Training and development
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  • 1. TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT - INTRODUCTIONTraining can be introduced simply as a process of assisting a person for enhancing his efficiency andeffectiveness to a particular work area by getting more knowledge and practices. Also training is importantto establish specific skills, abilities and knowledge to an employee. For an organization, training anddevelopment are important as well as organizational growth, because the organizational growth and profitare also dependent on the training. But the training is not a core of organizational development. It is afunction of the organizational development.Training is different form education; particularly formal education. The education is concerned mainly withenhancement of knowledge, but the aims of training are increasing knowledge while changing attitudesand competences in good manner. Basically the education is formulated with in the framework and tosyllabus, but the training is not formed in to the frame and as well as syllabus. It may differ from oneemployee to another, one group to another, even the group in the same class. The reason for that can bementioned as difference of attitudes and skills from one person to another. Even the situation is that, aftergood training programme, all different type skilled one group of employees can get in to similar capacity,similar skilled group. That is an advantage of the trainings.In the field of Human Resources Management, Training and Development is the field concern withorganizational activities which are aimed to bettering individual and group performances in organizationalsettings. It has been known by many names in the field HRM, such as employee development, humanresources development, learning and development etc. Training is really developing employees’capacities through learning and practicing.Training and Development is the framework for helping employees to develop their personal andorganizational skills, knowledge, and abilities. The focus of all aspects of Human Resource Developmentis on developing the most superior workforce so that the organization and individual employees canaccomplish their work goals in service to customers.All employees want to be valuable and remain competitive in the labour market at all times, because theymake some demand for employees in the labour market. This can only be achieved through employeetraining and development. Hence employees have a chance to negotiate as well as employer has a goodopportunity to select most suitable person for his vacancy. Employees will always want to develop career-enhancing skills, which will always lead to employee motivation. There is no doubt that a well trained anddeveloped staff will be a valuable asset to the company and thereby increasing the chances of hisefficiency in discharging his or her duties.Trainings in an organization can be mainly of two types; Internal and External training sessions. Internaltraining involves when training is organized in-house by the human resources department or trainingdepartment using either a senior staff or any talented staff in the particular department as a resourceperson.On the other hand external training is normally arranged outside the firm and is mostly organized bytraining institutes or consultants. Whichever training, it is very important for all staff and helps in building
  • 2. career positioning and preparing staff for greater challenges in developing world. How ever the training iscostly. Because of that, people who work at firms do not receive external trainings most of times. The costis a major issue for the lack of training programmes in Sri Lanka. But nowadays, a new concept has comewith these trainings which is “Trainers through trainees”. While training their employees in largequantities, many countries use that method in present days to reduce their training costs. The theory ofthis is, sending a little group or an individual for a training programme under a bonding agreement orwithout a bond. When they come back to work, the externally trained employees train the employees whohave not participated for above training programme by internal training programmes.Employers of labour should enable employees to pursue training and development in a direction that theychoose and are interested in, not just in company-assigned directions. Companies should supportlearning, in general, and not just in support of knowledge needed for the employees current or nextanticipated job. It should be noted that the key factor is keeping the employee interested, attending,engaged, motivated and retained.For every employee to perform well, especially Supervisors and Managers, there is a need for constanttraining and development. The right employee training, development and education provides big payoffsfor the employer in increased productivity, knowledge, loyalty, and contribution to general growth of thefirm. In most cases external trainings for instance provide participants with the avenue to meet new set ofpeople in the same field and network. The meeting will give them the chance to compare issues and findout what is obtainable in each others environment. This for sure will introduce positive changes wherenecessary.It is not mentioned in any where that the employers, managers and supervisors are not suitable fortraining programmes. They also must be highly trained if they are expected to do their best for theorganization. Through that they will have best abilities and competencies to manage the organization.Training employees not only creates a more positive corporate culture, but also add a value to its keyresources.Raw human resources can make only limited contribution to the organization to achieve its goals andobjectives. Hence the demands for the developed employees are continuously increasing. Thus thetraining is a kind of investment.WHY EMPLOYEE INDUCTION IS IMPORTANT?Employee induction programs will reduce the reality shock and cultural shock of the new employee inshort period. New employees are having dreams about some organization and the cultures, but the actualsituation may not be the same as they are thinking. That unexpected situation will make shock in theemployees mind and that may cause not to have well efficient of the employee. Not only the efficiency,but also it may cause to increase the working stress of the new employee, and some times it may causeto new labor turn over too. Some times the organizational culture may not match with the new employees’expectation. That may cause to make many of conflicts and problems at the organization, among workinggroups. Assume if there is have a conflict between a group of new employees who are having educationalqualifications than others with high class and a group of employees who are having well experience in theindustry with lower class of the society. Both of parties have different cultures. (Assume the experienced
