: Mohd DanishFaculty No.: 12 CEM 22En. No.: GB 1822
  • 11. Task # 1 Write various types of power plants in India & Abroad.Fig. 8 List of Power Plants in IndiaName: Mohd DanishFaculty No.: 12 CEM 22En. No.: GB 1822
  • 12. Task # 1 Write various types of power plants in India & Abroad.List of Power Plants in India contd…Name: Mohd DanishFaculty No.: 12 CEM 22En. No.: GB 1822