VOCABULARY CONNECTIONS: MULTI-WORD ITEMS IN ENGLISHBy: Dannae Del Campo Méndez
MULTI-WORD ITEMS: TERMS ANDCATEGORIESmulti-word item : is a vocabulary itemwhich consist of a sequence of two or morewords.Multi word items are the result of lexical(and semantic) processes of fossilisationand word-formation. Rather than theresults of the operation of grammaticalrules
THERE ARE 3 IMPORTANT CRITERIA WHICH HELP DISTINGUISH HOLISTIC MULTI-WORD ITEMS FROM OTHER KINDS OF STRINGS. • Is the degree to which a multi-Institutionalisation word item is conventionalised in the language. • Is the degree to which a multi- Fixedness word is frozen as a sequence of words. • Is the degree to which a multi- Non- word item cannot be interpreted compositionality on a word-by-word basis.
TYPES OF MULTI-WORD ITEM : • Coumpounds as Nouns: Prime Minister, crystal ball, etc… • Compound Verbs: are typically hyphenated (freeze- dry) . Others are verbal uses of compound nouns; (short-circuit, rubber-stamp). • Compound Adjectives: are often hyphenated. ItCompounds could be formed by an adejective and a participle (long-haiired). Or a modifier and superordinate adjective(navy blue, powder blue). • Are combinations of verbs and adverbial or prepositional particles (up , out , off , Phrasal in , on and down) Verbs • The verbs are typically monosyllabic.
• They have holistic meanings which cannot be retrieved from the individual meanings of component words. • They are typically metaphorical in historical or etymological terms.Idioms • Idioms are rate highly in terms of non- compositionality. • They include items such as: of course, at least, in fact and by far. As well as greetings such as: good morning, how do yo do, etc… Fixed • They are very high frequency items (stronglyPhrases institutionalised) , and many are strongly fixed.
• Prefabs are preconstructed phrases, phraseological chunks, stereotyped collocations or semi-fixed strings which are tied toPrefabs discoursal situations and which form structuring devices. • Thay are institutionalised.
MODELS OF MULTI-WORD ITEMS Semantics- Syntax- based based Models models -They are the most traditional. -They take grammatical well- formedness as their starting-point. - They attempt to differentiate - Multi-word items, and in particularbetween categories of multi-word idioms and fixed phrases, are often items. non-compositional.
MULTI-WORD ITEMS AND CORPUS EVIDENCE. Corpus linguistics over recent years has made it possible to examine lexis in a more scientific and objective way.First Generation corpora of up to 1million words showed limitedevidence for many multi-word items:they proved simply too rare and toogenre-specific to show up. Second Generation corpora of aroun 20 million words were able to improve on this sitation.
VARIABILITY IN MULTI-WORD ITEMSLexical Phrases and Prefabs are often fluid, of course, but Idioms also show remarkable degrees of variation. Varying Lexical Transformation:British/ American Component: Variations : Break the ice/ ice- Burn your boats breaker/ ice-Hold the fort(British) /bridges Hold down the breaking Throw in the fort(American) towel/spongeUnstable Verbs: Truncation:Show/declare/rev Silver lining/ every eal your true cloud has a silver colours lining
MULTI-WORD ITEMS IN TEXT AND DISCOURSELet’s explore multi-word items, text and genre by looking three types of extracts.A handbook on The opening of a A short extractpainting: report on a soccer from a screenplay: match:• It is a technical • There is piece of writing. • It is highly emotive compounds, infor and evaluative text. mal phrasal verbs,• Includes a lot of compound words. • Use of • This attempts to adjectives, Idioms, c replicate natural• A common multi- ompound adjectives word item is “in speech patterns. (Multi.word), Phrasal contrast” verbs,etc…
SECOND-LANGUAGE LEARNING PERSPECTIVES. Multi-word items are Their non- typically presented as Multi-wordcompositionalit a problem in teaching a items may be y, wheter foreign language. thaughtsyntactic, sem sparingly as antic or receptive pragmatic in vocabularynature, means The phenomena of multi- items becausethat they must word items and they’re be learned as idiomaticity are generally generally holistic units. held to be universals in considered natural languages. difficult.