  • 3. management level educated employees have worked with this all labors with peace and mutualunderstanding) Manage this conflicts is not easy at the middle level, mean after this happened. If therewere a proper induction program has practiced and these two cultures have introduced to each others.Then they will understand the importance of they are being at the organization as a one group. This ispossible to have in both individuals and groups.Induction is helps to employee to adapt to the organization easily in short period. This will help to reducethe labor turnover as describes at above. Inductions helps to make expectation on people.TYPES OF INDUCTIONOrganizational induction: This is means the new employee is oriented to Vision, Mission, Goals,Strategies, Organizational Setup ad history and current states of the organization.Department Induction: This means the new employee is oriented to the particular department where heor she will have to perform.Job induction: the new employee is oriented to the job he/she is supposed to perform. He/she shouldlearn the duties, responsibilities, working conditions of the job.Human induction: the new employee is introduced to all the personnel with whom he/she will have tointeract frequently.CATEGORIES OF INDUCTIONSGeneral induction: this is refers to introducing the new employee to the organization setting. Topmanagement may involve in this step and they may address to all recruited new employees at once as agroup, not individually.Special Induction: This is refers to introducing the new employee to the job and job environment.Immediate supervisors, field expertise, co workers/ peers and some times subordinators may involve tothis category. This is directly refers to the work that needs to done by new employee. So this step maycritical thing at the organization. At this stage new employee might solve his/her problems, which arerelating to his/her worksSTEP OF INDUCTION- AT PROCESS OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENTAfter hiring new employees to the organization, they should be well understood and familiar with regard toorganizational philosophies, goals and objectives, policies, procedures, rules and regulations andpractices. It requires that a new employee is to be originated so as to suit the organization thought he/sheis a well qualified and experienced person. This orientation is called employee induction.Induction can be defined as “The HRM function that systematically and formally introduces newemployees to the organization, the jobs, the work groups to which they will belong and the work
  • 4. environment where they will work.” According to the above definition it is needed to plan a goodorientation program for the new employees. Then the new comers will know what they need to do andwhat the expected things is organization expecting from them. So that mutual understanding will helps tothe new employee to survive in the organization at the beginning. And also induction program willintroduce the new employee to the organization and vice versa.It is a systematic attempt to introduce the new employee to the organization, the relevant department, therelevant job and the relevant personnel. Also new employee will know who are his/her superiors,subordinators and peers. So then the new employee will knows at least from whom he/she may need toget help. Good induction programme is the basement of mutual understanding pr all parties.OBJECTIVES OF TRAININGObjectives of training methods can be determined generally as below.a) Increase job satisfaction and morals among employeesb) Increase employee motivationc) Increase efficiencies in processes, resulting in financial gaind) Increase capacity to adopt new technologies and methodse) Increase innovation in strategies and productsf) Reduce employee turnoverg) Enhance company image, e.g., conducting ethics training (not a good reason for ethics training!)h) Risk management, e.g., training about sexual harassment, diversity trainingObjectives of orientations are different from other methods, because it is given for the new employees ofthe organization at the beginning of their career at organization. Orientation training should emphasize thefollowing topics:(i) The companys history and mission.(i) The key members in the organization.(ii) The key members in the department, and how the department helps fulfill the mission of the company.(iii) Personnel rules and regulations.Objectives of the telling methods give an idea about the training area. Sometimes written parts also canbe seen in this method, but generally this method gives an understanding about the learning area.Showing methods create a picture in trainees mind and it helps to bring the trainee to real situations andthat helps to practice decision making and general understanding in wide area, than telling method. Thismethod also helps to increase the creativity of the trainee.Role playing generate leaders and decision makers. Such kind of things help the trainee to get a deepunderstanding about the learning and working area. These kinds of trainings can be used for juniormanagement levels and finally can make a competence, skillful employees. Job rotation reduces theindividual stress while training employees as generalists. By this training method, employer ormanagement can assign the trained employee to fill an internal vacancy, without giving training again.
  • 5. This will help the smooth flow of work at the organization. These kinds of trainings are better to faceabsenteeism of an employee in any manner.Technical training is unique for a job. Most of technicians are specialized for their fields. So thesetechnical trainings reduce wastage and accidents while maximizing the profit of a firm or the line. Thesekinds of trainings create efficiency in the organizational production.TRAINING METHODS TYPES - THE DISCUSSION TECHNIQUE- (Orientations, Internships andassistantships, Programmed , Laboratory , and Technical trainingsThe discussion technique involves the participation of the trainee in actual work. Trainee is allowed to askany related questions. Some times cases are also used for actual situations. These methods generatediscussions between the trainee and the trainer. This can be used in several types of organizations relateto their works.Some methods can not be determined as a part of above mentioned training types, because they havesome specific characters or a combination of above types. Those various specific training methods arediscussed below.a) Orientations - Orientations are for new employees. The first several days on the job are crucial in thesuccess of new employees. This point is illustrated by the fact that 60 percent of all employees who quitdo so in the first ten days.Some companies use verbal presentations while others have written presentations. Many smallbusinesses convey these topics in one-on-one orientations. No matter what method is used, it isimportant that the newcomer understand his or her new place of employment.b) Internships and assistantships – These are usually a combination of classroom and on-the-jobtraining. They are often used to train prospective managers or marketing personnel.c) Programmed learning - Programmed learning, computer-aided instruction and interactive video allhave one thing in common: they allow the trainee to learn at his or her own pace. Also, they allow materialalready learned to be bypassed in favor of material with which a trainee is having difficulty. After theintroductory period, the instructor need not be present, and the trainee can learn as his or her time allows.These methods sound good, but may be beyond the resources of some small businesses.d) Laboratory training – This is conducted for groups by skilled trainers. It usually is conducted at aneutral site and is used by upper- and middle management trainees to develop a spirit of teamwork andan increased ability to deal with management and peers. It can be costly and usually is offered by largersmall businesses. Most of research and development institutes are used this method and this will be themost effective training type to such kind of institutes.e) Technical training – There are numerous fields in which technical training are offered which coversthe jobs such as that of draughtsman, machinist, toolmaker, designers, mechanics, electrician, technicalofficers and technical assistants etc. For training in crafts, trades and in technical areas, apprenticeshiptraining is the oldest and the most commonly used method. Apprenticeships develop employees who cando many different tasks. They usually involve several related groups of skills that allow the apprentice topractice a particular trade, and they take place over a long period of time in which the apprentice worksfor, and with, the senior skilled worker. Apprenticeships are especially appropriate for jobs requiringproduction skills.
  • 6. TRAINING METHODS TYPES - THE ROLE PLAYING METHODRole playing and simulation are training techniques that attempt to bring realistic decision makingsituations to the trainee. Likely problems and alternative solutions are presented for discussion. Theadage there is no better trainer than experience is exemplified with this type of training. Experiencedemployees can describe real world experiences, and can help in and learn from developing the solutionsto these simulations. This method is cost effective and is used in marketing and management training.Sometimes role playing activities can be categorized under the discussion methods too.Job rotation also can be mentioned as a role playing method. Job rotation involves moving an employeethrough a series of jobs so he or she can get a good exposure to the tasks that are associated withdifferent jobs. It is usually used in training for supervisory positions. The employee learns a little abouteverything. This is a good strategy for small businesses because of the many jobs an employee may beasked to do, and this strategy is used to manage individual stress at organizations.TRAINING METHODS TYPES - THE SHOWING METHODIn showing method audiovisual methods such as television, videotapes and films are used. This is themost effective means of providing real world conditions and situations in a short time. One advantage isthat the presentation is the same no matter how many times its played. This is not true with lectures,which can change as the speaker is changed or can be influenced by outside constraints. The major flawwith the audiovisual method is that it does not allow for questions and interactions with the speaker, nordoes it allow for changes in the presentation for different audiences.Sometimes presentations can be considered, according to showing method; but the presentations arecombination of verbal and displaying or showing methods.TRAINING METHODS- On-the-job training, Off-the-job trainingTrainings in an organization can be divided to two broad types. They are on-the-job trainings and off-the-job trainings. These on-the-job trainings are given to the employees while they are conducting theirregular works at the same places. In this way they do not lose time while they are training or learning.After a plan is developed for what should be taught, employees should be informed about the details. Atime table should be establish with periodic evaluations to inform employees about their progress. On-the-job training techniques include orientations, job instruction training, apprenticeships, internships,assistantships, job rotation and coaching.Off-the-job techniques include lectures, special study, audio visual conferences or discussions, casestudies, role playing, simulation, programmed instructions, and laboratory trainings. Most of thesetechniques are too costly.Methods of trainings can be basically divided to four types, namely,a. the telling methodb. the showing methodc. the role playing methodd. the discussion techniqueOBJECTIVES OF TRAINING PROGRAMMES
  • 7. One major objective of the training is problem solving in ongoing processes. Training can solve a varietyof manpower problems including operational problems involving manpower component. If not solved,these problems may lead to the reduction of optimum productivity. These problems can emerge withinany group, such as except non-except, line and staff, unskilled, skilled, lower, middle and uppermanagement. These problems are according to natures and all are having a common denominator, thesolution required individual to their appreciative backgrounds specific identifiable items of additionalknowledge skill or understanding. Organization wide, these problems includes needs toa) Increase productivityb) Improve the quality of work, work life and raise moralsc) Develop new skills, knowledge, attitudes and understandingd) Correct use of new tools, machines, processes, methods or modifications thereofe) Reduce wastage, accidents, turnover, lateness, absenteeism, and other overhead costs.f) Implement new or changed policies or regulationsg) Fight obsolescence in skills, technologies, methods, products, markets, capital management etc.h) Bring incumbents to that level of performance which meets the standard of performance for the job.i) Develop replacements, prepare people for advancement, improve manpower deployment and ensurecontinuity of leadership.j) Ensure the survival and growth of the organization.k) Optimum utilization of human resources at the organization can be considered as an objective oftraining programs. The training and development programs further help the employee to achieve theorganizational goals as well as their individual goals.l) Training and development is inculcating the sense of team work, team spirit, and inter-teamcollaborations. It helps in inculcating the zeal to learn with in the employees.m) Training programs can be used to building the positive perception and feeling about the organization.The employees get these feelings from leaders, subordinators, and peers.n) Health and safety is a major factor at the organization. Training programs in the sense of health andsafety helps in improving the health and safety of the organization thus preventing obsolescence; and itwill helps to create healthy work environment through changing attitudes of the both employees andemployers.o) Finally the training programs are objected to develop human resources at the organization intechnically and behaviorally in an organization. It also helps to development of an organization throughmore effective works, decision making and problem solving too. Training programs reduces the stress ofmanagement and employer; because when employees receive.TRAINING METHODS TYPES - THE TELLING METHOD
  • 8. In the telling method, lectures are delivered similar to class room sessions. Lectures are used in this typeof methods. Lectures present training material verbally and are used when the goal is to present a greatdeal of material to many people. It is more cost effective to lecture to a group than to train peopleindividually. Lecturing is one-way communication and as such may not be the most effective way to train.Also, it is hard to ensure that the entire audience understands a topic on the same level; by targeting theaverage attendee you may under train some and lose others. Despite these drawbacks, lecturing is themost cost-effective way of reaching large audiencesACHIEVING TRAINING OBJECTIVESTraining objective should be specific for the particular segment of the even or an organization. As mentionabove, the training objectives may different from the one organization to another; but the objective shouldbe specific for that organization and or specific to part of that organization. i.e. Implement ISO 9000:2001quality system for Research and Development Division. The above objective is specific, and theemployees should be trained for achieve that objective. Even the above objective can be different from aTesting services division. R & D is trial and error method or product development basis and testingservices is based on evaluation methods or quality assurance of developed product basis. It definitelymay different from marketing and sales division of an organization.Another important thing of the establishing training objectives is it should be measurable. From a specificmethod or a process or generally, the objective can be measured. If the objectives can not be measure,the evaluation of the training is difficult. Therefore a good training objective is should be measurable. Ifthe training can not be measure then it will go in to wide area rather than expected, and the trainees mayconfused because of that. The confusion of a trainee in a training programme may be a reason of lack ofparticipation of the next training programme; and also if the training did not develop the trainee, that willbe waste the time of both trainee and trainer. Even that will not make confusion in trainee, but also ithappens in the trainer. So the training objectives should be established in measurable way by any one.The training objective should be achievable by trainees. If the training objectives can not be achievable bytrainees, it is also an error of setting training objectives. The training programmes should be motivatingemployees of an organization; not makes frustration in them. For motivate people and training them incorrect way, there should the objectives are achievable. i.e. Implementing ISO 9000:2001 quality systemamong R & D Division that should be achievable. If the R & D Divisions can not implement the qualitysystem any how, that objective is not achievable for R & D institutes rather than production orientedorganization. When setting non achievable training objectives, trainees are may feel that training will noteffect for them; and it may only time consuming thing. In organizational level time consuming for nonprofitable thing is not good. It may reason for profit losses and destroy skillful employees’ skills too.Competence employees may not like to spend their valuable time for non achievable things and it maymake stress in their minds too. Then the absenteeism, accidents, and less concerning to work mayincrease in the organization. So there must to set achievable training objectives when the training isallocating for employees.The training programme should relevant to an organization or to the employee. Sometimes employeesmay receive some of training programmes which are not directly relevant to their current fields; but it mayhave a good opportunity to adapt to new potential field to the employee. Also, some kind of generaltrainings has involved making employees as “Generalists” not specify to a particular field. That is suitablefor most of firms, organizations; but such as medicine, surgeons, and research officers, that is not relativemostly. Those specific job titles have to have a specialization and special abilities. The generalist conceptis most suitable to most of organizations because then the employer can rotate employees among theorganization in to several types of job responsibilities. To reduce individual stress in an organization, thejob rotation is a suitable process. To rotate jobs, employees must have general knowledge and abilities todo assigned tasks well. Training and development programmes can bring the employees up to thatstandard. In the case of specialized job titles, there have to be a direct relationship between training andthe job responsibilities. i.e. to a research officer who is specialized in inorganic chemistry , training relatedto handicraft or carpentry will not be useful for his research field. That training is useful for a carpenter.
  • 9. When considering nano technology, there is no direct relationship between nano technology andinorganic chemistry, but there is a good potential to apply nano technology in inorganic chemistry such asmaking free radical coatings with certain materials giving them special properties. Nano technology isrelated not only to inorganic specialists, but also it’s related to the specialists in organic chemistry. Forexample nano technology is used in organic chemistry to produce high efficiency hydrocarbons byconverting hydrocarbons to nano particles ultimately making high efficiency fuel source. Also, Nanotechnology is not related to administrative work. Administrative works should have trainings such as PRhandling etc. So the relatedness of the training program for employee is an important thing when settingtraining objectives. The employer or trainer must concentrate on these functions when he or sheestablishes training objectives to the training programmes.In both on-the-job and off-the-job training methods, training objectives should be time bound, because thetrainee takes time to develop skills in him. When considering off-the-job type trainings, during the trainingperiod, the organization may not have a maximum contribution for the production function. Evan in on-the-job type training, there is low contribution from the employee to organization during the training periods.Therefore to minimize this additional time consumption, the trainings should be time bounded. For anemployee to achieve a given objective within a given period of time there can be gat efficientautomatically. Training programmes and training objectives should be oriented in efficiently. For thatpurpose, there should be a specific time period to end up the training and develop the trainee.SETTING TRAINING OBJECTIVES - WHAT ARE THE TRAINING OBJECTIVESTraining objectives are some kind of statements of what training is expected to achieve at the beginning.Setting training objectives must be in according to SMART theory; because of the training is one ofimportant function in human resources management and also it is a costly process. So the trainingobjectives should be expected level of an employee by employer.Identification of the training needs correctly is most wanted thing for setting training objectives. For settingtraining objectives, there can be done some of analysis of employees. This also is important to thedesigning of the training programme. An employer can do a task analysis, fault analysis and skill analysisat the beginning of setting training objectives. Task analysis is a systematic analysis of the behaviourrequired to carry out a task with a view to identifying areas of difficulty and the appropriate trainingtechniques and learning aids necessary for successful instruction. By task analyzing there can be identifywhat kind of difficulties the employee is facing while doing the given task. Where the incidence of errors offaults in a job can be fairly high, the faults analysis method can be useful for identify the actual faults.Identifying the faults and the frequencies of faults are doing important job on the setting trainingobjectives. Maybe the most common method of analyzing the skills required in work of a non-supervisorynature in industry or commerce is that known simply as skills analysis. There has a good potential toidentify skills and abilities by skill analyzing. Knowing of skills of an employee is important to setobjectives on trainings.As a major function of human resources management process, training and development is giving highercontribution to the organization when recruiting new employees to organization. After recruit newemployee, training programmes are important to induction part of HRM process. Not only for the inductionof HRM has process, but also for other parted of the process, such as performance appraisal etc. Whenestablishing training objectives these kinds of specific things should be conceder, as same as otherthings.In setting objectives of training, is depends on the organization. It may differ from an organization toorganization. In an organization again the objectives are basically depends on its vision mission andcorporate objectives. These have to achieve without any argument. But in operational level, there can beidentify most of times employees makes lots of mistakes because the lack of training. Even they arehighly paid, highly motivated people; this can not be decrease in large amount. For these types ofsituations are the indicators of the training needs and the training objectives. Training objectives are
  • 10. should be achieves and fulfill training needs of an organization. Also training objectives should have apower of motivation. Otherwise if the training objectives make stress on the employee, then the out comeof training may not be achieves the objectives..IDENTIFY TRAINING NEEDS- (C) HUMAN RELATION MOVEMENTSHuman relation movements, in other words labor turnover directly impact on the processes oforganization and also on the income. The labor turnover is some kind of an indicator of the organizationalstability and growth. Men work at organizations for many reasons - for high level of material comfort, forrecognition etc. Satisfaction is a major impact on employees to reduce labor turnover; because thedifferences of people makes troubles for the managers. To motivate people, training and developmentcan be used effectively. Training and development gives a chance to employees to develop their skillsand abilities initially for their personal success and for organizational success. So employees can satisfyfrom training programmes what ever useful to them, if they received trainings at the time they need it andthrough a correct process. Satisfied employee will never leave his or her work place with out anyillnesses, retirements and such kind of things.IDENTIFY TRAINING NEEDS- (B) ORGANIZATIONAL COMPLEXITYWhen the organization recruits management trainees for their companies as just passed out graduates,they are not in the situation to manage their theory knowledge in practice at once. Lack of experience andapplication of theory knowledge for the right movement are basic reasons. So when company hasrecruited trainees for their processes, there should give training for them to adapt for new field easily suchas human resources management. Trainees who successfuly developed are moved to the higher levelsof responsibilities in an organization. But the investment of both parties- trainee and organization in thisprocess is a waste for the both parties, when the trainee fails to develop.IDENTIFY TRAINING NEED- (A) TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCESAfter Second World War the technology has developed in fast than the beginning. The average companyand even a research institute is basis on machinery and new technologies mostly. As a result ofresearches and these innovations of technology and methods, organizations had a chance to reduce theirwastes and costs in production process while maximizing productions. But the technology advances cannot bear by organizations easily because of the adaptation is not easy. So for better adaptationorganizations should have a good process for that. Training and Development is most suitable for thatand it is commonly used. People should be trained for new technologies like Nano technology to faceglobal changes and to get maximum efficiency from raw materials. So the better adaptation process oftechnology advances in an organization is training and development programmes.IDENTIFY TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT NEEDSThe first step of the process of training and development is identification of the organizational needs fortrained manpower, both present and future. Basically some questions can be used in this step.a) What specifically must an employee learn in order to be more productive?b) Where is training needed?c) Who needs to be trained?The productiveness of an employee is the important factor for the employer, because the income or profitof the organization and employer is depends on the employees’ productiveness.
  • 11. Begin by assessing the current status of the company; how it does, what it does best and the abilities ofyour employees to do these tasks. This analysis will provide some benchmarks against which theeffectiveness of a training program can be evaluated. The organization or an employer should knowwhere it wants to be in its long-range strategic plan and organizational need is a training program to takethe organization from current situation to developed upped step.Secondly, consider whether the organization is financially committed to support the training efforts. If not,any attempt to develop a solid training program will fail.Next, determine exactly where training is needed. It is foolish to implement a companywide training effortwithout concentrating resources where they are needed most. An internal audit will help point out areasthat may benefit from training. Also, a skills inventory can help determine the skills possessed by theemployees in general. This inventory will help the organization determine what skills are available nowand what skills are needed for future development.In summary, the analysis should focus on the total organization and should identify where training isneeded and where it will work within the organization.When the organization has a clear idea to where training is needed, concentrate on the content of theprogram. Analyze the characteristics of the job based on its description, the written description of what theemployee actually does. Training based on job descriptions should go into detail about how the job isperformed base on a task-by-task. Actually doing the job will enable you to get a better feel for what isdone.Individual employees can be evaluated by comparing their current skill levels or performance to theorganizations performance standards or anticipated needs. Any discrepancy between actual andanticipated skill levels identifies a training need.All above details and descriptions will helps to find the gap between standard or expected performancesand the actual performances. In simply,Training and development need= standard (expected) performance - actual performanceTraining and development programmes needs in the industry are due to the following reasons.THE TRAINING PROCESS CONT-SELECT THE TRAINEES, SELECT THE TRAINING METHODSAND MODE,EVALUATING OF TRAINING(e) SELECT THE TRAINEESThere should be a correct procedure to select the employees for training programmes so that the personwho really needs the trainings can be select. Otherwise if the trained and well skillful employees wereselected for the same training which has no contribution to their improvement, it will cost only money andtime.(f) SELECT THE TRAINING METHODS AND MODEThe training method and mode should be trainee friendly. If the education level of trainee is not in thestandard of the training programme, the trainee will be unable to understand the core of the training, andthen again the time of both employer and employee will be wasted. Employer should have a sense toidentify the methods which are effective for the training programme. The methods and mode can differfrom one training programme to other.(g) EVALUATING OF TRAINING
  • 12. once after the training, there should be a procedure or a method to evaluate the training. That will help forfurther developments and training programmes. After a good training programme, the trainee should bedeveloped. Development after training shows the effectiveness of the training programme.THE TRAINING PROCESS- ORGANIZATIONAL OBJECTIVES,NEEDS ASSESSMENT,IDENTIFY THEGAP BETWEEN EXPECTED AND ACTUAL PERFORMANCE,ESTABLISH TRAINING OBJECTIVE(a) ORGANIZATIONAL OBJECTIVESFirst the organization has to understand whether their objectives are achieved by employees. If notorganization should establish its objectives in employees; and the training also have to helps aboveactivity.(b) NEEDS ASSESSMENTThen the employer or organization should estimate the need of the training. There organization can usemany of methods such as questionnaires, income expenditure ratio etc. The training programme is basedon this training needs assessment.(c) IDENTIFY THE GAP BETWEEN EXPECTED AND ACTUAL PERFORMANCEAfter training needs assessment there have to identify the gap between expected and actual performanceof employee. This will helps to identify the weight of training that employee needs. Otherwise even aftertraining the organizational expectation may not be achieved.(d) ESTABLISH TRAINING OBJECTIVESThis is also an important step of training process. To earn what is needed actually is based on this step.After identify the gap between expected and actual performances they have to identify how to establishthe missed objectives in to employees and what would be the objectives that have to be established. Theprocess of this step is helpful for that.THE TRAINING PROCESS- Objectives,Needs Assessment,Identify the gap,Establish trainingobjectives,trainees,methods and mode,EvaluateThe training is not a single task. It is a kind of process which is in the organizations. The training processhas several steps and that steps can be mentioned as follows.a) Organizational Objectivesb) Needs Assessmentc) Identify the gap between standard and actual performancesd) Establish training objectivese) Select the traineesf) Select a training methods and modeg) Evaluate the trainingDefinitions of Training and Development
  • 13. Training is defined as follows by many expertise and literature.“It is concerned with the knowledge, skill attitude, techniques & experiences which enable as individual tomake his most effective contribution to the combined effort of the team of which he is a member”“Training is the process of assisting a person for enhancing his efficient and effectiveness at work byimproving and updating his professional knowledge, by developing skills relevant to his work, andcultivating appropriate behavior attitude towards work and people. Training could be design either forimproving present capabilities at work or for preparing a person for assuming higher, responsibilities infuture which would call for additional knowledge and superior skills.”“Training is the formal and systematic modification of behavior through learning which occurs as a resultof education, instruction, development and planned experience”“Development is any learning activity, which is directly towards future, needs rather than present needs,and which is concerned more with career growth than immediate performance.”“Training is a method whereby people get hold of abilities to aid in the accomplishment of organizationalobjectives. It occupies planned learning activities premeditated to develop an employee’s performance ather/his recent job.”“Development is a wide-ranging enduring multi-faceted position of behaviors to bring an employee or anorganization up to another entrance of presentation. Development also suggests achieving several jobs ornew role in the upcoming.”CATEGORIES OF TRAINING- Training, Education, DevelopmentHuman Resources Training programmes are basically divided in to 3 main categories.Those can be mentioned as:a) Trainingb) Educationc) Development